Формування професійних педагогічних умінь у студентів — майбутніх викладачів економіки: Автореф. дис… канд. пед. наук / Г.О. Ковальчук, Ін-т педагог

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee

Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie

Eiaaeue/oe Aaeeia Ieaenaiae??aia

OAeE 378.633

Oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo

oi?iue o nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a

aeiiii?ee

13.00.04.– oai??y oa iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oiae Ieaenaiae? Oeoiiiae/, aeieoi?aio Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,

ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie

Cycthi ?aai Aiae??eiae/, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo

iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie;

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Iaaeaeea Ieaa Naiaiiae/,

i?i?aeoi? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i. I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

?i. A. Aeiie/aiea, eaoaae?a
iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie. i. E??iaia?aae

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.452.01 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII
Oe?a?ie (252053, i. Ee?a, aoe. A?oaia, 52a).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e /anoei? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “21” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, i?ioani? Eaaeee I.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. O iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao
iaaoaathoue aeooaeueiino? i?iaeaie i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o
iaaeaaia?a caaaeueiiina?oiuei?, i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ? aeui? oeiee aei
aeeeaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i aeey o/i?anueei?
iieiae?. Oai?/a ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai, ii?aeueiiai,
o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy iieiae? a i?ioean? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe iio?aao? a?ae
o/eoaey iino?eiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy nai?? i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee. Oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy oeeo caaaeaiue iaiiaeeeaa aac aeeaieiai
ciaiiy ineoieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e, ci?noo aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino?,
aeiia noni?euenoaa aei iniaenoino? a/eoaey. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o ae??oaii?
ieoaiue i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee iiaeooue
a?ae?a?aaaoe oi?aa?neoaoe.

A oeueiio ieai? ia?aae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iith iaoeith iinoa? ?yae
niaoeeo?/ieo i?iaeai, ye? aeiaaathoue anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Na?aae ieo: aiae?c iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ?noi??? ? oai???
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?a a oi?aa?neoaoao, aeyaeaiiy /eiiee?a
i?ioan?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy a/eoaey, aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae i?ioan?eii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, iaoai?ci?a iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia??, i?ae
/an iaieiae?iiy yeith iaeaooi? iaaeaaiae a/aoueny ?ica’ycoaaoe
i?ioan?ei? caaaeaiiy iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy o/i?a oiui.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
?c aeei?enoaiiyi i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aeiaaaei caa?iaiiy
aei iaoeiaeo i?aoeue o aaeoc? caaaeueii?, a?eiai?, nioe?aeueii?,
iaaeaaia?/ii? ineoieia??. Na?aae ieo, cie?aia, aeine?aeaeaiiy
iniaenoino? a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? (A.A. Aiaiue?a, I.I. Aa?iooaei,
E.N. Aeaionueeee, I.?. Eo??y, N.E. ?oa?iooaei, I.ss. Aaeueia??i,
I.A. Caii?iaeaoeue, Ae.A. Aeueeii?i, I.I. Eaiioue?a, A.N. Einothe
A.I. Aaee, I.A. Ee?e/oe, A.E. Eioe?ei, A.I. I?ea?yi, A.I. Iieyei,
Ae.O. I?eieaiei, A.I. Oaaei?eoei, I.?. *aiaoa oa ?i). Aiae?c i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey a?oiooaaany ia iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo ineoieia??
i?aoe? a/eoaey (A.I. Aea?ea/, I.A. Eocuei?ia, A.O. Ii?aoi, A.E Ia?eiaa,
A.I. Naie/aiei, A.?. Ua?aaeia, O.N. ssoeaiei), eiioeaioe?? iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaenoa?iino? (?.A. Cycthi, ?.O. E?eaii?n, A.I. Naaa/, A.I. Neanoueii?i,
E.?. ?oaeinueeee, I.I. Oa?anaae/), i?ia?aeieo ?aeayo
caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey (I.A. Aaaeoee?ia,
A.I. A?eica?oeaa, I.A. ?aooo, A.N. Eiaca?, I.A. Ii?ic, E.O. Ni???i,
I.E. O?oie?i). Aeey iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaei
aeei?enoaiiy iieiaeaiue oai??? i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoaoo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e noiniaii i?aeaioiaee
iaaeaaia?a o aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao (A.I. Aeaenthe, ?.A. Cycthi,
A.I. Eai-Eaeee, A.A. Eicaeia A.A. Eocue, A.A. Naaa?aea,
A.I. No?oiainueeee, I.?. Oe?eue, I.Ae. ss?ia/aiei), a i?ioean?
aeeeaaeaiiy ie?aieo iaa/aeueieo i?aaeiao?a (N.O. Aii/a?aiei,
I.?. Aeueii?i, I.I. ?oaeieoeueea, I.A. *aiae?aa, A.I. Oaa/aiei). Ii?yae
c oeei o oiae? iaoeiaiai iiooeo ?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy, ui iia’ycai? c
?noi???th ?icaeoeo aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?
(A.E. Iaeai?iaea).

O eiioaeno? iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeeaeie ? ?iaioe, i?enay/ai?
aeyaeaiith iniaeeainoae oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo a iaaeaaia?/i?e
ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey (N.?. A?oaiaaeuenueeee, A.I. Aaniaeueei,
A.?. Aiiaea?, ss.?. Ao?eaea, ?.I. ?aaiia, I.A. Eea??i, I.Ae. Ieeaiae?ia,
?.N. Aeieo?ee, I.N. Iaaeaeea, ?.O. I?ieiiaiei, ?.I. Niiethe, I.O. Oiae,
A.N. I?n?i/oe,). Aiaeii/an ie nie?aeeny ia ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
i?iaeai iaaeaaia?ee i?ioan?eii? ina?oe (A.I. Aaey?aa, I.I. Aa?aeoeueeee,
I.Ae. E?theia, ?.I. Ee?iia, I.A. Eocuei?ia, A.O. Eiiia, I.A. Ie/eaei,
I.O. Oaaei?iaa, o. ?i.).

Iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaeaio
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a, ui
aaco?oueny ia i?eioeeiao oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy, ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe
aeinoaoiuei aea/aiith. Iaeiie/ai? ciaiiy ? oaeoe coiiaeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai a?oioiaiiai aiae?co ? ocaaaeueiaiiy,
?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue, iinoaaeaieo i?aeoeeith ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. Iaieiae?iiy /anoeiith aeioneiee?a eaae?o?eaoe??th
iaaeaaiaa ? caeiaoooy ieie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo ciaiue aea? ?i
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?o (oeeo ciaiue), ye oaoiaeo. I?ioan?eia
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaea o iaiaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao ni?ey?
nioe?aeueiiio caoenoo iieiae? ia ?eieo i?aoe? e iiiiaiaiith
eaae?o?eiaaieie i?aoe?aieeaie iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ??cieo oei?a.
Iaeiae, iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaiith caeeoa?oueny iaoiaeieia?/ia aaca
i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a, ia aecia/ai? i?aeoiaee
aei ?icoi?iiy iniaeeainoae aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe oeiey??a c o?aooaaiiyi
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a no/aniiai noni?euenoaa. Ci?ia
nioe?aeueieo ? ii?aeueieo i???ioe??a o iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
oiiaao ii?yae c ?ioeie oaeoi?aie i?ecaaea aei iaaeiioe?iee
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoao?a oa
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaeaooiueiai iaaeaaiaa ye aeeeaaea/a aeiiii?ee.
Oaeiae ?nio? noia?a/i?noue i?ae canoa??eeie oi?iaie, iaoiaeaie, caniaaie
iaa/aiiy iieiae? e iio?aaaie aeueo ? na?aaei?o caeeaae?a ina?oe o
ai?iaaaeaeaii? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean iiaeo ?ioaineaieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
oaoiieia?e. Naia inoaii? ciiaeooue cia/ii i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? iaaeaaiaa, cie?aia /a?ac i?iaeooaaiiy,
eiino?othaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?th nenoaie noeioethth/eo iaa/aeueieo caaea/ ?
niinia?a ?o aoaeoeaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy. Aaeaea ?aae?? nueiaiaeaiiy
aeiaaathoue ia?aoai?aiiy o/?iiy a naiio/?iiy, aeoiaaiiy o naiiaeoiaaiiy,
?icaeoie o naii?icaeoie. I?e oeueiio iio??aii oi?ioaaoe iniaeno?noue,
noai?thaaoe oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo ?? iaiiaoi?iino?.

