Формування рекреаційного середовища для молоді: Автореф. дис… канд. архіт. / О.С. Сокольська, Харк. держ. техн. ун-т буд-ва та архіт. — Х., 1999. —

5

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Nieieuenueea Ieueaa Na?a??aia

OAeE 72.01

oi?ioaaiiy

?AE?AAOe?EIIAI NA?AAeIAEUA

AeEss IIEIAe?

18.00. 01 — Oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie

a?o?oaeoo?e

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? i?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?, caa. eaoaae?ith

a?o?oaeoo?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy oa iaethieo

E?eaeaiianueea Iaee? sse?aia,

Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?, caa. eaoaae?ith

a?o?oaeoo?ii? eaae?iao??? Eaa??e Aaiiaae?e ?aaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio Oa?e?anueeiai ooaeiaeiuei-

i?iieneiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oai??? oa ?noi???

a?o?oaeoo?e ? i?noiaoaeoaaiiy
Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo

Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao aoae?aieoeoaa,
a?o?oaeoo?e oa

aeeoeiai? iie?oeee (i. Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 31 o?aaiy 1999 ?. I 1300 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.056. 02 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e ca
aae?anith: 310002, Oa?e?a, aoe. Noinueea, 40.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e ca
aae?anith: 310002, Oa?e?a, aoe. Noinueea, 40.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «30» ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

?aaee, eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio *a?eaniaa E. O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. E?iaoeue OO noi??//y a Oe?a?i?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??ceei c?inoaiiyi oaii?a o?aai?caoe??. Ana a?eueoa
e?euee?noue ianaeaiiy iaoi? e?a?ie noathoue iaoeaioeyie i?no, iniaeeai
e?oiieo ? iaea?eueoeo. I?ioa, c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? i?no ? ?icoe?aiiy
?nioth/eo noaaeoue ia?aae ethaeeiith aace?/ aino?eo i?iaeai.
O?aai?ciaai? oa?eoi??? aieiae?thoue ?yaeii niaoeeo?/ieo oaeoi??a, ye?
iathoue iaaaoeaiee aieea ia o?ce/iee ? ineoieia?/iee noai ethaeeie — oea
iani?eyoeeaa aeieia?/ia ianoaiiaea, i?aeaeuaiiy aonoioe ianaeaiiy,
nei?i/aiiy aeeoo?aiai i?inoi?o ethaeeie, iino?ei? no?ania? neooaoe??,
iaaaoeaiee aieea oaoiiaaiii? ianoaiiaee ? aace?/ ?ioeo. Ana oea aeeeeea?
oe?eee eiiieaen iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a, o /ene? yeeo c?inoaiiy e?eueeino?
caoai?thaaiue ? ??no cei/eiiino?. O ia?oo /a?ao i?ae iani?eyoeeaee aieea
i?aeiaaeathoue ae?oe ? iieiaeue, iniaeeai o i?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu?.

I?noi ? neeaaeiei oaoiiaaiiei na?aaeiaeuai, a yeiio on? aniaeoe
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae aca?iiiia’ycai?. A oeeo oiiaao iaeiei c
ia?oi/a?aiaeo caaaeaiue noni?euenoaa noa? ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie
a?aeiiaeaiiy o i?nueeeo oiiaao aeeoo?aeo neee ? caei?ia’y ethaeeie,
iniaeeai oea noino?oueny iieiae?aeiiai eiioeiaaioo ianaeaiiy, ye oaeiai,
ui ia? iaea?eueo eaaeio?aaio?io ineo?eo ? ia?aiao nenoaio. Iaei?i ?c
oeyo?a iaeo?ae?caoe?? iaaaoeaiiai aieeao o?aai?ciaaiiai ioi/aiiy ?
i?aai?caoe?y niaoe?aeueii noai?aiiai a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua,
i?ecia/aiiai aeey ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, yea iaaea? iieiae?e
ethaeei? iiaeeea?noue ?aeaenaoe??, a?aeiiaeaiiy caei?ia’y.

?nioth/? ?ae?aaoe?ei? i?inoi?e /anoi ia a?aeiia?aeathoue no/aniei
aeiiaai ? ia a?aoiaothoue iniaeeaino? ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
iieiae?. Iaiao?aeii noai?thaaoe ?ae?aaoe?eia ioi/aiiy, aaeaioiaaia aei
niaoeeo?/ieo iio?aa iieiaeeo ethaeae.

Aea ia an?o ??aiyo i?nueeiai i?inoi?o ?niothoue eeoa eieaeuei? ciie — a
caaaeueiii?nueeeo ia?eao, naaeao, i?e?i?aeiiao. O? ?ae?aaoe?ei? ia’?eoe,
ye? ca?ac ?niothoue o i?no?, nueiaiaei? caeaa?eueoa ia ae?thoue /a?ac
a?aenooi?noue ?o aea?aeathaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy, ui cieaeo? ?oi?e
aeoiaiee aieea.

Ci?no ?ae?aaoe?? ia o?eueee a ooai?aii? iaaiiai ?aeaenaoe?eiiai aoaeoo,
aea e o ae??oaii? ieoaiiy aeoiaaiiy, ine?eueee oaea na?aaeiaeua aieiae??
iiaooi?i aeoiaiei aoaeoii. Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i ina?oo» i?iiiio? ca
aeiiiiiaith aeanoeainoae na?aaeiaeua ni?eyoe oi?ioaaiith anoaoe/ieo,
eoeueoo?ieo, ii?aeueieo aeanoeainoae iniaenoino? iieiaei? ethaeeie. C
iaoith eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaeo iiaeo oei?a
?ae?aaoe?eiiai ioi/aiiy caeo/athoueny aeai? noi?aeieo aaeocae, aea/aiiyi
yeeo caeiathoueny oae? iaoee, ye ineoieia?y, nioe?ieia?y, iaaeaaia?ea. O
oi?ioaaii? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? iaiao?aeii
ianaiia?aae aeoiaeeoe c o?aooaaiiy ethaenueeiai oaeoi?o ? c oeeo iaoe.

?nio? aace?/ noia?a/iinoae a no/anieo eiioeaioe?yo i?aai?caoe??
aeica?eey iieiaeeo ethaeae, ui coiiaeai? neeaaeiei
aeiiii?ei-nioe?aeueiei noaiiaeuai o oaia??oi?e /an. Aiae?c a?o/eciyieo ?
ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieaco?, ui ia nueiaiaei? ua iaia?
aeinoaoiuei iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie aai ?ioeo iaoa??ae?a, ye? iiaeia aoei a
aeei?enoaoe aeey oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueii? iiaeae? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae?. Iaa?oue a iniiaieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo inoaii?o
?ie?a, i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai i?aai?caoe?? a?aeii/eieo, iaia? aeinoaoi?o
i?aeoe/ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie oeueiai ieoaiiy. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaa, ui oey i?iaeaia ia aeine?aeaeoaaeany
eiiieaenii, ?icaeyioo? eeoa ?? ie?ai? aniaeoe.

