Формування механізмів реалізації політики державної підтримки малого підприємництва в Україні (на матеріалах суб’єктів малого підприємництва): Автореф

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Ua?aeia Ieueaa Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 334.012.64

Oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee aea?aeaaii?

i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?

( ia iaoa??aeao noa’?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.02 –

I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaiaaeaeiaioo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Niaieue Na?a?e
Ieeieaeiae/

Ee?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo
oaeoeueoaoo aeiiii?ee oa oi?aae?iiy

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Eica/aiei Na?a?e
A?eoi?iae/

I?aeia?iaeiee oeaio?
?icaeoeo

i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa
iaiaaeaeiaioo,

aee?aeoi?

— eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe,

Eei/ei TH??e
Ieaenaiae?iae/

Oe?a?inueeee ?inoeooo
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa,

i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai?
?iaioe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia?

Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
aeiiii?ee oa o?iain?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 19 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 16-00
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.006.04.
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
252057, Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoae. 214 .

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 17 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
I.N. Oaaeii?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ia??iae aee?aeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
neeaeany iaeiia?/ia i???ioaoe?y ia aenieieiioeaio?iaaia ae?iaieoeoai, a
?acoeueoao? /iai aiii eeoeeiny aio/eino?, ?icaeioeenue iiiiiie?noe/i?
oaiaeaioe??, ao?aoeee i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an ieoaiiy iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? ia
?eieo oiaa??a, ianoaea e?eca on?o noa? ? aaeocae aeiiii?ee.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy aocea aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai ii aeoiaeo e?a?ie ?c e?ece
iaiao?aeia ?aaeeeaeueia ainiiaea?nueea ?aoi?ia uiaei noai?aiiy
eiieo?aioi-ni?iiiaeii? aeiiii?ee, noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
no/aniiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ?, cie?aia, oaei? eiai aaaeeeai? neeaaeiai?,
ye iaeee a?cian. Inoaii?e ? ia o?eueee iniiaiith aacith oa
no?oeoo?iooai?thth/ei aeaiaioii ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, aea e
?oo?eiith neeith eiai ?icaeoeo.

Aeey ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo oa?aeoa?iei ? oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio, yeee a?aeiia?aeaa ae iio?aaai
?eieo ? ?ioa?anai ye?nii iiaeo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?, ae?th/eo
aenieiaoaeoeaii ? nioe?aeueii ni?yiiaaii. sse na?ae/eoue na?oiaee
aeina?ae, iae? i?aei?e?inoaa i?ioenoiyoue iiiiiie?yi, ui ? ae??aei
oaeoi?ii no?eioaaiiy oe?i, ?icoe?aiiy eiieo?aioe??, iane/aiiy ?eieo
oiaa?aie, i?iaeoeoaie oa iineoaaie.

Noaiiaeaiiy ? aeeiai?/iee ?icaeoie iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a iao?e
e?a?i? ia? aaaaeaoenue iaeiei ?c aieiaieo ni?yioaaiue a cae?eniaii?
i?ioean?a ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe??, yea iiaea aeiiiiiaoe
ae??oeoe ia o?eueee no/ani? i?iaeaie aeoiaeo ?c e?eciai? neooaoe??, a e
?io? aeiaaino?ieia? caaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. E??i oiai,
ae?yeuei?noue iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ia? ?yae ia?aaaa: aeeiai?/i?noue
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i; aioiai?noue aei eiia?oe?eiiai ?eceeo;
a?aeiinia cieaeaiiy aeo?ao; iia?aoeai?noue ea??aieoeoaa.

Ioaea, iaeiei ?c aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a aeoiaeo ?c neooaoe??, ui neeaeany, ?
i?enei?aiee ?icaeoie noa’?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, a?aeiia?aei?
oiiae aeey yeiai iiaeia noai?eoe o?eueee ??oo/ei i?iaaaeaiiyi a aeeooy
neii?aeeiiaaii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaii? ia ?aaeueio ? ae?eiao
eiai i?aeo?eieo. Aea oeae naeoi? aeiiii?ee ua ia aea/aiee ? ia noaa
i?aaeiaoii oaaae oe?ieiai caaaeo aeine?aeiee?a. Ui ae aei aaaaoueio
ca?oa?aeieo aeaeaiue, iaoeiaeo ? i?eeeaaeieo aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
aei ieo, oi aiie a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia a?aoiaothoue niaoeeo?eo
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo a iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao, a /a?ac oea aeaeaei ia
ana i?eeiyoia aeey ?iaeono??aeueii-?icaeiaieo e?a?i iiaea aooe
aaeaioiaaia a Oe?a?i?. I?enoinoaaoe ca?oa?aei?, a?aei?aoeueiaai? a ?ioeo
oiiaao iaoai?cie aei iniaeeainoae a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee aeineoue aaaeei.
A ca’yceo c oeei iio??aiee, ianaiia?aae, aeaniee iiooe ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Oe?a?ia iiaea aeinyaoe oni?oo a ?eieiaeo
a?aeiineiao o?eueee ca oiiae noai?aiiy nai?? aeiiii?/ii? iiaeae? c
o?aooaaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae.