Aeyaeai? noia?a/iino? i?ae ia’?eoeaieie iio?aaaie iaa/aeueii? i?aeoeee a
aniaeo? aioiaiino? a/eoaey aei ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii naii?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? ? noaiii ?ice?eooy oe??? i?iaeaie a ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e
e?oa?aoo??, i?ae nioe?aeueii-aaaiiith iaoith aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe aeey
oeiey??a ? ianiaith i?aeoeeith ?? oi?iae?caoe??, i?ae iio?aaaie a/eoae?a
a aeoeaieo ?icaeaaeueieo oaoiieia?yo iaa/aiiy ? o?aaeeoe?eieie caniaaie
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue oaie iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy: “Oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue o
nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee a oiiaao oi?aa?neoaoo”.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniaii a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
?iaioe ?inoeoooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie ye neeaaeiaa oaie
“Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ci?noo ? iaaeaaia?/ieo cania?a
o?oaeiaiai noaiiaeaiiy ? i?ioan?eiiai naiiaecia/aiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?
o ??cieo oeiao ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee”(0197E004454).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy —ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a
oi?aa?neoaoo aei i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a aeiiii?ee.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — ci?no ? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy o
nooaeaio?a i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue i?e aea/aii? i?aaeiaoa
“Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” a aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoaoi.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?ic?iaeoe, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iiaeaeue ?aae?caoe?? iaa/aeueii?
oaoiieia?? a nenoai? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aei aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino? oa c’ynoaaoe
?? aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue
nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee.

Eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
aacoaaany ia oaeeo aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiiyo:

— Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia i?aeaioiaea ? aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe ? aeicaiey? ae??oeoe i?iaeaio iaoiaee/ii? ?
i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aeey caeiaoooy eaae?o?eaoe??
“aeeeaaea/ i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo”.

— Aaeineiiaeaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iiaeeeaa ca oiia
o?aooaaiiy oe?eiai ?yaeo aeeaeaeoe/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo
oaeoi??a oa aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? noeoiiino? oi?i, iaoiae?a,
i?eeii?a, cania?a aeoea?caoe?? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a.

— Aeenoeeie?ia “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” ? caaa?oaeueiith a
oeeee? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa?a c aeiiii?ee a
aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, ?? aea/aiiy ia?aaeaa/a? ocaaaeueiaiiy e
nenoaiaoecaoe?th ciaiue c ?ioeo aeenoeeie?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai
oeeeeo, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?th aeaii? nenoaie ciaiue o noa?e i?ioan?eii?
aeiiii?/ii? oa iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Niaoeeo?ea oeueiai i?aaeiaoa
? eiai ca’ycee c aeiiii?/ieie aeenoeeie?iaie aeathoue ciiao oe?iei
canoiniaoaaoe ?ioaineai? iaa/aeuei? oaoiieia?? ? iaa/aeueia
i?iaeooaaiiy, ye? ? aecia/aeueieie o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue o iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

Aea/eoe noai i?iaeaie a iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? ? i?aeoeoe?.

Iaa?oiooaaoe i?eioeeie ? iiaeeeaino? i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo o
i?ioan?ei?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaeaooi?o iaaeaaia?a.

Aecia/eoe nooue, iniiai? iiiyooy e iniaeeaino? iaa/aeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy
a oiae? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a —
iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee.

?ic?iaeoe e iaa?oiooaaoe ci?no oa noeoii?noue aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia
aea/aiiy nooaeaioaie aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” a
aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe aoaeoeai?noue i?iiiiiaaii? oaoiieia??
iaa/aiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia o?einionueeeo iieiaeaiiyo i?i
?aei?noue oa aca?iiiaoiiaeai?noue yaeu ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino?;
i?eioeeiao nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo oa aeaiaioao nenoaiiiai aiae?co; ?aeayo
i?i ?aei?noue na?aeiiino? e ae?yeueiino?; ?icoi?ii? ae?yeueiino? ye
neeaaeii? nenoaie, ui aeeth/a? ?yae aca?iiiia’ycaieo eiiiiiaio?a.
Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, ui ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe yaeua, ui aea/a?oueny, c oi/ee ci?o eiai ci?noo,
no?oeoo?e, ooieoe?e, ?ice?eoe nenoaiii-?noi?e/i? ca’ycee, iniaeeaino?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a oi?aa?neoaoo o
i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue a no/anieo oiiaao. ?ic?iaeyth/e eiie?aoio
iaoiaeieia?th aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie iie?aeenue ia eiioeaiooaeuei?
iieiaeaiiy o?einio??, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee noiniaii i?iaeai
oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?, ?icoi?iiy i?ioeano iaa/aiiy ye aca?iica’ycaii? ?
aca?iiiaoiiaeaii? ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey ? o/i?a.

?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue cae?enithaaeinue oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy
eiiieaeno iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, na?aae yeeo aiae?c o?einionueei?,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?, iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaoiae oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa neioaco ia aoaiao aecia/aiiy iaoe,
i?aaeiaoo, a?iioace, caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaeaaia?/ia
niinoa?aaeaiiy oa aiae?c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a i?aeoeoe? iaa/aiiy,
noai?aiiy oa aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ieo neooaoe?e, aan?aee, aieaooaaiiy,
oanooaaiiy, iaoiae aenia?oieo ioe?iie, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio,
e?euee?niee oa ye?niee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee no/anieo
?ioa?iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue o?einionuee?,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?, nioe?aeuei?, iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a. Iniiaiiieiaeieie aeey aeaii? ?iaioe
noaee ineoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?icaeoeo, iniaenoino? o
ae?yeueiino?, i?iaeai oai?/iai ? i?iaeoeoeaiiai ieneaiiy, oe?e?niino?
iaa/aeueii- aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, iieiaeaiiy ineoieia?? ? aeeaeaeoeee
aeui? ? na?aaeiuei? oeiee, aaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe,
iiaeoeueii? i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy .

Aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue ia aac? na?aaei?o
oe?e ? 3 i. Aeoai?iaea Ee?anueei? iae., ?? 96, 194, 230, 321 i. Ee?aa,
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai eiiieaeno eaoaae?e iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy
i?e?iaeie/i -iaoaiaoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i Ee?anueeiai i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiai
?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a ?i. Ai?ena A??i/aiea, eaoaae?e
ineoieia?? oa iaaeaaia?ee ? o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Ee?aanueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeine?aeaeaiiyi
aoee ioiieai? a?eueoa 2000 o/i?a, aeecueei 1440 nooaeaio?a, 200
aenia?o?a-o/eoae?a aaia?ao?? oa aeiiii?ee na?aaei?o oe?e aaaaoueio
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie oa i. Ee?aa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny a /ioe?e aoaie c 1992 ii 1999 ?iee.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1992–1995 ??.) aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo
aeaea?ae c iniia aeiiii?/ii? oai???, o?einio??, i?aeoe/ii? ineoieia??
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, iaaeaaia?ee, iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy aaciaeo oe?eueieo
i?aaeiao?a. ?ic?iaeaia ?iai/a iaa/aeueia i?ia?aia “Ii/eia?ii aea/aoe
aeiiii?eo” aeey o/i?a 8–9 eean?a na?aaei?o oe?e, i?ia?aia “Aeiiii?ea
aeey ii/aoe?aoe?a” aeey o/i?a 6–7 niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aeiiii?/ieo eean?a oa
iaoa??aee aeey a/eoae?a oa o/i?a aeey aea/aiiy iniia aeiiii?ee ca
aaoi?nueeeie i?ia?aiaie. Cae?enithaaeenue ai?iaaoe?y oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoa??ae?a i?ia?aie oa iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aei ia? a i?ioean?
aeeeaaeaiiy eo?no “Iniiae aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue” a no ? 3 i. Aeoai?iaea oa
?ioeo oeieao Ee?aa ? iaeano?.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1995–1996 ??.) aiae?coaaeanue iaaeaaia?/ia,
ineoieia?/ia, niaoe?aeueia e?oa?aoo?a c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/aeenue aeo?aei? iiceoe?? iaoeiaiai iiooeo ?c a?aooaaiiyi
iniaeeainoae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a-aeiiii?no?a
ia aac? Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Ooi/ithaaeenue ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, a?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoei
?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaiaaii aenia?eiaioaeueio ?iai/o iaa/aeueio i?ia?aio c
aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee”.