Caaaeuei? ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy eaiaeoaooiiai na?aaeiaeua i?no ?
i?aai?caoe?? ia’?eo?a a?aeii/eieo ?icaeyioo? o ?iaioao A. A. ?eiii?eiaa,
A. A. O?oea, A. I. Aa?aoiiaa, TH. A. O?iiiaa, A. I. Noaoneana, ?. Ae.
?iaee/e?ia. ?ic?iaeith i?noiaoae?aieo iniia noai?aiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo cii
caeiaeeny TH. A. O?iiia, I. I. Aeueii?i, TH. A. Aiiaea?ue, TH. ?.
Eiaaiia, I. I. Oaeiiia. Oaeiae aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?eaia i?iaeai? ?icaeoeo
oo?ecio. Iaea?eueo aea/aieie o oaia??oi?e /an ? ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe??
ia?aae? ? ?icaeoeo ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e eo?i?o?a, i?noeue a?aeii/eieo
? oo?ecio, yeei i?enay/ai? i?aoe? A. A. Aa?eiaa, A. I. Aa?aoiiaa, A. ?.
Ca?aoeueeiai, A. I. Eieani?eiaa, O. O. Iai/aiei, A. A. O?uaiei. I?ioa o
oeeo ?iaioao ia ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy eiiieaeniiai nenoaiiiai i?iaeooaaiiy
?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae?. Ianya aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?enay/aieo ieoaiiyi oi?ioaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae? a i?noao a?aeiinii iaeee. ?nio?
o?eueee aeae?eueea aeine?aeaeaiue aniaeoo a?aeii/eiea iieiae?, aea aiie
noinothoueny a iniiaiiio oo?ecio. Oeueiio i?enay/ai? i?aoe? A. A.
Oiioca, I. E. Aa?aeai?aeca, Ae. ?. Aa?aaioey, A. I. Ai?yca A.A. Aonaaa,
O.Ae. Aeeiai?, A.?. Eaieoainueeiai, I.E. Etha?iiai?, I.?.
Aeaenaiae?iai?. Aea ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? a?aeii/eieo aea/ai?
iaaeinoaoiuei.

Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? ??cieo oi?i aeaniino? iaoiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue iiooe?a iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei noai?aiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?e
aeica?eey aeey iieiae? a i?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae iieiae?aeiiai a?eo ? niaoeeo?ee iiaaae?iee iieiae?
? iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith a??iiai aecia/aiiy oe?eae, caaaeaiue, ci?noo,
i?eioeei?a oa iaoiae?a ?ic?iaee ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua iiaiai oeio,
iiaoaeiaaiiai c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiioaiue, ?nioth/eo a
aeaiee /an a Oe?a?i? oa ia?niaeoea ?o iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo.

Aaaeeea?noue i?aeoe/iiai ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoiy oai?aoe/ia
?ic?iaeai?noue oeueiai ieoaiiy aecia/eee aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iaoiiaeee ?? aeooaeuei?noue.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy:

Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ? i?aeoe/ia ?ic?iaea no/anieo canaae
i?iaeooaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eii-

ai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? c o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
caaea/ a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea uiaei oi?ioaaiiy na?aaeiaeua
aeey a?aeii/eieo iieiae? o aaeoc? a?o?oaeoo?e, aeecaeio,
i?noiaoae?aieoeoaa, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee c iaoith ocaaaeueiaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ca aeaiith i?iaeaiaoeeith.

2. Aeyaeoe aieea i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua ia ?icaeoie iieiae?.

3. I?iaanoe aiae?c i?aeoeee i?iaeooaaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eieo
ia’?eo?a aeey iieiae? a Oe?a?i?, a aeaeueiueiio ? aeecueeiio ca?oa?aeae?
c iaoith aeyaeaiiy ?o nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino?.

4. Aecia/eoe oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? ? ?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue eiai eiiieaeniiai
oi?ioaaiiy.

5. Aeyaeoe no?oeoo?o ? i?aaeiaoia iaiiaiaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
iieiae? o i?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu?.

6. Aecia/eoe caaea/? oi?ioaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey
a?aeii/eieo iieiae? c o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeiia.

7. ?ic?iaeoe oeiieia?th no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? ? aecia/eoe ?o iniiai? ye?ni? ? e?euee?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

8. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a aeey iieiae? a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

9. Ai?iaaaeeoe ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a aenia?eiaioaeueia i?iaeooaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a
aeey iieiae?.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: eieaeuei? ?ae?aaoe?ei? i?inoi?e, ?icoaoiaai? a
i?e?iaeiiio oa o?aai?ciaaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, i?ecia/ai? aeey i?aai?caoe??
aeica?eey iieiaeeo ethaeae c iaoith ?o aoaeoeaiiai anaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: Oi?ioaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae? c o?aooaaiiyi
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeiia.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/a?: aea/aiiy oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o a iaeano?
a?o?oaeoo?e, i?noiaoae?aieoeoaa, eaiaeoaooii? a?o?oaeoo?e, aeecaeio,
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? ca aeaiith i?iaeaiaoeeith ? i?iaeoieo
iaoa??ae?a; aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c a?o/eciyiiai oa
?iicaiiiai aeina?aeo; iaoiae nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy — aieaoia
iieooaaiiy iieiae? a ??ciiiai?oieo onoaiiaao; o?iiiiao?aaei?
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca i?ioeanii a?aeii/eieo iieiae?, ui aeicaieeei aecia/eoe
ia?aaaaei? aeaee a?aeii/eieo, ocaaaeueiaiee athaeaeao a?eueiiai /ano,
no?oeoo?o ? aeeiai?eo aeica?eey iieiae?; aenia?eiaioaeueia i?iaeooaaiiy,
iaeaooaaiiy, aa??aioii-ii??aiyeueia i?iaeooaaiiy
eaiaeoaooii-?ae?aaoe?eieo oa?eoi??e aeey iieiae?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
iieyaa? a iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiio i?aeoiae? aei oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? c o?aooaaiiyi eiiieaeno aecia/ath/eo oaeoi??a,
a ?ic?iaoe? eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey
iieiae? c o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeiia, a aecia/aii?
iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae?, aeyaeaii?
eiai no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a, a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii i?iaeooaaiith ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a
aeey iieiae? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
canaae i?iaeooaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? c
o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeiia a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a iiaeaeueoeo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?iaioao, a ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeo?a ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? c aenieei nioe?aeueiei aoaeoii ? c iiaeaeueoith
?o ?aae?caoe??th ia i?aeoeoe?.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia XXVII
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
i?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa (i. Oa?e?a, 1996 ?.).

1. I?ia?aia-caaaeaiiy ia ?ic?iaeo i?iaeoo i?aeia?iaeiiai
iaa/aeueii-?icaaaeaeueiiai oeaio?o ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oaeae o i.
Ee?a?.

2. I?iaeo aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiiai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai oeaio?o «Aeica?eey»
aeey ae?oae ? iieiae? o eaa?oae? 8 ?aeaaea-Ii?ioia? o i.
Naieo-iaoa?ao?c?.

3. I?iaeo ?ae?aaoe?eiiai eiiieaeno aeey ae?oae ? iieiae? “Na?aeei ss?”
o i. Oa?eia?.

4. iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii? a ?aaeueia
aeeieiiia i?iaeooaaiiy.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??:

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a,
?ethno?aoe?e ? aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya iniiaiiai oaenoo 140 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo (aac aeiaeaoe?a), e??i oiai 36 ?ethno?aoe?e. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 149 iaeiaioaaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo aecia/aii, ui 73%
iieiae? Oe?a?ie cae?eniththoue i?ioeane aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a i?noao,
i?e/iio 59% aeeaa a aaeeeeo, e?oiieo oa e?oii?oeo i?noao, ? eeoa 27%
iaoeathoue a naeao c a?aeiinii ni?eyoeeaei aeieia?/iei i?e?iee?iaoii. O
ca’yceo c oeei a naeao iieiaeue a o?e ?ace iaio noeeueia aei i?inooaeieo
oa ?ioaeoe?eieo caoai?thaaiue. O ieo oaeiae cia/ii iaioee a?aenioie
oiene/ieo, aea?a?eieo caoai?thaaiue, oai?ia, iia’ycaieo c iai?iii
?a/iaei.

I?nueea na?aaeiaeua, ia a?aei?io a?ae n?euenueeiai, noa? ana a?eueo
iaaacia/iei aeey iieiae?, i?i ui na?ae/eoue noaoenoeea
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo aeiaaee?a Ia iaioa o?eaiaeiith ? noaoenoeea
cei/eiiino? na?aae iieiae?. Ca inoaii? ?iee aiia cia/ii c?inea.
I?aai?caoe?y caeiyoino? iieiae? a i?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu? noa? na?eiciith
aea?aeaaiith i?iaeaiith.