Iaaaeeeee aeina?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?o/eciyiiai iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
ia?aeiio?, ui i?iaeaie eiai ?icaeoeo aeia?aaeaeathoue iayai? (/eii?)
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe, oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?
?ic?iaee c ieoaiue i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

A?aenooi?noue eiioeaiooaeueii oe?e?niiai e iaoiaeieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaiiai
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy ? i?aeo?eiee ?icaeoeo
naeoi?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a ia??iae o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ? aeooaeuei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy cacia/aii? i?iaeaie,
iaaeinoaoi? ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ??
eia?ei-no?oeoo?io iiaoaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ia 1998–2000 ??. ? a?aeiineoueny aei i?aeoaie:
“I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? iaoai?cie aeoea?caoe?? ?icaeoeo iaeiai
a?ciano a Oe?a?i?” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0198U007276).

Aieiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a aeine?aeaeaii? c iiceoe?e
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aaiaceno ? nooiino? iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa,
caeiiii??iinoae oa iniaeeainoae eiai ?icaeoeo, aecia/aii? no/anieo
i??i?eoao?a oa ii?aoethaaii? iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee uiaei aeoea?caoe?? ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iinoaaeai? oa
?ica’ycai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

§ aeine?aeaeaii aaiacen ? ooi/iaii nooi?noue iiiyoue “i?aei?e?iieoeoai”
? “iaeee a?cian”;

§ aecia/aii iniaeeaa i?noea, ?ieue ? cia/aiiy iaeiai a?ciano ye
iaa?ae’?iii? neeaaeiai? ?eieiai? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

§ ocaaaeueiaii ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae noai?aiiy nenoai ? iaoai?ci?a
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai a?ciano;

§ nenoaiaoeciaaii iae? i?aei?e?inoaa ca ye?nieie iciaeaie;

§ i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenio aiae?oe/io ioe?ieo iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy ?
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?;

§ aecia/aii i?e/eie, /eiieee ? i?iaeaie, ye? no?eiothoue ?icaeoie iaeiai
a?ciano a Oe?a?i?;

§ i?iaaaeaii anaa?/io ioe?ieo ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo
?inoeoooe?e uiaei i?aeo?eiee a?o/eciyiiai iaeiai a?ciano;

§ aecia/aii i??i?eoaoe aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?,
ye? a?aoiaothoue iaiaaeai?noue ?ano?n?a, ui aeae?eythoueny ia oae?
oe?e?;

§ iaa?oioiaaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? i??i?eoaoieo
iai?yie?a aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai a?ciano a no/anieo oiiaao.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no/ani? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ? caoiaee
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? i?aeo?eiee ?icaeoeo iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noa’?eoe iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa on?o oi?i
aeaniino?, i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i, noa? ? aeae?a ae?yeueiino?
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? oai???, iaoiaeieia?/i? ?
iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee a?aeiieo a/aieo ? i?aeoee?a-niaoe?ae?no?a cao?aeieo
e?a?i, e?a?i NIAe oa Oe?a?ie c i?iaeai iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? iaoiaee aeiiii?/iiai ? noaoenoe/iiai
aiae?co, nioe?ieia?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, aiae?oe/iiai ii??aiyiiy oa
?io?.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: ca?oa?aei? ?
a?o/eciyi? ioae?eaoe?? c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie; caeiie ? ?io?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe Oe?a?ie; noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee ? iaoa??aee
Aea?aeeiinoaoo, I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, Oe?a?inueeiai oiiaeo
i?aeo?eiee i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, Aea?aei?aei?e?iieoeoaa Oe?a?ie oa
Anioe?aoe?? ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeo i?eaaoiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?
“?aeiaiiy”; ?acoeueoaoe nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oiui.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a cae?eniaii?
nenoaiiiai aiae?co aaiaceno oa aeiiii?/ii? nooiino? iaeiai a?ciano ye
iniaeeaiai oeio i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? c aeanieie
caeiiii??iinoyie ?icaeoeo ? niaoeeo?/iei na?aaeiaeuai, iaa?oiooaaii?
i??i?eoao?a ? caoiae?a uiaei aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaeiai a?ciano.

Aei iaea?eueo aaaiieo ?acoeueoao?a, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoeiao iiaecio
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aa?oi a?aeianoe:

q ooi/iaii oa?i?iieia?/iee aia?ao, aeaii aaoi?nueea aecia/aiiy oaeeo
eaoaai??e, ye “i?aei?e?iieoeoai”, “iaea i?aei?e?iieoeoai” ? “iaeee
a?cian”;

q iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo e?eoa???a a?aeianaiiy
i?aei?e?inoa aei eaoaai??? iaeiai a?ciano;

q cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa ca ye?nieie iciaeaie;

q aecia/aii oaiaeaioe?? oa iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?
a ?ic??c? oi?i aeaniino?, aaeocae ? ?aa?ii?a;

q aeie?aieaii oa eeaneo?eiaaii i?e/eie, /eiieee ? i?iaeaie, ui
ia?aoeiaeaeathoue noaiiaeaiith ? aaiethoe?? iaeiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?;

q iaa?oioiaaii i??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai
a?ciano Oe?a?ie c oi/ee ci?o ?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ?o ?aae?caoe??;

q iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo
iaoai?ci?a, ye? ca no/anieo oiia ni?iiiaei? ?aaeueii aeoea?coaaoe
?icaeoie iaeiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o iiaeeaeaii? iaoeiaeo ciaiue c
i?iaeai noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano, a iaa?oiooaaii?
iaiao?aeieo ia?aaeoiia aeey aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeueiai naeoi?a
aeiiii?ee oa ?ic?iaoe? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a eiai
aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai
aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai a?ciano ia ??cieo ??aiyo aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? iaoeia?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy ia noi??ieao iaoeiaeo
noaoae, iioae?eiaaieo a oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo. Ieoaiiy uiaei iai?yie?a
oi?ioaaiiy na?aaeiaeua ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano oa eiai aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieo iaaiai?thaaeenue ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie AIE
oa eiai ?io?ano?oeoo?” (Euea?a, 1996 ?.).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noa’?eo?a
iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aoee i?aaenoaaeai? aeey ?icaeyaeo ? aeei?enoaiiy
i?e ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaoeaii-?ino?oeoeaieo iaoa??ae?a a Aea?aeaaio
iiaeaoeiao aaei?i?no?aoe?th Oe?a?ie (aeia?aeea ? 11-116 a?ae 14.07.98
?.). Aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? iaoai?ci?a
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th a Oe?a?inueeiio oiiae? i?aeo?eiee i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
(aeia?aeea ? 2-2-20/266 a?ae 08.09.98 ?.).

Iaoa??aee ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia eaoaae??
iaiaaeaeiaioo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?
ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?no
“I?aei?e?iieoeoai oa iaeee a?cian “ ia iaa?noa?nuee?e i?ia?ai?
“Iaiaaeaeiaio iaeiai a?ciano” (aeia?aeea a?ae 11 aa?aniy 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii a?n?i iaoeiaeo i?aoeue caaaeueiei
ianyaii 2,75 ae?oe. a?e., ye? iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi aaoi?o.

No?oeoo?a, ci?no oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a, aeeeaaeaia ia 171 noi??ioe? iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, i?noeoue 13 oaaeeoeue, 7 ?enoie?a, 2 ae?aa?aie ? 2 aeiaeaoee.
Nienie e?oa?aoo?e, yea aeei?enoaia i?e aeine?aeaeaii?, ioiieth? 142
iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

A?aoiaoth/e aaeeea cia/aiiy i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? oaei? aaaeeeai? eiai
neeaaeiai?, ye iaeee a?cian aeey nueiaiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, aeieea? aino?a
iio?aaa ? iaiao?aei?noue eiai aecia/aiiy ia eaoaai??aeueiiio ??ai?.
A?o/eciyia aeiiii?/ia aeoiea ia iioi/iee iiiaio ia ia?
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy oaeeo eaoaai??e, ye
“i?aei?e?iieoeoai”, “a?cian”, “iaea i?aei?e?iieoeoai”, “iaeee a?cian”,
“a?iiaaeyiei-i?aei?e?iaoeue”, noa’?eoe i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
oiui. Oaea iieiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ia ? aeey caeiiiaeaa/eo ? ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a. A ca’yceo c oeei i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiaceno ? nooiino?
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa acaaae? ? iaeiai a?ciano cie?aia a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?
c iaoith onoiaiiy oa?i?iieia?/ii? iaocaiaeaeaiiino? ? oai?aoe/ii?
iaaecia/aiino? oe?eiai ?yaeo ieoaiue aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Ioe?ieaoe cia/iee aeeaae a ?ic?iaeo oai??? ? i?aeoeee oaiiiaio
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oaeeo aeaeaoieo a/aieo aeiiii?no?a, ye
?.Eaioeeueeii, Ae. Eaein, ?. E??oeia?, O. Iaeo, AE. A. Nae, A. Othiai,
A. Ni?o, E.Ooiiaoa? oa ?ioeo , a oaeiae i?aoe? c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee
a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaoe?a Aa?iae?y C.N., A?iiyea E.N.,
Aeie?oiueiai I.?., E?naeueiaa A.I., Eei/ei TH.I., Eieioa A.I.,
Iie?iieaiiai N.O., ?aaa?/oea N.E., Nae?aaiiaa A.I., Niaiey N.I. oa
?ioeo, ie ae?eoee ianooiieo aeniiae?a: ii-ia?oa, a aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooiy ?aei?noue aeoiie a?aeiinii aecia/aiiy
eaoaai??aeueiiai aia?aoo, i?eoaiaiiiai aeaiiio iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiiy;
ii-ae?oaa, i?iaeaiaoeea iaeiai a?ciano ?icaeyaea?oueny a iniiaiiio
/a?ac ocaaaeueiaiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo, /a?ac oa?aeoa?enoeeo
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo uiaei oaiaaeaioe?e eiai ?icaeoeo oa i?eeiyoeo
i?ia?ai i?aeo?eiee. Aea i?e oeueiio iaiaaeaia e?euee?noue ?ia?o, a yeeo
ae ?iaeeanue ni?iaa iaoeiaiai aiae?co noo?, aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?
iniaieeainoae ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano oa i?eioeei?a aea?aeaaii?
i?aeo?eiee eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo.