Ii?yae ?c oai?aoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeaie aiae?coaaany i?ioean
i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a EIAO aei ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a, i?iaiaeeany
eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio. O oiae? iaoeiaiai iiooeo iniiaia oaaaa
i?eae?eyeanue ?ic?iaoe? e ia?aa??oe? aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia ? cania?a
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a
aeiiii?ee.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1996–1997 ??.) c iaoith aecia/aiiy aeioe?eueiino?
aeei?enoaiiy i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo o i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a
aei iaeaooiuei? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?iaiaeeany oi?ioth/ee
aenia?eiaio, cae?eniai? ?ic?iaea oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea
iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue
nooaeaio?a-aeiiii?no?a; aiae?coaaeeny io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe.
I?iaiaeeeanue ?ioaa?aoeaia ia?iaea aeaieo, ni?aa?aeianaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c iinoaaeaiith iaoith, ioi?ieaiiy oa iien oiaeo ?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia /aoaa?oiio aoai? (1997–1999 ??.) cae?eniaii aiae?c, nenoaiaoecaoe?th
oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoa??aeo, ?ic?iaeo ooi/iaieo aa??aio?a i?ia?ai, a
oaeiae i?iiiceoe?e uiaei i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue noiniaii eeaneo?eaoe?? oe?eae iaa/aiiy;
oaeineiiaeaii? aeei?enoaiiy o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? iiaeae? canai?iiy
aace ciaiue; aecia/aii? nooiino? oaoiieia?/iiai i?iaeoiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o
aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee; iaa?oiooaaii? a?aeiia?aeiiai ci?noo oa noeoiiino?
oiia eiai ?aae?caoe?? o i?ioean? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?; aecia/aii?
oaeniiii?? oe?eae oa iiaeae? canai?iiy aace ciaiue iaa/aeueiiai
i?aaeiaoa “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” oa iaa?oiooaaii?
eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue i?i aieea iaoiaeo iaa/aeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy
ia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a
aeiiii?ee. Aia?oa cae?eniaia ni?iaa eeaneo?eoaaoe i?ioan?ei?
iaaeaaia?/i? oi?iiy aeeeaaea/a aeiiii?ee oa cai?iiiiiaai? e?eoa???
??ai?a ?o noi?iiaaiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai, iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo
iaoa??ae?a c ieoaiue oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a aeiiii?ee aeey aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a
aoc?a, ui aeicaiey? cai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iao?aaeeoe?ei? i?aeoiaee aei
oi?ioaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue caniaaie iaa/aeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy,
a?aoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio iio?aae a ?icaeoeo oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo
nooaeaio?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?o iniaeno?nieo yeinoae ? na?oiaeyaeieo
ia?aeiiaiue. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe o
aoc?anueeeo eaeoe?eieo eo?nao, i?aeoeeoiao, o ?ic?iaoe? iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai ? iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a aeey iaaeaaia?/ieo aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue o
Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? a i?ioean?
aeeeaaeaiiy aeenoeeie?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo. Ia iniia?
oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, io?eiaieo o
oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii?aoeueiaaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo iaa/aiiy
nooaeaio?a i?ia?aio aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee”.
Oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a
eaeoe?yo ? ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo o aea/aii? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i EIAO, ia eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a aaia?ao??
oa aeiiii?ee i?e EI?OA ?i. Ai?ena A??i/aiea, iaeanieo, ?aeiiieo,
i?nueeeo nai?ia?ao iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo
oe?eueii? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe oa aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? o iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue ? i?aeoe/iiio ao?eaii? i?e aea/aii? iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoa
“Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” eiioeaioe?? oaeniiii?? oe?eae
iaa/aiiy, oaeineiiaeaii? aeei?enoaiiy iiaeae? canai?iiy aace ciaiue i?e
ieaioaaii? iaa/aeueieo caiyoue c oe??? aeenoeeie?ie; iaoeiaiio
iaa?oiooaaii? oa ai?iaaoe?? o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? noeoiiino? oi?i,
iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ? eiio?ieth
ciaiue ca ci?noii iaa/aeueieo iiaeoe?a ? aeie?a, i?ia?aie oeueiai
i?aaeiaoa; i?aeai?? oa ai?iaaoe?? nenoaie caaaeaiue ??cieo ??ai?a
neeaaeiino? oa aeeaeaeoe/ieo oaeno?a aeey naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oe??? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? o ioae?eaoe?yo iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, i?aeaioiaeaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaeo ocaaaeueiaiue,
aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e caaacia/o?oueny iaoiaeieia?/iith ?
oai?aoe/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai aeno?aeieo iiceoe?e, aeei?enoaiiyi
eiiieaeno aca?iiiia’ycaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei
iaoe, a?iioace ? caaaeaiue, ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth ? noaoenoe/iith
cia/ei?noth aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, oi/i?noth ?o iaoaiaoe/ii?
ia?iaee, canoinoaaiiyi ii??aiyeueieo iaoiaeee. O oiae? iaoeiaiai iiooeo
cae?enithaaeenue ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c iiiaae 12-oe ??/iiai aeina?aeo
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aeena?oaioa oa aea/aiiy aeina?aeo
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a o iaaeaaia?/ieo
aocao.

Ai?iaaoe?y aenoiooeo o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a
cae?enithaaeanue o oiae? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ia aac?
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo i?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? aaoi?a c
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o o/eoae?a aeiiii?ee, a oaeiae aeecueei o 200 oeieao
Oe?a?ie a ia??iae iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee nooaeaio?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeenue i?ae /an
aenooi?a ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao Ee?anueeiai
i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a ?i. Ai?ena
A??i/aiea (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998. 1999 ??.), Anioe?aoe?? a/eoae?a
aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie (1995, 1996 ??., EIAO 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998,
1999 ??.), N?ioa?iiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1996 ?.), a
oaeiae ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee oa ineoieia?? EIAO,
iaoiaeia’?aeiaiue a/eoae?a aaia?ao?? oa aeiiii?ee Aeoai?iaenueeiai
?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?, eaai?aoi??? o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy oa
i?ioi???ioaoe?? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie.

C i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 9 ?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii 10
ae?oe. a?e., a o. /. 6 iaeiiin?aieo, caaaeueiei ianyaii 3 ae?oe. a?e., o
yeeo aena?oeaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a aei ?icae?e?a ? caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e (216
iaeiaioaaiue) oa 3 aeiaeaoe?a. Oaeno aeena?oaoe?? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
oaaeeoeyie (anueiai 21 ia 16 noi?.) ? 3 noaiaie. Iniiaia /anoeia
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaia ia 171 noi??ieao, caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 216
noi?.

iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao ? iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii a?iioaco ? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “I?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee
aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee a oi?aa?neoaoao” — ?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i?
canaaee i?iaeaie, ?ice?eaa?oueny iiiyo?eiee aia?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aiae?co?oueny noai i?iaeaie o ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e oa iaoiaee/i?e
e?oa?aoo??, o i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe oi?aa?neoao?a. ?icaeyaeathoueny ??ci?
iiaeyaee aeine?aeiee?a-iaaeaaia?a, ineoieia?a noiniaii ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a a oi?aa?neoaoao, niaoeeo?ee oeueiai
i?ioeano ia a?aei?io a?ae iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a, a?aecia/athoueny eeth/ia?
caaaeaiiy oi?aa?neoao?a o i?ioan?ei?e iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
nooaeaio?a.