On? aeeeaaeai? iaaaoeai? ae?? i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua iiaeiii
iaeo?ae?coaaoe niaoe?aeueii ooai?aia ?ae?aaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua. A
oaia??oi?e /an aiii neeaaea?oueny ?c oe?ei? nenoaie ia’?eo?a
ianeoaiaoaaiiy, i?ecia/aieo aeey i?aai?caoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
iieiae?.

?ae?aaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue yaey? niaith noeoii?noue caiyoue aeey
i?aai?caoe?? a?aeii/eieo aai i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueiiai /ano a i?nueeiio
na?aaeiaeu?. Aiia ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie o?ce/ieo nee, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
aiioe?eiiai noaio, icaei?iaeaiiy, ?icaeoie iniaenoeo yeinoae, iaaeaaiiy
iaaieo ciaiue, iaae/ie oa ?ioiai. Oa?aeoa? ?? i?iyaeaiiy iaoiiaeaiee
ia?aaeon?i a?eiaeie ?ae?aaoe?eieie iio?aaaie iieiaeeo ethaeae.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo a aaeoc? ineoieia?? ?
iaaeaaia?ee aecia/ai? iaae? iieiae?aeiiai a?eo. Iieiaeue — oea eaoaai??y
ianaeaiiy o a?oe? a?ae 18 aei 34 ?ie?a aeeth/ii.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui ?ae?aaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua c a?aooaaiiyi a?eiai? oa
nioe?aeueii? a?aaeaoe?? iieiae? ia? /?oeo i?inoi?iao eieae?caoe?th oa
/ania? ia?aiao?e.

Oae, iianyeaeaiiee a?aeii/eiie oe??? eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny
ia?aaaaeii ii i?noo i?iaeeaaiiy a i?e?i?aeiiao, aeeoeiaeo eaa?oaeao.
*ania? ia?aiao?e oeueiai aeaeo a?aeii/eieo 240 aei?a. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
iieaco?, ui o aeeoeia?e caaoaeia? i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? ?ae?aaoe?ei?
oa?eoi??? aeey iieiae?, e??i eiiieaen?a IAEE. Aea ?o aeaaiono??e
ae??oo?oueny ia o?aaeeoe?eiiio ??ai?, aac a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee
i?iaeooaaiiy oa ia?niaeoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e a aaeoc? aeaaiono?ith.

Aeyaeaii oaeiae, ui iaiaaeaii niaeo? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
ia??iaee/iiai oa ai?ciaee/iiai a?aeii/eieo iieiae?. A oaia??oi?e /an aei
oeeo ia’?eo?a a?aeiinyoueny iieiae?aei? iaeaoee eoeueoo?e, ye?
?ici?uothoueny ye o ia?eao (i?nueeeo oa ?aeiiieo), oae ? ia
a?aeie?aieaieo ae?eyieao. ?o a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueia ??oaiiy ia
a?aeiia?aea? oe?eiio ?yaeo aeiia.

sse iieacothoue ?acoeueoaoe ianoaaeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a aeey
iieiae?, iaea?eueo iioeiaeueii ae??oaia i?aai?caoe?y ?o o?eaaeiai
a?aeii/eieo. Oea aeinoaoiuei aaeeea iiiaieeaoo?a ia’?eo?a, i?ecia/aieo a
iniiaiiio aeey ??cieo aeae?a oo?ecio.

A oe?eiio, aea/aiiy aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? aeica?eey iieiae? aea?
i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a i?aeoeoe? i?iaeooaaiiy
?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey oe??? eaoaai??? ianaeaiiy oa eiai
iiaeaeueo?e aenieoaoaoe?? iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiaothoueny ?ae?aaoe?ei?
iio?aae iieiaeeo ethaeae o caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eiaeo, nioe?aeueieo oa
i?ioan?eieo ia?aiao??a. Ia i?eae?ey?oueny iaeaaeii? oaaae ieoaiiyi
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi??a o
caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o cae?eniaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?ioean?a.
I?iaeooaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua cae?enith?oueny ia
o?aaeeoe?eiiio, onoa??eiio ??ai?.

Oiio iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?yiiaai? ia aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae
cae?eniaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, ?icaeyaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy
na?aaeiaeua aeey a?aeii/eieo iieiae? a iiaiio oai?aoe/iiio aniaeo? — ye
?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ae?aaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua aeey
iieiae? yaey? niaith neeaaeio i?inoi?iao nenoaio, yea aeeth/a? ??ci?
oa?eoi???, caeeaaee oa eiiieaene caeeaae?a, iiaoaeia oa iaeaaeiaiiy,
ie?ai? oi/eia? ia’?eoe i?e?iaeiiai oa o?aai?ciaaiiai oa?aeoa?o ?
aeaiaioe o?ainii?oieo eiioi?eaoe?e, a oaeiae noeoii?noue a?aeiioaiue
(nioe?aeueieo, ooieoe?iiaeueieo ? o.i.), ye? caaacia/othoue iiai?,
nai?/ani? oa ye?ni? oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeii/eieo a i?nueeiio
na?aaeiaeu? oa ca eiai iaaeaie.

I?e i?aai?caoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? iaiao?aeii
o?aoiaoaaoe oe?eee ?yae oi?ioth/eo oaeoi??a, ui caaacia/othoue
iaeaaaeeea?o? oiiae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ? eiioi?oiiai ia?aco aeeooy iieiae?
a o?aai?ciaaiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Ia na?aaeiaeua ia?aaoaaiiy iieiae? aieeaa?
aaaaoi oaeoi??a: i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i?, aeaiia?ao?/i?, nioe?aeuei?.
ineoio?ce/i?, a?aiiii?/i?, iaaeaaia?/i?, aoiia?ao?/i?, anoaoe/i?,
i?noiaoae?ai?, eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i?, oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? oaeoi?e.

C o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueieo ? aeaiia?ao?/ieo oaeoi??a aecia/aii, ui
a?eiaa oa nioe?aeueia a?aaeaoe?y iieiae? ia? aeinoaoiuei /?oe?
ia?aiao?e. Oae, c o?aooaaiiyi aeaieo a aaeoc? ineoieia?? onoaiiaeaii o?e
a?eiaeo ia??iaee ?icaeoeo iniae iieiaei? ethaeeie, ye? aieeaathoue ia
oa?aeoa? i?iyaeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?: I — thi?noue (18-23
?iee); II — iieiae?noue (24-30 ?ie?a); III — c??e?noue (31-34 ?iee).
oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae? iaiao?aeii
cae?enithaaoe oaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueiiai noaoono iieiaeeo
ethaeae. Aecia/ai? oae? a?oie iieiae?: A — nooaeaioe aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a, o/i? oaoi?eoi?a, i?iooaoo/eeeu; A — neoaeaiaoe?,
?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/i? ?ia?oieee, oai?/a ?ioae?aaioe?y; A — iieiaeue, yea
i?aoeth? a eiia?oe?eieo no?oeoo?ao; A — n?euenueea oa ?ia?oie/a
iieiaeue.