Ca?aeii c oai???th oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo ?
iniaeeaeo /eiiee?a ? i?aei?e?iieoeoai, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny aaoi?ii ye
iniaeeaee aeae ae?yeueiino?, iaai? oei ? noeeue ainiiaea?nueei?
iiaaae?iee.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, i?aei?e?iieoeoai ? aeeiai?/iei, aeoeaiei aeaiaioii
a?ciano, ui yaey? niaith naiino?eio, ?i?oe?aoeaio, nenoaiaoe/io
ainiiaea?nueei-o?iainiao ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a an?o oi?i aeaniino? a
iaaeao /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ia na?e ?ecee ? i?ae iniaenoo iaeiiao
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aai ae a?ae ?iai? ? i?ae iaeiiao
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue th?eaee/ii? iniae c iaoith caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa
niiaeeaa/a.

Iaea?eueo oe?ieith noa?ith ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? iaeee
a?cian, oiio ui naia a iueiio ? iiaeeea?noue aeey naiino?eii?
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. O ca’yceo c oeei iaie ooi/iaii aecia/aiiy
aeiiii?/ii? noo? iaeiai a?ciano, yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui inoaii?e ?
iniaeeaith oi?iith a?ciano, iia’ycaiith ?c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi iaeeo
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo? aoaeue-yei? oi?ie aeaniino? ? a?aeiia?aeii?
i?aaiai? oi?ie i?aai?caoe?? c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?ie? ? cia/aiiy iaeiai a?ciano a no?oeoo?? ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee aeiaaaeaii, ui a?i ? i?ia?aeiei ?? naeoi?ii oa iaeiaio
athaeaeaoii?noeei caniaii, noaa?eueiei oa aeinoaoiuei aaaiiei aeaea?aeii
iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeao?a ??cieo ??ai?a; neeaaea?
iniiao ae??aiioiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa; aieeaa? ia oaiie aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo, no?oeoo?o oa ye?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo AAI; cae?enith? no?oeoo?io
ia?aaoaeiao aeiiii?ee, oaeaeeo ieoii?noue aeo?ao; caaacia/o? iane/aiiy
?eieo oiaa?aie oa iineoaaie, ?aae?caoe?th ?iiiaaoe?e, naiiaeaeeaaiiy
ianaeaiiy a oiiaao aei?noei? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece oa noai?th? aeiaeaoeia?
?iai/? i?noey; ia? aenieo iia?euei?noue, ?aoe?iiaeuei? oi?ie oi?aae?iiy;
oi?io? iiaee nioe?aeueiee i?ioa?ie i?aei?e?ioe?a-aeaniee?a; ni?ey?
iineaaeaiith iiiiiie?cio, ?icaeoeo eiieo?aioe??.

Ne?ae iniaeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui noa’?eoe iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
ia’?eoeaii ii nai?e i?e?iae? ciaoiaeyoueny a ia??aieo eiieo?aioieo
oiiaao ii??aiyii c aaeeeeie o??iaie. Naia oiio iaeee a?cian iio?aao?
oi?ioaaiiy ni?eyoeeaiai niaoeeo?/iiai na?aaeiaeua aeey eiai oni?oiiai
?icaeoeo. Niaoeeo?ea na?aaeiaeua ?icaeoeo iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
iieyaa? a oiio, ui a no?oeoo?? eiai iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo ? aeiaeaoeiaee
aeaiaio – aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea iaeiai a?ciano.

C’ynoaaiiy nooiino? oa iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano na?ae/eoue
i?i ia’?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaii? eiai i?aeo?eiee. Ii nai?e
aeiiii?/i?e noo? aiia iiaeiia aooe ?ino?oiaioii, yeee ae??aithaaa ae
oiiae ainiiaea?thaaiiy aaeeeiai ? iaeiai a?ciano, aea i?e oeueiio oaeei
?ino?oiaioii, yeee ia ii?oooaaa ae (aai ii?oooaaa c i?i?iaeueiei
nooiaiai) ae?? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a a eiieo?aioe?? i?ae ieie.

Ona?aeiiethth/e cacia/aia, ?icaeiai? e?a?ie na?oo iaaeathoue aaeeeo
oaaao ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano, noai?thth/e aeey oeueiai no?oeoo?e
oi?aae?iiy uiaei i?aeo?eiee oa ni?eyiiy iaea?eueo aeioe?eueieo c oi/ee
ci?o aea?aeaae iai?yi?a. Eiaeia aea?aeaaa i?aeoe/ii oi?io? aeanio
nenoaio caeiiiaeaanoaa o noa?? iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, yea iaea?eueo
iiaiith i??ith a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai noni?euenoaa.