Aeaiie?aoecaoe?y oeiee ? ia?ai???ioaoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
a?ae noa’?eo-ia’?eoieo aei noa’?eo-eieaeoeaieo ? noa’?eo-noa’?eoieo
a?aeiinei aeiaaa? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ye?nii iiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e,
iaieiae?iiy yeeie iiaeeeaa ca oiiae ?ic?iaee oa aeei?enoaiiy
niaoe?aeueieo iaoiaee/ieo nenoai ? noai?aiiy iaaieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia aeey iaieiae?iiy ieie iaeaooi?ie
a/eoaeyie.

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe a?aenooiy
?aeeia eiioeaioe?y iaaeaaia?/ii? oaoiieia??, ui iia’ycaii c ??cieie
iiceoe?yie aaoi??a-aeine?aeiee?a o ae??oaii? ieoaiiy i?i oa?aeoa?
aca?iica’yce?a eaoaai??e “oaoiieia?y iaa/aiiy”, “iaaeaaia?/ia
oaoiieia?y”, “iaaeaaia?/ia iaenoa?i?noue”, “iaaeaaia?/ia oaoi?ea”,
“iaoiae iaa/aiiy” ? o.?i. Aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e
na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy
nooiino? iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e oa i?iaeai ?o aeei?enoaiiy o i?ioean?
i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a. Iaeiae
ni?eueiei o a?eueoino? aaoi??a ? ?icoi?iiy oiai, ui aeei?enoaiiy
iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e ia?aaeaa/a?:

a) oe?eai???ioiaaia iiaeaethaaiiy iaa/aeueieo neooaoe?e, ia iniia? yeeo
ae??oothoueny caaaeaiiy, ui iine?aeiaii ?aae?cothoue ci?no ? oe?e?
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?;

a) aeei?enoaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo oiia, iaoeiaeo ?aeae ? cania?a
ae?yeueiino?, ye? noai?ththoue a?aeiia?aeia na?aaeiaeua ? caaacia/othoue
iioei?caoe?th anueiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano;

a) aeoea?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? an?o o/aniee?a iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano,
?icaeoie noa’?eo-noa’?eoieo noinoie?a o nenoai? aca?iiae?? “a/eoaeue —
o/aiue”, iineeaiiy aoiai?noe/iiai ? oai?/iai i?aeoiae?a o i?ioean?
iaa/aiiy.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e no/ani? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy o aeu?e oeie?, ie
coieieeenue ia ieoaiiyo aeei?enoaiiy i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo o
aea/aii? nooaeaioaie 4-ai eo?no Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo i?aaeiaoa “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee”. ?ic?iaeyth/e
i?eioeeie i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo, ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui
iniiai? iai?yiee aaeineiiaeaiiy aeui? ina?oe ia?aaeaa/athoue i??i?eoaoio
?ioaa?aoe?th ina?oe c i?aeoe/iith ae?yeuei?noth ? iaoeith, iineeaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo, ?icaeoeo oai?/i? iniaenoino? nooaeaioa,
o.?i. Oe? i?aeoiaee, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue ia’?eoeai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
aeui? ina?oe oa aeyaeeenue a ia?aaeiaiio iaaeaaia?/iiio aeina?ae?,
coiiaeee aeei?enoaiiy iao?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i, iaoiae?a, cania?a iaa/aiiy
oa aeoiaaiiy, a ?acii c ieie — ? aiae?c ineoieia?/ieo, a?eiaeo,
i?ioan?eieo iniaeeainoae nooaeaio?a — iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee,
?icaeoie ?o oi?iue o?ainoi?ioaaoe oa aaeaiooaaoe ci?no iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo, ii?aeioaaoe iaoiaee ? i?eeiie ?iaioe a?aeiia?aeii aei oiia
eiie?aoii? iaaeaaia?/ii? neooaoe?? oa iniaeeainoae iaa/aeueii?
aoaeeoi???, a oaeiae ?icaeoie ?o eiioi?eaoeaieo oa i?aai?caoi?nueeeo
cae?aiinoae.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aoei aecia/aii
noeoii?noue niaoeeo?/ieo oi?iue, ye? iiaeia ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ye
i?ioan?ei? iaaeaaia?/i?, ??ai? oa e?eoa??? ?o noi?iiaaiino?.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? ii?yae c aiae?cii e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue iaaiaeyoueny aeai? eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo noiniaii iniiaieo
iai?yie?a oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue oa aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?ioeano i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee. Aiie na?ae/aoue,
ui :a?eueoa 80% nooaeaio?a ??ciith i??ith ia?ciai? ?c i?ioan?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth aeeeaaea/a ? ia a?aeeeaeathoue iiaeeeaino? caeiaoeny
iaaeaaia?/iith ae?yeuei?noth ca iaaieo oiia. Aea/ath/e iioeaaoe?th
i?ioan?eiiai aeai?o nooaeaio?a o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo EIAO,
ie aecia/eee, ui aeecueei 30% c ieo ea?othoueny
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-cia/oueie iioeaaie (i?aaiaiiy i?iyaeoe oa ?aae?coaaoe
nai? iiaeeeaino?), aeecueei 53% — i?anoeaeiino? oa iaoa??aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy, 15% nooaeaio?a cae?enieee na?e aea?? ia naiino?eii ? ia
cian?i ona?aeiieaii. Oea iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaeiaaeaiiy
i?ioi???ioaoe?eii? ?iaioe iaa?oue ia noa?oeo (aeioneieo) eo?nao aoco c
oei, uia aeiiiiiaoe aeioneieeai iiai?noth ?ice?eoe nai? iniaeno?ni?
iiaeeeaino?, aeyaeoe oa inieneeoe iioeae i?ioan?eiiai aeai?o.
Eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio cana?ae/ea oaeiae, ui a?eueo?noue (aeecueei
62%) nooaeaio?a-iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee iathoue iecueeee ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue.

?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo aeicaieeee noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aeacaieo oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee
iio?aao? nooo?aiai aaeineiiaeaiiy, a oaeiae coiiaeee iiaeaeueoee iiooe
aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a, oi?i ? iaoiae?a i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aei
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea aoaeoeaiino?
?aae?caoe?? ci?noo ? aeeaeaeoe/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue o nooaeaio?a-iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee”
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii iiaeaeue,
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ? iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo
oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee, cae?eniaii aiae?c iiaeeeainoae
i?aaeiaoo “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” o i?ioean? aeinyaiaiiy
oe?eae aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiaiei ci?noii oeueiai ?icae?eo ? iaoa??aee oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo.
A iueiio ?ice?eaathoueny iniaeeaino? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo iaa/aiiy
“Eiioeaioe?? iaia?a?aii? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?” (EIAO, 1993).
Aeey caaacia/aiiy oiia ?aae?caoe?? “Eiioeaioe??” ia aac? EIAO c 1994 ?.
?icii/aoi i?aeaioiaeo aeeeaaea/?a c aeiiii?ee, iaaeath/e aaeaeaa?ai c
aeiiii?ee ae?oao niaoe?aeuei?noue: aeeeaaea/ aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.
Aeey oeueiai nooaeaioe-aeiiii?noe, ye? i?ioyaii iaa/aiiy o aoc? aea/aee
aeecueei 20 aeenoeeie?i aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth, aea/athoue ua 4
aeenoeeie?ie ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo, na?aae yeeo “Iniiae
ineoieia??”, “Ineoieia?y oa iaaeaaia?ea ae?yeueiino?”, “Eiioi?eaoeai?
i?ioeane a iaa/aii?”, “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i”.
Na?aae aieiaieo caaaeaiue oeeo aeenoeeie?i ? oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue nooaeaio?a – iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee,
noaiiaeaiiy ?o iaaeaaia?/ii? iaenoa?iino? oa ai?iiy i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

O oiae? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” ca
aaoi?nueeith i?ia?aiith aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa
cae?enithaaeanue o o?ueio iai?yieao:

1. Caaacia/aiiy nooaeaio?a oai?aoe/ieie ciaiiyie, iaiao?aeieie aeey
i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a no/anieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao oa aeinoaoi?ie aeey ?icaeoeo iioea?a aei
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.

Caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii-iaiao?aeieo oi?iue iaeaooiueiai
iaaeaaiaa /a?ac i?aai?caoe?th iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a, yea aeiaaa? aeoeaiiai i?iyao iniaeno?nieo yeinoae oeo, ooi
iaa/a?oueny.

Iaaoooy nooaeaioaie i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeiiai aeina?aeo iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a oa oi?ioaaiiy o ieo iio?aa o
i?ioan?eiiio naiiaaeineiiaeaii?.

Aanue eiiieaen caoiae?a ca aecia/aieie iai?yieaie oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue a i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea
aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” ie oiiaii iiae?eeee ia o?e aeiee c iaoith
eiioeaio?aoe?? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a.

1-e aeie — “ss ? aeiiii?/ia ina?oa”;

2-e aeie — “Iniiae iaoiaeieia?? aeeeaaeaoeueei? ae?yeueiino?”.

3-e aeie — “?ioaineai? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy a aeiiii?/i?e ina?o?”.

Ci?no on?o aeie?a aea/aiiy aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy
aeiiii?ee” ?aae?ciaoaaany iiaoaiii c iinooiiaei oneeaaeiaiiyi oi?i
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?:

a) i?iaaaeaiiy eaeoe?e, aan?ae, oaiaoe/ieo aeeneon?e, aiae?c iayaiiai
aeina?aeo iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?;

a) noai?aiiy aeeiai?/ieo iiaeaeae iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ui
iiaeooue aooe ?aae?ciaai? o oiae? aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

a) ?ic?iaea iaa/aeueieo i?iaeo?a aeey aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?ic?iaeaieo nooaeaioaie iaa/aeueieo i?iaeo?a cae?enithaaeanue
i?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee. Aiae?c oa ei?aeoe?th ?ic?iaeaieo
iaoa??ae?a nooaeaioe cae?enithaaee a oiae? i?aeaioiaee aeeaeaeoe/iiai
?icae?eo aeioneii? ?iaioe aaeaeaa?a.

Ae?yeuei?noue nooaeaio?a ca ??ciiiai?oi?noth ci?noo, oi?i, iaoiae?a oa
cania?a iiaoaiii no?oeoo?oaaeanue a caaaeuei? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie
iaa/aiiy c a?aeiia?aeieie i?eioeeiaie oa aeiiaaie aei nooaeaio?a. I?e
oeueiio iaia’yceiaeie aoee oiiae aeia?ia?eueiino?, naiino?eiino? ?
iino?eiiai noeioethaaiiy ?i?oe?aoeaiino?.

Nooo?aei aeaiaioii oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoei caaacia/aiiy
i?ia?anoth/i? ?ioaineaiino? iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao ia nooaeaio?a o oiae?
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Ia eiaeiiio c aoai?a oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ie
aeio?eioaaeeny iaaieo aeiia, aei i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe, ui aoee aecia/ai?
ia iniia? oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co i?iaeaie oa ?acoeueoao?a eiinoaooth/eo
c??c?a. Aiie iaoiiaeee ci?no aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe oa
iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? a nenoai? “aeeeaaea/—nooaeaio”,
“aeeeaaea/—nooaeaionueea a?oia” Ia?aaeon?i, oea aeiiae ona?aeiieaiino?,
iniaenoi? caoe?eaaeaiino?, aeia?ia?eueii? o/ano? a ?iaio?
aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaa/aeueieo a?oi, iiaaae aei nooaeaio?a c aieo
iaaeaaia?a-eiinoeueoaio?a, ye? ?aae?cothoueny a ae?eiaiio ia?oia?noa?,
caaacia/aii? iaeni?eyoeea?oeo oiia aeey naii?aae?caoe?? eiaeiiai
nooaeaioa oa ?i.

Eiaeiee aoai oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aoa niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiei,
iaaeaaia?/ii ea?iaaiei ? eiio?ieueiaaiei e aecia/aany, aeoiaey/e ?c oiia
? caaaeaiue aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe. Ia?aaeon?i o
nooaeaio?a oi?ioaaeanue iioeaaoe?eia iniiaa iaeaooiuei? iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? /a?ac nenoaio aan?ae, aeeneon?e, aiae?co eiie?aoieo
neooaoe?e. A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai a a?eueoino? nooaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi aeieeaei caoe?eaaeaia noaaeaiiy aei i?iiiiiaaii?
ae?yeueiino?, oei naiei noai?thaaeenue oiiae aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano.

Ae?oaee aoai, aoa ni?yiiaaiee ia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii? na?aeiiino?, ui
aeyaeyeinue o noaiiaeaii? a nooaeaio?a iiaeo i?ioan?eieo oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?e. Nooaeaioe iciaeiiethaaeenue c nenoaiith aeiia, ia ye?
iaiao?aeii i???iooaaoenue aeey iiaiiai ? i?aaeeueiiai aeeiiaiiy o??? /e
?ioi? ae?? (caaaeaiiy) a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.
I?e oeueiio nooaeaioe aiae?coaaee e iaa?oioiaoaaee oe?e?, iaiao?aei?
oiiae ? niiniae ?aae?caoe?? ae?yeueiino?, ?ic?iaeyee iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??. Ianooiiei e?ieii noaei i?aeoe/ia aeeiiaiiy ae?e ?c
aeio?eiaiiyi an?o iaiao?aeieo eiiiiiaio?a ae?yeueiino? oa iine?aeiaiino?
?o cae?eniaiiy.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? ia?aaeaa/aeinue aeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue, iaiao?aeieo aeey iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aiii
cae?enithaaeiny a oiae? ?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? iaa/aeueieo i?iaeo?a o
ciiaeaeueiaaieo oa ?aaeueieo oiiaao iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ??cieo oei?a,
? aeiaaaei a?ae nooaeaio?a aeyao naiino?eiino?, ?i?oe?aoeaiino?,
oai?/iai i?aeoiaeo, iaiieaaeeaino? oiui. Iniiaiei ci?noii
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ia oeueiio aoai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaei iaa/aeueia i?iaeooaaiiy aeeaeaeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a
aeey iaeii? c aeenoeeie?i aeiiii?/iiai oeeeeo. Noai?aiiy nooaeaioaie
iaa/aeueii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?iaeoo, ye eiiieaeoo ii?iaoeaii? iaoiaee/ii?
aeieoiaioaoe??, cae?enithaaeinue o oae?e iine?aeiaiino?:

1) ?ic?iaea oa iaa?oiooaaiiy eiioeaioe?? ? i?ia?aie iaa/aeueiiai
i?aaeiaoa, oaiaoe/ia ieaioaaiiy; noai?aiiy iiaeae? canai?iiy aace
ciaiue, iaa?oiooaaiiy iieaciee?a iaoe iaa/aiiy, aea?? oi?i, iaoiae?a oa
cania?a iaa/aiiy c a?aooaaiiyi aeiia aeoea?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? o/i?a;

2) ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ii? ea?oe, ye iao?eoe? no?oeoo?e iaa/aeueiiai
caiyooy aei oaie (?icae?eo) iaa/aeueiiai eo?no, ca??ieea
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a;

3) iiaeaethaaiiy o?aaiaio?a iaa/aeueiiai caiyooy o iaa/aeuei?e a?oi?;
ai?iaaoe?y ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? i?ae /an iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee;

4) aiae?c i?iaaaeaieo caiyoue, ooi/iaiiy iaoiae?a, niinia?a, i?eeii?a
iaa/aiiy, ye? aeaee oni?oiee ?acoeueoao, aai ia aei?aaaeaee naiai
canoinoaaiiy; ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei canoinoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a,
aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie ia iniia?
aiae?co i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe.

?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue ui, iiaeoeueia no?oeoo?a
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy c i?aaeiaoo “IAA” ni?ey? nenoaiaoe/i?e ?iaio?
nooaeaio?a, ieaiii??iiio canai?iith iaoa??aeo aeenoeeie?ie, a oaeiae
aeicaiey? o??ciiiai?oithaaoe aeei?enoaiiy oi?i oa iaoiae?a iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, noai?thaaoe iaoiaee/i? nenoaie, ui caaacia/othoue
aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaa/aiiy.