E??i aeaiia?ao?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo aniaeo?a i?e oi?ioaaii? ?ae?aaoe?eieo
ia’?eo?a o?aaa a?aoe aei oaaae e oa?aeoa? i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?
iieiaei? ethaeeie, a?ae yeiai caeaaeeoue aea?? i?ei?eoaoieo aeae?a
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? .a eiaei?e c nioe?aeueieo a?oi iiaeia
aeae?eeoe iaai? i?ioan?ei? eaoaai??? iieiaeeo ethaeae. I?ae aieeaii
ae?iaie/iai na?aaeiaeua ? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? a i?aai?ci? ethaeeie
a?aeaoaathoueny niaoeeo?/i? iaaaoeai? ci?ie, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoueny ia
noai? ?? caei?ia’y oa iiaeooue i?ecaanoe aei i?ioan?eieo caoai?thaaiue.
??ciiiai?oi? aeaee i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? aaaeooue aei ??cieo oi?i
aoiieaiino?, ui o?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe i?e i?aai?caoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua, yea iaiao?aeii oi?ioaaoe oae, uia caaacia/eoe a iueiio
iiaeeeaino? aeey i?io?eaiiy i?ioean?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ae?aaoe?th oeeo
iaaaoeaieo ci?i.

aeeiiaiiy oeeo oiia aeicaieeoue iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaoaaoe oa?aeoa?
?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ioa?an?a oa iio?aa, ineoio?c?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
iieiaeiai i?aai?cio c iaoith ooai?aiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua c
i?aeaeuaiei ineoieia?/iei eiioi?oii oa aenieei aeoiaaeueiei
iioaioe?aeii.

C a?aooaaiiyi /aniaeo oa oa?eoi??aeueieo ia?aiao??a aecia/aii 4 aeaee
?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae?:

I — na?aaeiaeua iianyeaeaiiiai a?aeii/eieo;

II — na?aaeiaeua ia??iaee/iiai a?aeii/eieo;

III — na?aaeiaeua ai?ciaee/iiai a?aeii/eieo;

IV — na?aaeiaeua o?eaaeiai a?aeii/eieo iieiae?.

Oeacai? na?aaeiaeua a?aeiia?aeii iathoue /?oeo i?inoi?iao eieae?caoe?th:
i?e?i?aeii, aeeoeiaee eaa?oae (I); oeaio? aeeoeiaiai ?aeiio (II); oeaio?
i?noa (III); ca ia?aaeaie i?noa (IV). Ia?ae?/ai? ?ae?aaoe?ei? i?inoi?e
iiaeii? oi?ioaaoeny c a?aooaaiiyi o?ueio neeaaeiaeo aeie?a o
aca?iica’yceo:

«?ae?aaio» —— «ae?yeuei?noue» —— «na?aaeiaeua».

Iniaeeaino? a?eiaiai ?icaeoeo, ui aoiaeyoue aei ia?oiai aeieo,
iieyaathoue o iayaiino? nai?o niaoeeo?/ieo ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a. A?eiaeie iiciaeaie aecia/a?oueny athaeaeao a?eueiiai /ano,
yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae nioe?aeueiiai noaoono ?ae?aaioa. ?ae?aaoe?ei?
iio?aae caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o caeiyoino? iieiaei? ethaeeie, ??aiy
eiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa iaoa??aeueii? caaacia/aiino?,
iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e oa noaoaaeo a?aei?iiinoae.

I?aaeiaoiee ci?no ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
aeyaeaiiy, ye? aoiaeyoue aei ae?oaiai aeieo, aecia/athoue ii?iaoeai?
iieacieee oa ooieoe?iiaeueia ciioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua, a
oaeiae oa?aeoa? ?o a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? c a?aooaaiiyi
eiiiiceoe?eieo cania?a.

Iiiyooy «na?aaeiaeua», yea oi?io? o?ao?e aeie, ?icoi??oueny ye oe?e?nia
no?oeoo?a, ui aeeth/a? nioe?aeuei? oa iaoa??aeuei? eiiiiiaioe. Eiai
oa?aeoa?eco? nioe?aeueiee eiioi?o, a?ieia?/iee, aeieia?/iee, aiioe?eiee
eiioi?o oa naiaioe/iee aieea. Nioe?aeueiee eiioi?o caaacia/o?oueny
a?aeiia?aei?noth ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua ineoieia?/iei iio?aaai
?ae?aaioa c a?aooaaiiyi caaea/ aeoiaaiiy. Aeieia?/iee eiioi?o — oea
ooai?aiiy na?aaeiaeua c iie?auaieie nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieie ia?aiao?aie
(/enoioa iia?o?yiiai aanaeia, ii?iaoeaia ?inieyoe?y, aa?aoe?y oa ?i.).
Naiaioe/ia ae?y caaacia/o? aeeiiaiiy aeoiaaeueii? oa i?ciaaaeueii?
ooieoe?e na?aaeiaeua. Aiioe?iiaeueiee eiioi?o iineeth? aeoiaaeueio ae?th
oa ni?ey? ?aeaenaoe?eiiio aoaeoo.

Oi?ioaaiiy na?aaeiaeua aeica?eey aeey iieiae? o aca?iica’yceo o?ueio
onoaiiaeaieo aeie?a oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?ae?aaoe?eieo oa?eoi??e an?o ??ai?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii, ui ?ae?aaoe?ei? i?inoi?e an?o ??ai?a
aeeth/athoue aei nai?? no?oeoo?e noeoii?noue ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi??a; ?o
i?ecia/aiiy aecia/aii ye i?aaeiaoii-ae?yeuei?nia. Aiie, o caeaaeiino?
a?ae nooiaiy neeaaeiino?, iane/aiino? oa ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy
aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny ia o?e eaoaai???: I — ia?aeii? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe;
II — a?oie ia?aeiieo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a; III — aa?aaiaai? aeaee.
Oa?aeoa? ?o a?o?oaeoo?ii-ieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? caeaaeeoue ia?aae
on?i a?ae a?aeiia?aeiino? oei aai ?io?i aeaeai ?ae?aaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? iieiae?.

sse iieacothoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ae?aaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue
iieiae? ia? aeinoaoiuei neeaaeio no?oeoo?o.

Ci?no ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae? neeaaeathoue ??ci? nii?oeai?,
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oethaaeuei? oa ?a?ia? caeiyooy, ianeeaaei? o?oaeia? oa
o/aia? iia?aoe??, ??ciiiai?oi? oai?/? caeiyooy.

?ae?aaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue iaiaeii??aeia ca nai?i neeaaeii. Onoaiiaeaii,
ui ?? ?ioaa?aoe?eia no?oeoo?a neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo aeae?a
ae?yeueiinoae:

— ?a?iai? (eiii’thoa?i? ?a?e, iano?euei? ?a?e, ?ioaeaeooaeuei? ?a?e,
a?eoi?eie, eiieo?ne ? o.i.),

— o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/i? (oooaie, aaneaoaie, aieaeaie, iano?eueiee
oai?n, ai?ioueaa, ieaaaiiy, aaeee?e oai?n oa ?i.),

— ooaeiaeiuei-i?ina?oethaaeueii? (a?aea?aeoaaiiy oaao??a, aenoaaie,
ioca?a, ioceeaeuei?, oaao?aeuei? caeiyooy oa ?i.),

— o?oaeiai? (i?aoey ia naaeiai? ae?eyioe?, caeiyooy, iia’ycai? c
oaoi?eith, ?aiiio aai aeaioiaeaiiy aoaeue-yeeo i?aaeiao?a),

— iaa/aeueii? (/eoaiiy e?oa?aoo?e, aea/aiiy iiaiai a aaeocyo ciaiiy, ye?
oe?eaaeyoue, eieaeoe?thaaiiy, ? oaea ?ioa),

— i?iaeoeoeaii? (caeiyooy ia?acioai?/ei aai i?eeeaaeiei ienoaoeoaii,
eiino?othaaiiy, iiaeaethaaiiy oa ?i.),

— iioi?ii? (?caea ia aaeineiaae?, iioioeeee?, aaoiiia?e?).

A aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii, ui oa?aeoa? i?iyaeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? caeaaeeoue a?ae a?eo, nioe?aeueiiai oa i?ioan?eiiai noaoono
iieiaei? ethaeeie. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie a aaeoc? ineoieia??
oa iaaeaaia?ee ? ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai nioe?ieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy o aeaeyae? aea??eiaiai aieaoiiai iieoo aeae?eueeio
nioe?aeueieo a?oi iieiae?.

O aeena?oaoe?? onoaiiaeaii, ui ?ae?aaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua aeey on?o aeae?a
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiaeeo ethaeae iiaeiii aieiae?oe
aeoiaaeueiei aieeaii oa eiai oi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe c
a?aooaaiiyi oe?eiai ?yaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo aeiia c iaoith aeoea?caoe??
anaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo iieiae?.

Aiae?c aeaieo a aaeoc? iaaeaaia?ee aeicaieea aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea
iai?yi?a oeueiai i?ioeano, ye? iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae?.

o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy (?icaeoie caei?ia’y, aeo?eaaeino?, neee, ni?eoiino?) —
iayai?noue na?aaeiaeua aeey on?o aeae?a nii?oeaii? ae?yeueiino?.
?ioaeaeooaeueia aeoiaaiiy (?icaeoie ieneaiiy, iai’yo?, oyae) —
iayai?noue ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi??a c iaa/aeueiith ooieoe??th. anoaoe/ia
aeoiaaiiy (caaaa/aiiy ii/ooo?a, ?icaeoie oai?/eo cae?aiinoae) —
a?aeiia?aei?noue ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi??a anoaoe/iei aeiiaai. ii?aeueia
aeoiaaiiy, aoe/ia (iaaeaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai aeina?aeo) — aeyaeaiiy
naiaioe/iiai ci?noo. o?oaeiaa aeoiaaiiy (i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea) —
noai?aiiy oiia aeey oaoi?/ii? oai?/ino?. aeieia?/ia aeoiaaiiy (aeoiaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai a?aeiioaiiy aei i?e?iaee) — iayai?noue aeaiaio?a
i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino?. iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy
(aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo ii/ooo?a) — aeyaeaiiy a
?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi?ao iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiei?eoo. ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueia
aeoiaaiiy (aeoiaaiiy ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueieo ii/ooo?a) — iayai?noue
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueii? neiaie?ee. i?aaiaa aeoiaaiiy (aeoiaaiiy ciaiue i?i
caeiie, i?i nai? i?aaa oa iaia’ycee) — iayai?noue ?ioi?iaoe?eieo cii.
oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueii? aeoeaiino? (ae?iaeaiiy aeoeaii? nioe?aeueii?
iiceoe??, aaaeaiiy a?aoe o/anoue a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?) — iayai?noue
i?inoi?o aeey ni?eeoaaiiy. ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ia aeoiaaiiy (oi?ioaaiiy
ona?aeiieaieo iie?oe/ieo iiaeyae?a, oi?iiy i???iooaaoeny a neeaaei?e
?aeaieia?/i?e neooaoe??)

A?aooaaiiy aeeeaaeaieo aeua eaoaai??e iaaeaaia?/ieo aeiia aoaea ni?eyoe
?icaeoeo aeoiaaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo na?aaeiaeua aeica?eey aeey iieiae? a
on?o oeiao ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi??a.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aecia/aia oeiieia?y no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua. Anoaiiaeaii, ui no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe
?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua yaeythoue niaith ??ciiiai?oi? i?inoi?e c
??ciith ooieoe?iiaeueiith iane/ai?noth oa i?ecia/aiiyi, ?c
cai?ia?aiiaaiith aeoiaaeueiith ae??th. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?o iaeaaeeoue
aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe c a?aooaaiiyi aeae?eueeio e?eoa???a:

— ca aeaeaie ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?;

— ca oa?aeoa?ii a?aeiia?aeiino? iaaeaaia?/iei aeiiaai;

— ca aaee/eiith (iae?, na?aaei?, aaeee?).

C a?aooaaiiyi oaeeo e?eoa???a aeae?eaii 3 eaoaai??? ?ae?aaoe?eieo
i?inoi??a.

I — ia?aeii? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe — iaaaeee? ca ieiuath i?inoi?e (a?ae 50
i2 aei 1000 i2), i?ecia/ai? aeey aoaeue-yeiai iaeiiai aeaeo
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae? c iacia/iith ooieoe?iiaeueiith
iane/ai?noth. Aiie c’yaeythoueny naiino?eieie aeaiaioaie na?aaeiaeua a
ia’?eoao eaiaeoaooii? a?o?oaeoo?e ye o?aai?ciaaiiai, oae ? i?e?iaeiiai
oa?aeoa?o, iiaeooue ?ici?uoaaoeny aaoiiiiii aai iaaeoiaeeoe ye neeaaeiaa
/anoeia aei a?eueo e?oiieo ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi??a.

II — a?oie ia?aeiieo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a — cia/ii a?eueo? ca ?ici??ii
i?inoi?e ieiuath a?ae 1000 i2 aei 1,5 — 3 aa, i?ecia/ai? aeey
cae?eniaiiy aeae?eueeio aeae?a ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae?, c
na?aaeiueith ooieoe?iiaeueiith iane/ai?noth.

III — aa?aaiaai? aeaee — neeaaei? ?ae?aaoe?ei? i?inoi?e, i?ecia/ai? aeey
cae?eniaiiy on?o aeae?a ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae? oa
cae?eniaiiy oo?ecio. Oea, ye i?aaeei, aaeee? ca ?ici??aie i?inoi?e
ieiuath a?ae 3 aei 20 aa ? a?eueoa, c aenieith ooieoe?iiaeueiith
iane/ai?noth.

Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iei i?eeiiii i?aai?caoe?? ia?aeiieo no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a ? nii?oeai? iaeaeai/eee. ?o iiiaieeaoo?a aeinoaoiuei
??ciiiai?oia. A?o?oaeoo?ia ??oaiiy iiaea yaeyoe niaith ii?aeiaiiy
oi?o?eiaaieo ca??ii-naeoe?eieo ae?ia?a, iaeeo a?o?oaeoo?ieo oi?i
?iaeono??aeueiiai aeaioiaeaiiy c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie.

An? ia?aeii? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua yaeythoue
niaith eiiiaeoi? i?inoi?e c oeaio?ae?ciaaiei oeiii eiiiiceoe??.

A?oie ia?aeiieo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua
iiaeooue iaoe ye oeaio?ae?ciaaiee, oae ? aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee oei
eiiiiceoe??. A caeaaeiino? a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ne?aeo?
aeae?eeoe aeaa oeio a?oi ia?aeiieo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a:
niaoe?ae?ciaai? ?ae?aaoe?ei? eiiieaene ? oi?aa?naeuei? ?ae?aaoe?ei?
eiiieaene. A?oie ia?aeiieo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a iiaeooue ?ici?uoaaoeny
aaoiiiiii a ieaioaaeuei?e no?oeoo?? i?noa aai aoiaeeoe ye neeaaeiaa
/anoeia a ieaioaaiiy iieiae?aeieo onoaiia.

Aei aa?aaiaaieo aeae?a iaeaaeeoue a?aeianoe ?ae?aaoe?ei? i?inoi?e,
i?ecia/ai? aeey i?aai?caoe?? ia??iaee/iiai, ai?ciaee/iiai ? o?eaaeiai
a?aeii/eieo iieiae?. Aiie iathoue neeaaeio ieaioaaeueio no?oeoo?o, ye
i?aaeei, c aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiei oeiii eiiiiceoe??.

Aeey i?aai?caoe?? ia??iaee/iiai a?aeii/eieo i?iaeoothoueny oeaio?e
aeica?eey ye niaoe?ae?ciaai?, oae ? oi?aa?naeuei?, a oaeiae iieiae?aei?
ia?ee, aeey cae?eniaiiy ai?ciaee/iiai a?aeii/eieo ?niothoue iaeaoee
iieiae?.