?nioth/? iei? nenoaie aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee ? aeia?a i?iaeoiaieie,
aio/eeie, aeeiai?/ieie, c /?oeei i?aai?caoe?eiei ioi?ieaiiyi, ui aea?
eiaei?e aea?aeaa? iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai i?yiiai ? iai?yiiai aieeao ia
?icaeoie iaeiai a?ciano. Iaeiae, oe?iea i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy
ca?oa?aeieo nenoai a iiai?e i??? aeineoue i?iaeaiaoe/ia aeey aeiiii?/ieo
?aae?e Oe?a?ie. *eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a iaei?e e?a?i?, ia iiaeooue caaacia/eoe aaeaeaaoieo
?acoeueoao?a a ?io?e. ?o ae?y coiiaeaia ia o?eueee aeiiii?/iith
neooaoe??th, aea e ?noi?e/iei ?icaeoeii i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o eiaei?e
e?a?i? cie?aia, aeciaieie ii?iaie iiaaae?iee ethaeeie a noni?euenoa?, a
oaeiae ii?aeueieie ? aeooiaieie oe?iiinoyie.

Aea/aiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo ia?aeiio?, ui iaoeiaith iie?oeea i?aeo?eiee
noa? eeoa oiae?, eiee aiia a?oioo?oueny ia ia’?eoeaii ae?th/?e nenoai?
aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?aae?e, ?ioa?an?a noni?euenoaa ?
noa’?eo?a iaeiai a?ciano. Aieiaia iieyaa? o aecia/aii? i?aaiaeo oa
aeiiii?/ieo canaae ?icaeoeo iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, anoaiiaeaii?
a?aeiia?aeieo i?aa oa aa?aio?e, a oaeiae a onoiaii? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo
aa?’???a, ui ia?aoeiaeaeathoue noaiiaeaiith oa ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano.
Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea i?aeo?eiee oaeiae nie?a?oueny ia ?noi?e/i?,
aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeuei? iniaeeaino? noni?euenoaa ? noai?th? an?
aaeaeaaoi? ia?aaeoiiae aeey oiai, uia iaea i?aei?e?iieoeoai ciiaei noaoe
aeueoa?iaoeaith aea?aeaaiiio naeoi?o aeiiii?ee e?a?ie.

E?eoe/iee aiae?c noaio, iniaeeainoae ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iaeiai
a?ciano a Oe?a?i? aacoaaany ia ioe?ioe? ciai?oi?o eiiiiiaio?a
na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio a?i ooieoe?iio?.

Aiae?c cana?ae/ea, ui i?aaiaiiy aei noai?aiiy ianiaiai naeoi?a iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa iiee ui ia ao?eth?oueny a aaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe. Iaea
i?aei?e?iieoeoai ua ia noaei nooo?aei /eiieeii ia?aaoaeiae ae?iaieoeoaa,
ia aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, ia caaacia/o?
aeeiai?/iiai c?inoaiiy naiai iioaioe?aeo.

Aeinyaiooee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo oeueiai naeoi?a iiaeia ioe?ieoe ye
iaaeinoaoi?e ca oaeeo i??eoaaiue. A Oe?a?i? ca noaiii ia 1.07.97 ?.
ae?yei eeoa 99,6 oen. iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa aai 2 iaeeieoe? ia 1000 /ieia?e
ianaeaiiy, oiae? ye a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao oeae iieaciee aa??th? a?ae 35 o
O?aioe?? aei 74 a NOA. *anoea caeiyoeo ia iaeeo i?aei?e?inoaao neeaaea?
5,7 % a?ae /enaeueiino? an?o i?aoethth/eo, oiae? ye a e?a?iao c
?eieiaith aeiiii?eith ia iaioa 50 %. Aianie iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa a
noai?aiiy AAI neeaaea? 9,3 % i?ioe 50 – 60 % a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao.
?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa ii ae?iaieoeoao oiaa??a ?
iineoa iano?eueee iacia/i?, ui ia iiaeooue caaeiaieueieoe noni?eueieo
iio?aa, aieeaaoe ia aeinyaiaiiy ?eieiaiai aaeaino ? noaiiaeoe
eiieo?aioe?th aaeeeei aea?aeaaiei i?aei?e?inoaai.

Oaeei /eiii aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui iaeee a?cian a Oe?a?i?,
i?ieoiaoe ia?oee aoai ii/aoeiaiai ca?iaeaeaiiy, ii/aa ae?oaee aoai
(ao?iiai ?inoo), aea caaaeueioaaa na?e ?icaeoie ? noaa cai?oaoeny.
Oaeiai yaeua ia niinoa??aaeiny a aeiaei?e ?c e?a?i, ye? cae?eniththoue
?aoi?ie ? oea na?ae/eoue i?i iacaaeia?eueia na?aaeiaeua ia o?eueee aeey
?icoe?aiiy naeoi?a iaeiai a?ciano, a e aeey oeo i?aei?e?inoa, ye? aaea
ooieoe?iiothoue.

Noaiiaeaiiy iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ia? naith niaoeeo?eo o
oa?eoi??aeueiiio ?ic??c?. Aiae?c cana?ae/ea, ui ?iciiae?e iaeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ii ?aa?iiao oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaiia ?enaie: a
iaeanieo oeaio?ao cina?aaeaeaii 70 – 80% iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa; /enei
iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa a iaeanoyo ia ei?aeth? c /enaeuei?noth ianaeaiiy, a
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio oaeoi??a, iniiaiei ?c yeeo ? ??aaiue ?icaeoeo
?io?ano?oeoo?e i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. I?e/eiith
ia??aiii??iiai ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano ? a?aenooi?noue nenoaie
oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy ? no?aoaa?/ii? iie?oeee ia i?noeyo.