Iienaia a aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?nueea oaoiieia?y iaa/aiiy a?aecia/a?oueny
iaaieie iniaeeainoyie aca?iiae?? o/aniee?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano. Aiia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny, a ia?oo /a?ao, — aeoeaiith nenoaiaoe/iith
iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth nooaeaio?a, caaacia/aiiyi ?aaeeio
iaea?eueoiai ni?eyiiy ?aae?caoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?ioa?an?a,
iiaeeeainoae ? cae?aiinoae nooaeaio?a, iaaiith aaeaioaoe??th
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo aei ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae. Oea
noai?th? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? oa eiio?ieth
naiino?eii? ?iaioe nooaeaio?a, /anoea yei? cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny ?
aeinyaa? aeecueei 50 % athaeaeaoo iaa/aeueiiai /ano. Ioe?ithaaiiy
?acoeueoao?a naiino?eii? ?iaioe a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiae? ni?aaan?ae,
ioae?/ieo iaeyae?a, aenooi?a ia eaeoe?yo, caoeno?a ?ic?iaeaieo i?iaeo?a.
I?e oeueiio nooaeaio ?aae?co? aeanio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?acoeueoaoe
nai?? i?aoe? oa caaacia/o? noaaeaiiy aei naaa ye aei iniaenoino?, ui ?
aieiaiei oe?ii?niei i???ioe?ii oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy, yeo ie aecia/a?ii ye
?ioa??iaeoeaio (?AOI). ?ioa??iaeoeaia oaoiieia?y iaa/aiiy — ye iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaia eiiieaenia i?ia?aia aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/a oa nooaeaio?a o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? — aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie,
iniiao yei? neeaaeathoue aeoea?caoe?ei? iaoiaee iaa/aiiy, ui
caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy iniaeno?nii-, i?ioan?eii- oa
nioe?aeueii-cia/oueo yeinoae nooaeaio?a /a?ac ?ioa??i??caoe?th ca
?aooiie niaoe?aeueii noai?aieo oiia iaa/aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua. sse
na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy
?ioa??iaeoeaii? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy (?AOI) a i?ioean? aea/aiiy
aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” aeicaiey? cae?enieoe
ia?ao?ae aei a?aei?iieo a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i i?aai?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? oa ni?ey? aaeineiiaeaiith ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee.

Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea ia?aa??ea aieeao
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a, cie?aia iaa/aeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy o aea/aii? i?aaeiaoa
“Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee”, ia aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee.
Aeeiai?ea oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo oi?iue aecia/aeanue oeyoii aieaooaaiiy,
oanooaaiiy, aenia?oii? ioe?iee c noaoenoe/iith ia?iaeith io?eiaieo
aeaieo. C oe??th iaoith iaie i?iaiaeeeenue aieaooaaiiy i?ae /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee nooaeaioaie-iaeaooi?ie aeeeaaea/aie
aeiiii?ee. A/eoaeyi, ye? ea?oaaee i?aeoeeith, i?iiiioaaeinue aecia/eoe
iieacieee ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a aeeeaaeaiiy, ui ? aeyaeaiiyi
i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue. ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? iniiaieo
i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue aeeeaaea/a aeiiii?ee ie aeae?eyee ca
e?eoa??yie, i?aaenoaaeaieie a ?iaio?.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?oieo ioe?iie na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aiane?aeie
aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iaie noeoiiino? oi?i, iaoiae?a oa cania?a
?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? aecia/aieo oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a
aeiiii?ee c?inoa?. Ii??aithth/e a?aeiinio e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a
eiio?ieueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi ca oeeie iieacieeaie, iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui nooaeaioe aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi aeyaeee cia/ii aeu?
??ai? noi?iiaaiino? iniiaieo i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue (aeea.
oaae. 1.)

Oaaeeoey 1

??ai? noi?iiaaiino? iniiaieo i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue

(ca ?acoeueoaoaie oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo)

? i/i ??ai?

noi?iiaaiino? Eiio?ieuei? a?oie Aenia?eiaioaeuei?

a?oie

(o %% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? o/aniee?a)

1. Aeoaea iecueeee 9,18 1,87

2. Iecueeee 13,76 6,54

3. Iina?aaei?e 22,93 13,08

4. Aenieee 33,03 42,06

5. Aeoaea aenieee 10,10 36,45

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue ia eeoa i?i aoaeoeai?noue
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a, ui aoee ?aae?ciaai? i?e aea/aii?
i?aaeiaoa “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee”, aea e i?i cia/i?
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? iaa/aeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy a oiae? i?ioan?eii?
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a aeiiii?ee.

Oaeei /eiii, ? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui cai?iiiiiaaia noeoii?noue
oi?i, iaoiae?a ? cania?a oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue
iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee a i?ioean? aea/aiiy i?aaeiaoa “Iaoiaeeea
aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” ? aeineoue aoaeoeaiith, uia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ??
aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ianiao i?aeoeeo i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a
aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

AENIIAEE

O caeeth/i?e /anoei? i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aecia/aii iiaeeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy eiai
?acoeueoao?a. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. I?iaeaia i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a
aeiiii?ee a oi?aa?neoaoao ? aeooaeueiith o ca’yceo ?c ?icaeoeii
aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, ?c iio?aaith oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
iiaaae?iee iiaiai iieie?iiy a?iiaaeyi iaoi? aea?aeaae.

2. No/ani? oi?aa?neoaoe, ye? aioothoue oao?aoe?a-aeiiii?no?a, iathoue
cia/i? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?o i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee, ui o
ii?aeiaii? c ooiaeaiaioaeuei?noth oa aaaaoiieaiia?noth aaciai?
aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe aeicaiey? aeioneieeai, c iaeiiai aieo, iiai?oa
aeei?enoiaoaaoe nai? cae?aiino?, ca?eueooaaoe iiaeeeaino? aeai?o ia
?eieo i?aoe?, c ?ioiai — caaacia/eoe aenieieaae?o?eiaaieie
iaaeaaia?/ieie eaae?aie ??ci? eaiee aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

3. Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioan?eii aaaeeeaeo yeinoae iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa
? ?o oi?ioaaiiy a oiae? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe iaaoaa? iniaeeai?
aeooaeueiino? a oiiaao nueiaiaeaiiy, aaeaea noai?th? iiaeeeaino?
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia ?icaeoie i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ineo?/ii?
aeoeaiino? nooaeaio?a, niaoeeo?ee ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo oa
caeiiii??iinoae ?icai?oaiiy i?ioeano iaa/aiiy.

4. O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee cae?enith?oueny
cia/ii aoaeoeai?oa, yeui:

ci?no iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i
ii?aeio?oueny c iniiaiei iaoeiaei ci?noii i?ia?ai c aeiiii?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i;

a i?ioean? i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee cae?enith?oueny
?icaeoie i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, nioe?aeueii oa i?ioan?eii cia/oueo
iioea?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a;

oe?eai???ioiaaiee iaa/aeueiee i?ioean i?aai?ciao?oueny c o?aooaaiiyi
i?eioeei?a i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo (IOI) oa ia? aoiai?noe/io
ni?yiiaai?noue;

i?e aea/aii? aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee”, yea ?
caaa?oaeueiith a oeeee? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i, nooaeaioe
?ic?iaeythoue iaa/aeuei? oaoiieia?/i? i?iaeoe aeey aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ??cieo oei?a.

5. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae aeiia, yeei iiaeiai
a?aeiia?aeaoe aeeeaaea/ aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i a no/anieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao ??cieo oei?a. Oe? aeiiae i?iaeeeoiaai? oei, ui a?i nai ?
iin??i aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy ? aieeaa? ia oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
na?oiaeyaeo ? aeiiii?/ii? iiaaae?iee o/i?a. Aei oeeo aeiia
a?aeiinyoueny: iayai?noue aeeaieeo ??ciinoi?iii?o ciaiue naiai
i?aaeiaoo; aieiae?iiy iaaeaaia?/iith oaoi?eith; i?aaiaiiy aei
i?ioan?eiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy. Naia aiie ? aaciaeie aeey oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eii aaaeeeaeo oi?iue iaeaooiueiai aeeeaaea/a:
i?aai?caoe?eii-eiino?oeoeaieo, oaoiieia?/ii-iaoiaee/ieo,
eiioi?eaoeaieo..