Aeey i?aai?caoe?? o?eaaeiai a?aeii/eieo iieiae? noai?aia oe?ea nenoaia
onoaiia oo?ecio, ui aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny ii ooieoe?iiaeueiiio
i?ecia/aiith o caeaaeiino? a?ae aeae?a oo?ecio.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyioo? iniiai? caniae oi?ioaaiiy an?o o?ueio aeaiaio?a
a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae?, aei
yeeo a?aeiinyoueny: ?ineeii? oa?oioaaiiy, aaiieanoeea, iae? a?o?oaeoo?i?
oi?ie, aeaei?aoeai? iie?eooy, aiaei? i?eeaaee noai?ththoue iaiao?aeiee
eiioi?o ? ?iaeyoue cai?ia?aiiaaiee naiaioe/iee aieea. A ?iaio? aecia/ai?
?oi? ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ineeii? oa?oioaaiiy ?
aaiieanoeea aeeiiothoue aea? iniiai? ooieoe??: caoenio ?
i?inoi?iai-i?aai?coth/o.

A aeena?oaoe?? aecia/ai? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeai? oaiaeaioe?? a oi?ioaaii?
a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae?.
Anoaiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua
aaaaoioe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy, oiaoi eiiiaeoiiai, iia?eueiiai i?inoi?o,
ui i?e i?i?iaeuei?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? ciiaeooue aeeiioaaoe ??ciiiai?oi?
?ae?aaoe?ei? ooieoe??.

I?iiiio?oueny iiaee oei ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi??a, i?ecia/aieo aeey
aeae?eueeio a?eiaeo a?oi ianaeaiiy, I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee,
ui iaea?eueo noi?niith a?oiith aeey iieiae?aeiiai eiioeiaaioo a aniaeo?
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ? ae?oe. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia ieaioaaeueia
no?oeoo?a oi?aa?naeueiiai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai eiiieaeno iiaiai oeio,
i?ecia/aiiai aeey ae?oae ? iieiae?, noeaia?ia i?ia?aia a?aea?aeaiiy
yeiai a?aoiao? ?ae?aaoe?ei? iio?aae aeaio a?eiaeo a?oi e aa?a aei oaaae
?o a?eia? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? nioe?aeueiee noaoon, ye aecia/ath/e iai?yiee
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?iiiio?oueny iiaee oei ?ae?aaoe?eieo i?inoi??a, i?ecia/aieo aeey
aeae?eueeio a?eiaeo a?oi ianaeaiiy, I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee,
ui iaea?eueo noi?niith a?oiith aeey iieiae?aeiiai eiioeiaaioo a aniaeo?
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ? ae?oe. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia ieaioaaeueia
no?oeoo?a oi?aa?naeueiiai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai eiiieaeno iiaiai oeio,
i?ecia/aiiai aeey ae?oae ? iieiae?, noeaia?ia i?ia?aia a?aea?aeaiiy
yeiai a?aoiao? ?ae?aaoe?ei? iio?aae aeaio a?eiaeo a?oi e aa?a aei oaaae
?o a?eia? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? nioe?aeueiee noaoon, ye aecia/ath/e iai?yiee
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

A ocaaaeueiaiiio aeae? ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a ia’?eo?a iiaiai oeio
iiaeiia iiae?eyoeny ia o?e ooieoe?iiaeuei? ciie:

— niie?eiiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeica?eey i?ae aieeaii ao?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua
(c aeei?enoaiiyi eieuei?o, caiao?a, caoe?a) c ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiei aoaeoii;

— oai?/iai, i?ciaaaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeica?eey c i?ei?uaiiyie aeey
cae?eniaiiy eeoaii-e?oaeeiaie ?iaioe, iai?io ?ioi?iaoe??th ii
i?ioan?eiei ?ioa?anai oa ?i.;

— aeaeiaeuii-?icaaaeaeueia ciia aeey cae?eniaiiy on?o aeoeaieo aeae?a
a?aeii/eieo.

I?iaeooaaiiy ? noai?aiiy a?eueo aeineiiaeeo ia’?eo?a aeey a?aeii/eieo
iieiae? noa? nioe?aeueiith iio?aaith iaoiai /ano. Iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeai?
?ae?aaoe?ei? i?inoi?e c ?icaeiaiith nenoaiith eaiaeoaooieo
i?e?inaeoi??a, ?icoaoiaai? a i?nueeeo ? ?aeiiieo ia?eao, iaei??? c
iniaeeainoae noai?aiiy yeeo ? ?icoiia ii?aeiaiiy iaa/aeueieo e
?icaaaeaeueieo aeaiaio?a aeey iieiae?. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eueea
aa??aio?a ieaioaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oaeeo ?ae?aaoe?eieo eiiieaen?a.

I?eeeaaeii ??oaiiy oaeiai oi?aa?naeueiiai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai eiiieaeno ?
?ic?iaeaiee aaoi?ii i?iaeo oeaio?o «Aeica?eey» a i. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?, a
oaeiae i?iaeo i?aeia?iaeiiai iaa/aeueii-?icaaaeaeueiiai oeaio?o
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?oaeae a i. Ee?a? oa ?ae?aaoe?eiiai eiiieaeno
«Na?aeei ss?» a i. Oa?eia?.

A i?iaeooaaii? oaeeo ia’?eo?a iaiao?aeiei ? iiooe iiaeo, ianoaiaea?oieo
??oaiue, i?aaiaiiy

aei ia?acii? ??ciiiai?oiino?, aaaaoiooieoe?eiino? ?ae?aaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a ? naiiieoiiino? ?o aenieoaoaoe??.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co e ocaaaeueiaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ii oi?ioaaiith
a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey a?aeii/eieo iieiae? a aaeoc?
i?noiaoae?aieoeoaa, a?o?oaeoo?e, aeecaeio, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee
aeyaeaii, ui caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey
a?aeii/eieo iieiae? ? aeooaeueiith ? neeaaeiith i?iaeaiith, ui aeiaaa?
iiaeaeueoi? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee. Aecia/aia, ui i?aai?caoe?y a?aeii/eieo
iieiaeeo ethaeae ae??oo?oueny a iniiaiiio ia aii??e/iiio ??ai? aac
o?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae ?oiueiai a?eiaiai ?icaeoeo, nioe?aeueiiai
noaoono, iaaeaaia?/ieo caaea/ ? aeoiaiiai aieeao a?o?oaeoo?iiai
na?aaeiaeua.

2. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo aecia/aii, ui iniiaia /enei
iieiae?aeiiai eiioeiaaioo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie cina?aaeaeaii o i?noao.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iieiaeue, yea i?iaeeaa? a o?aai?ciaaiiio ioi/aii?,
i?aeaea?oueny aieeao ??cieo iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a, aieea yeeo
a?aeia?aaea?oueny o ana c?inoath/eo noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo i?i c??no
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oiiai o?aaiaoecio, cei/eiiino?, caoai?thaaiino?.
Niaoe?aeueii noai?aia ?ae?aaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua iiaea eiiiainoaaoe
iaaaoeaiee aieea o?aai?ciaaiiai ioi/aiiy ethaeeie ? caaacia/eoe on?
?ae?aaoe?ei? iio?aae iieiae? a i?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu?.

3. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co i?aeoeee i?iaeooaaiiy ?
aenieoaoaoe?? ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a anoaiiaeaii, ui a iniiaiiio ?o
iiiaieeaoo?a ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei nioe?aeueiei e i?noiaoae?aiei
aeiiaai ? ia caaacia/o? iiaiioe?iiiai a?aeii/eieo iieiae?. Aeyaeaii 4
oeia a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae?
c o?aooaaiiyi /aniaeo ? oa?eoi??aeueieo ia?aiao??a, ye? iathoue /?oeo
i?inoi?iao eieae?caoe?th:

I — na?aaeiaeua iianyeaeaiiiai a?aeii/eieo (i?e?i?aeii, aeeoeiaee
eaa?oae),

II — na?aaeiaeua ia??iaee/iiai a?aeii/eieo (oeaio? aeeoeiaiai ?aeiio),

III — na?aaeiaeua ai?ciaee/iiai a?aeii/eieo (oeaio? i?noa),

IV — na?aaeiaeua o?eaaeiai a?aeii/eieo (ca iaaeaie i?noa).

4. Aecia/ai? oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia oa?aeoa? oi?ioaaiiy
?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae?: nioe?aeuei?, aeaiia?ao?/i?,
a?aiiii?/i?, iaaeaaia?/i?, anoaoe/i?, i?noiaoae?ai?,
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i?, oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?. C o?aooaaiiyi nioe?aeueieo ?
aeaiia?ao?/ieo oaeoi??a aeyaeaia 3 a?eiaeo eaoaai??? iieiae? ?
aeae?eueea a?oi, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ii nioe?aeueiiio ? i?ioan?eiiio
noaoono, ui aeiaaa? niaoeeo?/ieo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? a?o?oaeoo?iiai
na?aaeiaeua aeey a?aeii/eieo.

A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua c
o?aooaaiiyi i??i?eoaoieo oaeoi??a. I?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy an?o oei?a
a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua a?aeaeo? a eiiieaeniiio nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae?
— «?ae?aaio» — — — «ae?yeuei?noue» — — — «na?aaeiaeua».

5. I?iaiae?ciaaia no?oeoo?a ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae?, ui
neeaaea?oueny c aeae?eueeio aeae?a: ?a?iai?, o?ceoeueoo?ii-icaei?ia/i?,
ooaeiaeiuei-i?ina?oethaaeueii?, o?oaeiai?, o/aiai?, i?iaeoeoeaii?,
iioi?ii?. Oa?aeoa? i?iyaeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, i?aaeiaoia
iaiiaiaiiy ? aea??eia?noue aeae?a a?aeii/eieo caeaaeaoue a?ae a?eo
,nioe?aeueiiai ? i?ioan?eiiai noaoono iieiaei? ethaeeie.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ae?aaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua iiaeiii iaoe aeoiaiee aieea
? eiai oi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe c o?aooaaiiyi oe?eiai ?yaeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo aeiiae c iaoith aeoea?caoe?? anaa?/iiai aeoiaaiiy iieiae?.
O ?ae?aaoe?eiiio na?aaeiaeu? iaiao?aeii cae?eniaiiy aeae?eueeio aniaeo?a
oeueiai i?ioeano: o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy, anoaoe/ia, ii?aeueia (aoe/ia),
aeieia?/ia, iaoe?iiaeueii-iao?eioe/ia, i?aaiaa aeoiaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaenueei? aeoeaiino?.

7. Aecia/aia oeiieia?y no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua
aeey iieiae?, yea aeeth/a? 3 eaoaai??? oeeo i?inoi??a:

I — ia?aeii? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe (S=50-900 i2);

II — a?oie ia?aeiieo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a (S=1-3 aa);

III — aa?aaiaai? aeaee (S=3-60 aa).

Aecia/ai? ?oiy iiiaieeaoo?a, ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a ? iniiaia i?aaeiaoia
iaiiaiaiiy.

8. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a aeey
iieiae? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iaei?i c ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?a i?iaeooaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua
aeey ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae? a iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
oiiaao Oe?a?ie ne?aeo? aaaaeaoe noai?aiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo eiiieaen?a, ui
ooieoe?iiothoue o ?aaeei? naiiieoiiino? ? naiio?iainoaaiiy, ui
caeiathoue eiiiaeoio oa?eoi??th, ye? aeeth/athoue aei nai??
ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ?icaeiaio nenoaio eaiaeoaooieo i?e?inaeoi??a,
ye? noi?iiaai? caniaaie eaiaeoaooiiai aeecaeio e caaacia/othoue a ?aieao
iaiaaeaiiai i?inoi?o oiiae aeey cae?eniaiiy aeae?eueeio aeae?a
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ? ye? iathoue aoaeoeaiee aeoiaaeueiee aieea.

9. ?icaeyioo? ia?niaeoeai? oaiaeaioe?? i?iaeooaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo
ia’?eo?a aeey iieiae?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a Oe?a?i? iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii
noai?aiiy aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueieo ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a aeey aeae?eueeio
a?eiaeo a?oi ianaeaiiy. Aecia/aia ?oiy i?inoi?iaa i?aai?caoe?y ? neeaae
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a. Aiie iiaeii? aeeth/aoe ianooii?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ciie: — ciia niie?eiiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeica?eey, — ciia
oai?/iai, i?ciaaaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeica?eey, —
aeaeiaeuii-?icaaaeaeueia ciia.

?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy e i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ai?iaaaeaeaii a aenia?eiaioaeuei? i?iaeoe ?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a aeey
iieiae?, aeeiiai? aaoi?ii (a i?noao — Oa?eia?, Ee?a?, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?).

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? ianooii? ?iaioe:

1. Nieieueneay I.N. Iniaaiiinoe a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iie i?aaiecaoeee
?ae?aaoeeiiiiai eiiieaena «Na?aeei ss?» aeey aeaoae e iieiaeaaee a a.
Oa?ueeiaa //XXVIII iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eiioa?. OAAAO. — Oa?ueeia: OAAAO,
1996.- n. 78.

2. Nieieueneay I.N. I?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo nenoai aeey
iieiaeaaee a ai?iaeneie n?aaea: A na. Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
iaaeaaeiinoe nenoai ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa. — E.: ?NAeI, 1994.- n. 64-66.

3. Nieieueneay I.N. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?ae?aaoeeiiiie n?aaeu aeey iieiaeaaee n
o/aoii i?eioeeia nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneie no?oeoo?iinoe: A na.
Yenieoaoaoeey e ?aiiio caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa. —
E.: ?NAeI, 1996.- n. 122-125.

4. Nieieueneay I.N., E?eaeaiianeay I.ss. A?aaeino?ieoaeueiay
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo nenoai aeey aeaoae e iieiaeaaee: A na.
Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia. — E.: Oaoieea, 1996. Aui. 5.- n.
36-38.

5. Nieieueneay I.N., E?eaeaiianeay I.ss. Enneaaeiaaiea aicaeaenoaey
ai?iaeneie n?aaeu ia ?acaeoea aeaoae e iieiaeaaee: A na. Eiiioiaeueiia
oicyenoai ai?iaeia. — E.: Oaoieea, 1995. Aui. 4.- n.57-58.

6. Nieieueneay I.N. Oeiieiaey no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia ?ae?aaoeeiiiie
n?aaeu aeey iieiaeaaee. A na.: Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia. — E.:
Oaoieea, 1997.- Aui. 6. — N. 61 — 63.

7. Nieieueneay I.N. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee a?oeoaeoo?iie n?aaeu aeey
ioaeuoa iieiaeaaee // O?aaeeoe?? oa iiaaoe?? o aeu?e
a?o?oaeoo?ii-ooaeiaei?e ina?o?. — Oa?e?a: OOI?. — 1998.-?4. — N. 11.