Ua iaeiei eeth/ai aei ?icoi?iiy aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa ?
oi?ia aeaniino?. Ca ia??iae 1993-1 i?a??//y 1997 ??. iaea i?noea
oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy /anoee iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ye? aoee caniiaai? ia
aea?aeaai?e aeaniino? ia 6,6 ioieoo ( c 7,9 % aei 1,3 %) ? ca?eueoaiiy
/anoee eieaeoeaii? oi?ie aeaniino? ye ii e?eueeino? i?aei?e?inoa — ia
29,2 ioieoo ( c 34, 9 % aei 64,1 %), oae ? ii /enaeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a
– ia 25,5 ioieoo (c 42,1 % aei 67,6 %). E??i oiai, iaaaoeaiith ?
oaiaeaioe?y ciaioaiiy ianooaa?a ?icaeoeo i?eaaoiiai iaeiai a?ciano ia
19,3 ioieoo ( c 53,8 % aei 34,5 %). Oea noino?oueny ? na?aaeiuei??/ii?
e?eueeino? i?aoe?aiee?a i?eaaoieo iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa, /anoea yeeo a
caaaeuei?e e?eueeino? caeiyoeo o iaeiio a?cian? a 1996 ?. i?ioe 1993 ?.
ciaioeeanue ia 11,7 ioieoo (c 40,8 % aei 29,1 %). Oaeei /eiii
a?aeaoaathoueny iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo naeoi?a.

Aiae?c ?iciiae?eo iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa ii aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa cana?ae/ea, ui iaea i?aei?e?iieoeoai ?icaeaa?oueny
ia?aaaaeii o noa?ao oi?a?ae?, a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy, caaio?ae? –
55,4 % a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ae?th/eo iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa, o
i?iieneiaino? – 14,0 %, aoae?aieoeoa? – 9,9 %, iiaooiaiio ianeoaiaoaaii?
– 5,2 %, o noa?? o?ainii?oo ? ca’ceo – 2,0 % . I?e oeueiio ne?ae
caoaaaeeoe, ui iai?oeeany /?oea oaiaeaioe?y nei?i/aiiy iaeeo
i?aei?e?inoa o i?iieneiaino? oa aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?o ca?eueoaiiy o
iaae?iaie/eo noa?ao oa iina?aaeieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino?.

sseui i???iooaaoeny ia e?eoa???, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?icaeiaio oaco
naeoi?a iaeiai a?ciano, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui a?i: ia aeinya ?ici???a,
ye? caaeiaieueiythoue iio?aae noni?euenoaa a i?iaeoeoe?? ? iineoaao,
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey iaeiai a?ciano; ia noaa iiaiioe?iiei naeoi?ii
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ii c??aiyiith c aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii ?
aenieieiioeaio?iaaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie; ia aeinya ii?iao “e?eoe/ii?
iane”, eiee ii/eia? ae?yoe aoaeo naii?aaoethaaiiy ? naiia?aeoai?aiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?
aeicaieeei aeie?aieoe iniaeeaino?, ye? a?ae??ciythoue eiai a?ae aeaii?
noa?e ?icaeiaieo e?a?i. Iniiaiith iniaeea?noth a?o/eciyiiai iaeiai
a?ciano ? oa, ui eiai noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie a?aeaoaathoueny a
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo. Aei ?ioeo iniaeeainoae a?aeiinyoueny:

· o?neaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy caaaeaiue aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee
iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa;

· a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiuei? ciai?oiuei? iioeaaoe?? noa’?eo?a iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa i?eeiaoe aeoeaio o/anoue a no?oeoo?i?e ia?aaoaeia?
aeiiii?ee, oi?ioaaii? iiaiai nioe?aeueiiai i?ioa?eo — i?eaaoieo
aeaniee?a;

· iecueeee ??aaiue aeanii? aioo??oiuei? aca?iiae?? noa’?eo?a iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa;

· ii?aeiaiiy a iaaeao iaeiiai i?aei?e?inoaa aeae?eueeio aeae?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, iaiiaeeea?noue a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
i???iooaaoeny ia iaeiii?iaeoeoiao iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo;

· i?aaiaiiy aei iaeneiaeueii? naiino?eiino?, a oie /an ye a?eueo?noue
ca?oa?aeieo iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa i?aoeth? a oiiaao noai?ae?yaea,
o?ai/aeceiaa oiui;

· caaaeueiee iecueeee oaoi?/iee ??aaiue ? iecueea oaoiieia?/ia
iniauai?noue a ii?aeiaii? ?c cia/iei ?iiiaaoe?eiei ?ioaeaeooaeueiei
iioaioe?aeii;

· iecueeee oi?aae?inueeee ??aaiue, iaaeinoaoie ciaiue ? aeina?aeo ?iaioe
a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei;

· aeniea nooi?iue i?enoinoaaiiy aei neeaaeii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie, yea
iineeth?oueny aeaci?aai?caoe??th a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?
??aiai e?ei?iae?caoe?? noni?euenoaa;

· ia?icaeiai?noue nenoaie naiii?aai?caoe?? oa ?io?ano?oeoo?e i?aeo?eiee
iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa;

· i?aeoe/ia a?aenooi?noue aea?aeaaii? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? i?aeo?eiee;

· iaaeia??a cao?aeieo ia?oia??a ? iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy ianaeaiiy aei
i?aei?e?ioe?a;

· iecueeee ??aaiue nenoaie ?ioi?iaoe?eieo, eiinoeueoaoe?eieo oa ?ioeo
iineoa.