6. O i?ioean? aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aoei aeyaeaii, ui
iaei?iaeoeoeai?oa i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue o
iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee a?aeaoaa?oueny ca oiiae canoinoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a aeoea?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a o ?o iioeiaeueiiio ii?aeiaii?. Aeei?enoaiiy
aeoeaieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy: eiie?aoieo neooaoe?e, aeeneon?e,
iiaeaethaaiiy o?aaiaio?a iaa/aeueieo caiyoue, oa i?ioan?ia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ni?ey? aeoea?caoe?? ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, ui
iai?aaeaia ia o?eueee ia io?eiaiiy i?oeieo ciaiue i?ia?aiiaiai
iaoa??aeo, ?icaeoeo oai?/i?, eiino?oeoeaii? ?i?oe?aoeae, a e oi?ioaaiiy
i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue ia aenieiio ??ai?.

7. ?ic?iaeaia iaie, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia ? aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??aia oaoiieia?y oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue o
iaeaooi?o a/eoae?a aeiiii?ee o oiae? aea/aiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeenoeeie?i, cie?aia i?aaeiaoa “Iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee”, ?
?icai?iooei o /an? iaaeaaia?/iei i?ioeanii, ni?yiiaaiee ia iiaeaethaaiiy
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaeaooiueiai oao?aoey ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo
ciaiue ?ioeo aaciaeo aeenoeeie?i, ?icaeoie nenoaie i?aai?caoe?eieo,
iaoiaee/ieo, eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue, iaieiae?iiy aeina?aeii ia?aiineoe
noi?iiaai? oi?iiy a iia? neooaoe??.

Io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? noai?ththoue aeinoaoi? i?aenoaae aeey
ioe?iee ?iaioe ye oni?oii? ca nai?ie e?ioeaaeie ?acoeueoaoaie, ye?
iathoue cia/aiiy ia o?eueee aeey aeiiii?/ieo oi?aa?neoao?a, aea ? aeey
nenoaie aeui? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a oe?eiio.

Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ?ica’yco? on?o i?iaeai
i?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee.
Iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aao? eii?aeeiaoe?y i?ioan?eii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? oa niaoe?aeueii? aeiiii?/ii? i?aeaioiaee a oi?aa?neoao?,
ye ia ??ai? i?aei?aaeiaoieo ca’yce?a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, oae ? a
ieoaiiyo ???a?o?caoe?? oe?eae oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe oa caaaeaiue ?o
?aae?caoe??.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii

o ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a

Eiaaeue/oe A.I. Iiaeaeue canai?iiy aace ciaiue iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo
“Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” // Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? canaaee
?icaeoeo oai?/ino?: nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae: Ca. iaoe. i?. – Ee?a –
Caii??aeaey: Caii??cueeee iae. ?i-o oaeineiiaeaiiy o/eoae?a, 1999. –
aei. 13. – N. 147–151.

Eiaaeue/oe A.I. No?oeoo?a iiaeoeueii-?aeoeiaiai? nenoaie aea/aiiy
i?aaeiaoa “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” // Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – Na??y 3:
Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. – 1998. – ? 4. – N.79–86.

Eiaaeue/oe A.I. ?ieueia? ?a?e ia o?ieao aaia?ao?? // Aaia?ao?y a oeieao
Oe?a?ie. – 1995. – ? 4. – N. 18–20.

Eiaaeue/oe A.I., ?iiaiiaa A.I., Naie/aiei I.A. Aeaiaioe i?aeoe/ii?
ineoieia??: Oaenoe aeeaeaeoe/i?. – E.: Aeae-ai EAeAO, 1996. – 148 n.

Eiaaeue/oe A.I. I?aeaioiaea iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee a
aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? // I?aeaioiaea o/i?anueei? iieiae? aei
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? i?aoe?: Ca. iaoe. i?. – E.: ?i-o iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie, 1998.– N. 35–37.

Eiaaeue/oe A.I. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa a EIAO ye oaeoi? ?icaeoeo
iniaeno?niiai iioaioe?aeo iaeaooiueiai aeiiii?noa // Iaoa??aee
iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio. “Oi?aa?neoaonueea iaaeaaia?/ia ina?oa ye oeyo
aoiai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa”. *. I. – E.: EIAO, 1999. – N. 170–174.

Eiaaeue/oe A.I. No/ani? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy: iaa/aeueiee i?iaeo,
iiaeoeue, ?aeoeia // Iaoa??aee iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio. “Oi?aa?neoaonueeee
??aaiue ina?oe: ci?no oa iai?yie caaacia/aiiy”. – E.: EIAO, 1998. – N.
57–61.

Eicaeia A.A., Eiaaeue/oe A.I. Oaeniiii?y oe?eae iaa/aiiy o iiaeae?
canai?iiy aace ciaiue i?aaeiaoo // Iaoa??aee iaoe.-iaoiae. eiio.
“Eiio?ieue iaa/aiiy a caaacia/aii? yeino? ina?oe”. – E.: EIAO, 1997. –
N. 55–58.

Eicaeia A.A., Eiaaeue/oe A.I., I?onniaa E.A., Naie/aiei I.A., ?iiaiiaa
A.I. ?acoeueoaoeai?noue aei/ii-iiaeoeueii? nenoaie eiio?ieth iaa/aiiy c
aeenoeeie?i ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo // Iaoa??aee iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiio. “Eiio?ieue iaa/aiiy a caaacia/aii? yeino? ina?oe”. – E.: EIAO,
1997. – N. 58–59.

Aiioaoe?y

Eiaaeue/oe A.I. Oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue o nooaeaio?a
– iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee.— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.04 – oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe. – ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai i?ioan?eii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a – iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue
oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy
i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo
iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee. Cai?iiiiiaaii,
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii e aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii eiioeaiooaeueio
iiaeaeue ?aae?caoe?? iaa/aeueii? oaoiieia?? a nenoai?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
aei ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a. ?ic?iaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueio i?ia?aio
aeenoeeie?ie “Iaoiaeeea aeeeaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee” (“IAA”), iaa?oioiaaii
ci?no iniiaieo iai?yie?a ?aae?caoe?? i?ioeano ?? aea/aiiy.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii aieea noeoiiino? oi?i, iaoiae?a ? cania?a
iaa/aiiy, cie?aia, iaa/aeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy, ca oe??th i?ia?aiith ia
oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iue iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a
aeiiii?ee.