AIIIOAOeEss

Nieieueneay Ieueaa Na?aaaaia. Oi?ie?iaaiea ?ae?aaoeeiiiie n?aaeu aeey
iieiaeaaee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa a?oeoaeoo?u ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 18.00.01 — “oai?ey a?oeoaeoo?u, ?anoaa?aoeey iaiyoieeia
a?oeoaeoo?u” — Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao
no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iniaaiiinoae oi?ie?iaaiey
nenoaiu iauaeoia ?ae?aaoeee aeey iieiaeaaee a ai?iaeneie n?aaea. A
?aaioa ii?aaeaeaii, /oi ai?iaeneay n?aaea ii?aaeaeyao ?yaeii
niaoeeoe/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, ieacuaathueo io?eoeaoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia
oece/aneia e ineoieiae/aneia caei?iauea /aeiaaea. Iaeiie ec
aiciiaeiinoae iaeo?aeecaoeee io?eoeaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey
o?aaiece?iaaiiiai ie?oaeaiey yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey niaoeeaeueii
nicaeaiiie ?ae?aaoeeiiiie n?aaeu, i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey ?ae?aaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e i?aaeinoaaeythuae iieiaeiio /aeiaaeo aiciiaeiinoue
?aeaenaoeee, ainnoaiiaeaiey caei?iauey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeiei ec iooae iiaiai iiaeoiaea e i?aaiecaoeee
aeinoaa iieiaeaaee a ai?iaeao Oe?aeiu yaeyaony nicaeaiea ?ae?aaoeeiiiie
n?aaeu, aeeth/athuae ?aoeeiiaeueioth iiiaieeaoo?o ?acee/iuo
?ae?aaoeeiiiuo i?ino?ainoa, iaania/eaathuae aieaa yooaeoeaiia
inouanoaeaiea ainieoaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia e aa?iiie/ii niaeaniaaiiie n
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie.

Ii?aaeaeaiu no?oeoo?a e iiiaieeaoo?a nenoaiu ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia,
onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?ae?aaoeeiiiay n?aaea eiaao /aoeoth i?ino?ainoaaiioth
eieaeecaoeeth e a?aiaiiua ia?aiao?u, auyaeaiu a? o?iaie.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e i?aaiecaoeee a?oeoaeoo?iie n?aaee aeey
?ae?aaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iieiaeaaee iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oeaeue
?yae oi?ie?othueo oaeoi?ia: nioeeaeueiua, aeaiia?aoe/aneea,
y?aiiiie/aneea, iaaeaaiae/aneea, ynoaoe/aneea, i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneea,
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua, eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneea, oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea.

?ac?aaioaiu oai?aoe/aneea i?eioeeiu e i?aaeeiaeaia iiaeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey
?ae?aaoeeiiiie n?aaeu n o/aoii eiiieaena ii?aaeaeythueo oaeoi?ia e
nioeeaeueii- iaaeaaiae/aneeo caaea/. I?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey anao oeiia
?ae?aaoeeiiiie n?aaeu io?aaeathony a eiiieaeniii nenoaiiii iiaeoiaea —
“?ae?aaio” — “aeayoaeueiinoue” — “n?aaea”.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaii, /oi i?ioeann iao/aiey, ainieoaiey e
ainnoaiiaeaiey caei?iauey iieiaeiai /aeiaaea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii
inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii i?iyaeaiey ?acee/iuo aeaeia ?ae?aaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua eieaeecothony a i?aaeiaoii-i?ino?ainoaaiiie
n?aaea. Enneaaeiaaiu iniaaiiinoe, auyaeaia no?oeoo?a e i?aaeiaoiia
iaiieiaiea ?ae?aaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iieiaeaaee, ninoiyuae ec
neaaeothueo aeaeia: oeceoeueoo?ii-icaei?iaeoaeueiay, o/aaiay, ea?iaay,
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-i?inaaoeoaeueiay, o?oaeiaay, i?iaeoeoeaiay, iioi?iay.
Auyaeaii, /oi oa?aeoa? i?iyaeaiey ?ae?aaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e
ecae?aoaeueiinoue aeaeia ioaeuoa caaenyo io aic?anoiuo iniaaiiinoae,
nioeeaeueiiai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iieiaeaiey iieiaeiai ?ae?aaioa.
I?iaaaeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea iicaieeei oaeaea ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua
i?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey ?ae?aaoeeiiiie n?aaeu aeey iieiaeaaee n o/aoii
yoeo ia?aiao?ia e caaea/ ainieoaiey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?ae?aaoeeiiiay n?aaea anao o?iaiae aeieaeia aeeth/aoue
a naith no?oeoo?o niaieoiiinoue ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo i?ino?ainoa n
cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiui ainieoaoaeueiui aicaeaenoaeai e iia
aeeooa?aioee?oaony ia o?e iniiaiua eaoaai?ee: ia?ae/iua no?oeoo?iua
yeaiaiou, a?oiiu ia?ae/iuo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia, aa?aae?iaaiiua aeaeu.
Ii?aaeaeaiu ii?iaoeaiua iieacaoaee (ieiuaaeue oa??eoi?ee, ninoaa
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo cii e ae?.), auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey
i?aaeiaoii-i?ino-?ainoaaiiie n?aaeu no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo
oa??eoi?ee anao o?iaiae n?aaenoaaie eaiaeoaooiiai aeecaeia.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo
iauaeoia aeey iieiaeaaee a iiauo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo,
ooieoeeiie?othueo a ?aaeeia naiioeiaine?iaaiey e naiiieoiaaiinoe.
I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea eo oi?ie?iaaiey, ?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
i?iaeoe?iaaieth iieiaeaaeiuo ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo iauaeoia n yooaeoeaiui
ainieoaoaeueiui aicaeaenoaeai e yeiiiie/anee auaiaeiuo. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi
a Oe?aeia iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii nicaeaiea iiaeeueiuo,
iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiuo ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo eiiieaenia, caieiathueo eiiiaeoioth
oa??eoi?eth, iaania/eaathueo oneiaey aeey inouanoaeaiey ianeieueeeo
aeaeia ?ae?aaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e eiathueo aunieoth nioeeaeueioth
yooaeoeaiinoue.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?ae?aaoeey, ?ae?aaoeeiiiay n?aaea, ?ae?aaoeeiiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, no?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou.

AIIOAOe?ss

Nieieuenueea I. N. Oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua aeey iieiae?.
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 18.00.01 — “Oai??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie
a?o?oaeoo?e”. — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e. Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
ia’?eo?a ?ae?aaoe?? aeey iieiae? a i?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aecia/ai?
no?oeoo?a ? iiiaieeaoo?a, aeyaeai? ??ai? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua.
Aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino?, aeyaeaia no?oeoo?a oa i?aaeiaoiee ci?no
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iieiae?. ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? i?eioeeie oa
cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue oi?ioaaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua c
o?aooaaiiyi eiiieaeno aecia/ieo oaeoi??a ? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
caaaeaiue. ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?iaeooaaiith iieiae?aeieo
?ae?aaoe?eieo ia’?eo?a c aenieith nioe?aeueiith aoaeoeai?noth a iiaeo
nioe?aeueii-?eiiii?/ieo oiiaao noni?euenoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ae?aaoe?y, ?ae?aaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua, ?ae?aaoe?eia
ae?yeuei?noue, no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe.

SUMMARY

Sokolskaya O. S. Formation of the recreational environment for youth. —
Manuscript.

Thesis submitted for a scientific degree of a Candidate of
architecture, specialization 18.00.01 — Theory of architecture,
renovation of monuments of architecture — Kharkov State Technical
University of Construction and Architecture. Kharkov, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to research of formation peculiarities of the
recreational objects system for young people in urban environment. The
structure, nomenclature and levels of the recreational environment have
been defined. The peculiarities have been investigated, is revealed a
structure and object maintenance of young people recreational activity.
The theoretical principles have been developed and offered model of
formation of the recreational environment with calculation of the
complex of prominent factors and socially-pedagogic tasks. Developed
recommendations on projecting of youth recreational objects with high
social effectiveness in new socially-economic conditions of society.

Key words: recreation, recreational environment, recreational activity,
structural elements.

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