Ioaea, aeoiaey/e ?c cacia/aieo iniaeeainoae, ?eieiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?y
aeiiii?ee iio?aao? ?ic?iaee ae??aeo iaoai?ci?a aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee
iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ye? iiaeii? a?aeaeaaoe iaoe?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino? ? i?noeoe a nia? aeaiaioe, i?eoaiaii? ?icaeiaiei e?a?iai,
i?ioa o?eueee a ?noi?e/ii ? eia?/ii aei?aaaeai?e aeey iaoi? e?a?ie noai?
?icaeoeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny, ui iaoeueia aai eii’thieoo?ia ia?aianaiiy
ia oe?a?inueeee ?eiie aeina?aeo ?icaeiaieo e?a?i uiaei iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aac a?aooaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae iiaea
oneeaaeieoe o?oaeiiu? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
na?ae/eoue, ui aeaeaei ia ana, i?eeiyoia aeey ?ioeo e?a?i, iiaea aooe
iiai?noth aaeaioiaaia a Oe?a?i?, ine?eueee i?enoinoaaoe iai?aoeueiaai? a
?ioeo oiiaao iaoai?cie aei a?o/eciyieo iniaeeainoae iaiiaeeeai.

I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo ?inoeoooe?e
uiaei ?icaeoeo ? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa na?ae/eoue, ui
?ic?iaeai? eeoa ia?o? e?iee ia oeyoo oi?ioaaiiy oe?e?nii? aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee ? noai?aiiy iaoai?ci?a ?? ?aae?caoe??.

Ie?ai? caoiaee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? i?aeo?eiee iinyoue
noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa?, iniiai? iai?yiee i?aeo?eiee oaeoe/ii ia
caaacia/ai? ?ano?naie, a?aenooi?e iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai
i?aeo?eiee. Oaeei /eiii, a Oe?a?i? ii oi?i? neeaeany nenoaia ?inoeoooe?e
iiae?aia aei ?icaeiaieo ?eieiaeo e?a?i, aea ii noo? aiia ia aeeiio?
naiai i?ecia/aiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co, aenia?oi? ioe?iee, nioe?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
naia aeeooy aeathoue i?aenoaae aeie?aieoe i?e/eie cai/aiue, /eiieee ?
i?iaeaie, ye? no?eiothoue iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie noa’?eo?a iaeiai a?ciano.
Oey iaiao?aei?noue aeieeaa? c oiai, ui ooieoe?iioth/? iae? i?aei?e?inoaa
a ?aaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? Oe?a?ie, ii-ia?oa, a?aeaeaathoue a?aeiia?aei?
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, a ii-ae?oaa, iathoue iniaeeaino? ae?yeueiino?,
ye? iia’ycai? c ?o aioo??oiueith niaoeeo?eith ? ?yaeii ciai?oi?o
/eiiee?a.

Aieiaieie i?e/eiaie no?eioaaiiy i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ?: a?aenooi?noue iaeaaeiiai ? noaa?eueiiai
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaeiai a?ciano;
ia?icaeiai?noue ?io?ano?oeoo?e iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa; iaaeineiiae?noue
? ianoaa?euei?noue iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei
i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa; iaaeaaaeaia iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea;
iaiaaeai?noue iaoa??aeueii-o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a; iaaeinoaoi? oaiie oa
aeaye? ia?aeine a i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeaniino?; iaaeineiiae?noue
nenoaie ?a?no?aoe??, e?oeaicoaaiiy, iae?eo oa noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino?;
a?aenooi?noue aeinoaoiuei? naii?i?oe?aoeae i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Ia oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo noa’?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aieeaa?
iaaaoeaia aeeiai?ea oaeeo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo /eiiee?a, ye niaae
ae?iaieoeoaa; iaiaaeai?noue aioo??oiueiai iiieoo; iayai?noue e?ece caooo
oiaa??a ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo; ieyaa ?iaanoeoe?eia aeoeai?noue;
iecuee? oaiie ia?aeeao eioo?a ?c o?iainiaiai a ae?iaie/ee naeoi?
aeiiii?ee; aei?noe? aeiiae ii caaacia/aiith e?aaeeo?a c aieo o?iainiaeo
i?aai?a; iaeiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue oiaa??a a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a
oiiaao oeneo ?iii?oii? i?iaeoeoe??; iaaeinoaoiy ?icaeiai?noue
?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo.