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeaioiaeaii iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee,
iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeeeaaea/?a ? nooaeaio?a. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? o i?ioean
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a aeiiii?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ioan?ei? iaaeaaia?/i? oi?iiy, iaa/aeueii-oaoiieia?/ia
i?iaeooaaiiy, ?ioaineai? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy a aeiiii?/i?e ina?o?,
?ioa??iaeoeaia oaoiieia?y iaa/aiiy (?AOI), aeoeai? iaoiaee iaa/aiiy,
i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iee i?aeo?ae.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eiaaeue/oe A.I. Oi?ie?iaaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee a
nooaeaioia – aoaeoueo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae yeiiiieee. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ca niaoeeaeueiinoueth 13.00.04 – oai?ey e iaoiaeeea
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey. – Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee AII Oe?aeiu,
Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaathony oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia —
aoaeoueo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae yeiiiieee, ?ane?uou aeeaeaeoe/aneea oneiaey
oi?ie?iaaiey o ieo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee. A oiaea
?aaiou onoaiiaeaii, /oi iniiaiuie i?aaeiinueeaie oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia oieaa?neoaoa a ?aieao
enneaaeoaiie i?iaeaiu yaeythony neaaeothuea: nooaeaio yaeyaony noauaeoii
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey, iaeaaeaao aeoeaiinoueth a o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e niiniaai e naiinoiyoaeueiiio oeaeaiieaaaieth; ciaiey
nooaeaioia ia iniaaiiinoyo i?ioanneiiaeueiie iaaeaaiae/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony iniiaie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iniciaiiiai ioiioaiey
e iae e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee, eioi?ua ?aaeecothony
a oneiaeyo niaoeeaeueii i?aaieciaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe; iao/ii
iainiiaaiiia iaaeaaiae/aneia oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannii oi?ie?iaaiey
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee yaeyaony aaaeiui oneiaeai aai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey e i?aaeiieaaaao iiyoaiioth ?aaeecaoeeth aai
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae, ooieoeee e no?oeoo?u. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu ?acoeueoaou
iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe iaaeaaiae/aneeo oaoiieiaee e
aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey eioaineaiuo oaoiieiaee iao/aiey a
yeiiiie/aneii ia?aciaaiee. ?ac?aaioaia, oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaia e
yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aia eiioeaiooaeueiay iiaeaeue ?aaeecaoeee
eioa?eiaeoeaiie oaoiieiaee iao/aiey a i?ioeanna i?ioanneiiaeueiie
iiaeaioiaee nooaeaioia yeiiiie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa e aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aiiaeaaaoaey, ?ane?uou aa nouiinoue e oaeoi?u yooaeoeaiinoe.
Ioia/aii, /oi a i?ioeanna i?ioanneiiaeueiie iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee
iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeoea iiciaaaoaeueiuo eioa?ania, nioeeaeueii e
i?ioanneiiaeueii cia/eiuo iioeaia nooaeaioia. Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo
oai?aoe/aneia e yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea aii?ina eniieueciaaiey
i?iaeoii-oaoiieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee o nooaeaioia — aoaeoueo
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae yeiiiieee, iainiiaaiu aai nouiinoue e i?eioeeiu. Ia
iniiaaiee aiaeeca iao/iuo eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia e i?iaaaeaiiiai
yenia?eiaioa nenoaiaoece?iaaiu e i?aaenoaaeaiu a ?aaioa iniiaiua
o?aaiaaiey e i?ioanneiiaeueiui iaaeaaiae/aneei oiaieyi aoaeouaai
i?aiiaeaaaoaey yeiiiie/aneeo aeenoeeieei n o/aoii oiai, /oi ii nai
ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey e
yeiiiie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey o/aueony. ?anniio?aiu eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aciuo a?oii i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee,
i?aaeeiaeaiu o?iaie e e?eoa?ee eo noi?ie?iaaiinoe, a?aoiaioe?iaaiu
aiciiaeiinoe eo i?iaeoe?iaaiey a i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaea aoaeouaai
iaaeaaiaa.

?ac?aaioaia yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?ia?aiia i?aaeiaoa “Iaoiaeeea
i?aiiaeaaaiey yeiiiieee”, iainiiaaii niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee
aa ?aaeecaoeee a o/aaiii i?ioeanna. Ii?aaeaeaia oaeniiiiey oeaeae e
?ac?aaioaia iiaeaeue onaiaiey aacu ciaiee yoiai i?aaeiaoa, ii?aaeaeai
eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth onaiaiey ciaiee, iaeaaeaieth
oiaieyie e iaaueaie, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey i?ioanneiiaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe aoaeoueo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae yeiiiieee e yaeythony aaciauie
a no?oeoo?a i?ioanneiiaeueiie eiiiaoaioiinoe iaaeaaiaa. I?aaenoaaeaiiay
a ?aaioa iiaeaeue o/aaiiai oaiaoe/aneiai ieaia e i?ia?aiiu i?aaeiaoa
“IAY” i?aaeiieaaatho aeaaeoeoeaiia iino?iaiea iao/iie eioi?iaoeee,
iicaieytho aiieiuaoue eaeae ?acaeoey ee/iinoe nooaeaioa, aai oai?/aneiai
iuoeaiey e iiciaaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe, iaania/eaatho i?aainoaaiiinoue
iaaeaeo i?ioanneiiaeueiie iaaeaaiae/aneie iiaeaioiaeie e i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth. ?anniio?aiu i?aeiouanoaa aei/ii-iiaeoeueiie nenoaiu
i?aaiecaoeee eco/aiey i?aaeiaoa “Iaoiaeeea i?aiiaeaaaiey yeiiiieee”,
eioi?ay niinianoaoao iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe nenoaiaoe/aneie
naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaiou nooaeaioia, aeoeaecaoeee eo ?iee a o/aaiii
i?ioeanna, oeo/oaieth ea/anoaa ?acoeueoaoia eo o/aaiiai o?oaea e
eiio?iey noi?ie?iaaiiuo ciaiee, oiaiee e iaaueia. Yenia?eiaioaeueii
i?iaa?aii aeeyiea niaieoiiinoe oi?i, iaoiaeia e niiniaia iao/aiey, a
/anoiinoe o/aaiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ii yoie i?ia?aiia ia oi?ie?iaaiea
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee aoaeoueo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae
yeiiiieee. Aieueoia aieiaiea a ?aaioa oaeaeaii eniieueciaaieth a
i?ioeanna iao/aiey aeoeaiuo iaoiaeia, eioi?ua a ii?aaeaeaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e acaeiinayce ninoaaeytho iniiao eioa?eiaeoeaiie
oaoiieiaee iao/aiey (EAOI). ?ane?uou iniaaiiinoe noauaeo–noauaeoiuo
ioiioaiee a nenoaia “nooaeaio – i?aiiaeaaaoaeue – o/aaiay a?oiia” e eo
cia/aiea aeey ?aaeecaoeee eioaineaiuo oaoiieiaee iao/aiey.

?acoeueoaou iiuoii- yenia?eiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee oai?aoe/anee
?ac?aaioaiiuo a enneaaeiaaiee iieiaeaiee iieacaee, /oi o?iaaiue
noi?ie?iaaiiinoe i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee, yaeythueony
ninoaaiuie eiiiiiaioaie i?ioanneiiaeueiie eiiiaoaioiinoe aoaeoueo
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae yeiiiieee, o nooaeaioia yenia?eiaioaeueiuo a?oii
cia/eoaeueii auoa ii n?aaiaieth n o/anoieeaie eiio?ieueiuo a?oii.
I?aaeeiaeaiiua i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo oiaiee aoaeoueo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae
yeiiiieee iiauoatho ea/anoai eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia yoiai i?ioeanna,
niinianoaotho ia?ae/iie aaeaeaaoiie aaeaioaoeee auioneieeia a oneiaeyi
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ioanneiiaeueiua iaaeaaiae/aneea oiaiey,
o/aaii-oaoiieiae/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea, eioaineaiua oaoiieiaee iao/aiey a
yeiiiie/aneii ia?aciaaiee, eioa?eiaeoeaiay oaoiieiaey iao/aiey (EAOI),
aeoeaiua iaoiaeu iao/aiey, i?iaeoii-oaoiieiae/aneee iiaeoiae.

ANNOTATION

KOVALCHUK G.I. Formation of professional pedagogical skills in the
students – future teachers of economy. – Manuscript.

The dissertation on reception of a scientific degree of the candidate of
pedagogical sciences behind a speciality 13.00.04 – Theory and technique
of vocational training. – Institute of Pedagogic at the Academy of
Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to problems of professional pedagogical
preparation of the students — future teachers of economy. The
dissertation contains theoretical and experimental researches of a
question use of the project and technological approach to formation of
professional pedagogical skills of the future teachers of economy. Is
offered, is theoretically proved and the conceptual model of realization
of educational technology in system of psychological and pedagogical
preparation of the students of economic university to activity of the
teacher is checked experimentally up. The experimental program of
discipline “A Technique of teaching of economy” (“OOA”) is developed,
the contents of the basic directions of realization of process its study
is proved. The influence of set of the forms, methods and ways of
training, in particular, of educational designing, behind this program
on formation of professional pedagogical skills of the future teachers
of economy is checked experimentally up.

On materials of research the manual, methodical recommendations for the
teachers and students is prepared. The basic results of research
introduced in process of psychological and pedagogical preparation of
the future teachers of economy.

Key words: professional pedagogical skills, educational and
technological designing, intensive technologies of training in economic
education, the interactive technology of training (IATT), active methods
of training, project and technological approach.

PAGE 17

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