Aei iaaaeueieo i?iaeai, ye? aaeueiothoue ?icaeoie ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa, a?aeiinyoueny: iani?eyoeeaa aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y a
oe?eiio; ath?ie?aoeci i?e ?a?no?aoe?? iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa;
iaieaoini?iiiaei?noue ia?oia??a oa ee??io?a; a?aenooi?noue iaeaaeiaiiy,
ae?iaie/eo ? io?nieo i?ei?uaiue; i?ioan?eia iai?aeaioiaeai?noue naieo
i?aei?e?ioe?a; iecueeee ??aaiue ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiinoeueoaoeaiiai oa
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy; ei?oioe?y, oaaa?ieoeoai oa ?aeao;
iaaaoeaia a?aeiioaiiy aei i?aei?e?ioe?a. Aac ae??oaiiy cacia/aieo
i?iaeai iaea i?aei?e?iieoeoai ia ciiaea ciaeoe iaeaaeia eiio i?noea a
no?oeoo?? aeiiii?ee. Iiaeiai a?aeaooeny ia?ao?ae iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
a?ae noa?oiaiai ia??iaeo aei oace ?icaeoeo, eiee iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaathoue aoaeoeai?noue ? aeoea?caoe?y ?o ?iaanoeoe?eii? oa
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Cacia/aia iio?aao? aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ni?eyiiy
iaeiio i?aei?e?iieoeoao. Aac aeoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie neooaoe?? iiaea i?ecaanoe aei cai?oaiiy iaeiai a?ciano c
a?aeiia?aeiei caaino?aiiyi aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai. O oeueiio
? iieyaa? ia’?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue ae??ai? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. I?e oeueiio aaaeeeai, uia aea?aeaaia
iie?oeea ni?eyiiy ? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai a?ciano oi?ioaaeanue ia i?eioeeiao
aeiaaino?ieiaino?, noaa?eueiino?, th?eaee/ii? caoeuaiino? ?ioa?an?a
noa?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

A?aoiaoth/e iae?iaeiiii?/io neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i? oa e?eciaee noai
aeiiii?ee, iiaeia aiaaiaii aiai?eoe i?i iaiiaeeea?noue aeae?eaiiy eioo?a
?c athaeaeaoo aeey i?aeo?eiee iaeiai a?ciano. Oiio iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe
i??i?eoaoe aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, ye? ? iaeiaio athaeaeaoii?noeeie.
Aei oaeeo, ye iieacaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aeiinyoueny iai?yia oi?ia
i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa /a?ac i?eueae a e?aaeeooaaii?,
iiiaeaoeoaaii?, ?icaeoie e?ceiaiaeo iia?aoe?e, o?ai/aeceiaa, nenoaie
i?enei?aii? aii?oecaoe??. Oey a?oia aaaeae?a aeey Oe?a?ie ? iaea?eueo
i??i?eoaoiith.

Aeey ae??oaiiy aeyaeaieo i?iaeai, a?aoiaoth/e cao?eieo a ?icaeoeo iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, iaaaeueiith iaiao?aei?noth ? ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee i?aeo?eiee. Aiae?oe/ia
ioe?iea noaio ? na?aaeiaeua ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i? aeicaieeei
aaoi?o aeie?aieoe /ioe?e iniiai? iai?yiee oi?ioaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
na?aaeiaeua:

? oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua nenoaie i?aeo?eiee iaeiai
a?ciano;

? noai?aiiy iaiao?aeii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeo iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa;

? oaeineiiaeaiiy i?yieo ? iai?yieo o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a;

? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?cio ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa
oeyoii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aaeeeeo.

Oni?oiee ?icaeoie iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa iiaea aooe caaacia/aiee i?e
oiia? noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua. O ca’yceo c oeei
ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi iiaeaeueoiai oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiai? aace ?icaeoeo
? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ?:

q iaiao?aei?noue i?eeiyooy ?yaeo caeii?a ?aaeaiaiooth/eo ae?yeuei?noue
noa’?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? ia’?aeiaiue i?aei?e?ioe?a;

q aeioe?euei?noue aecia/aiiy ? cae??ieaiiy a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao
e?eoa???a a?aeianaiiy noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy aei eaoaai??? iaeeo
(/enaeuei?noue caeiyoeo, ianya ae?o/ee a?ae ?aae?caoe??);

q iaaaeuei?noue ni?iuaiiy i?ioeaaeo? aea?aeaaiiai ?a?no?oaaiiy ?
e?oeaicoaaiiy noa’?eo?a iaeiai a?ciano;

q iaiao?aei?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?euea c iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noa’?eo?a
iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a ia?o? ?iee ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ca oiia, ui
iaea?aeaiee i?eaooie ni?yiiao?oueny ia noai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo ?iai/eo
i?noeue.

Oni?oia ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaeiai a?ciano iio?aao? oaeineiiaeaiiy ?
iiaeaeueoiai oi?ioaaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?e ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeo oeueiai
naeoi?a. A oeueiio iai?yieo aaaaea?ii aeioe?eueiei:

q oi?ioaaiiy ia?aae? ?inoeooo?a o?iainoaaiiy, e?aaeeooaaiiy ?
no?aooaaiiy;

q ooai?aiiy aaeocaaeo, ?aa?iiaeueieo oa ?ioeo ?iaanoeoe?eieo oiiae?a ?
aaie?a aeey aeoioethaaiiy eioo?a c ??ciiiai?oieo aeaea?ae ii
o?iainoaaiith iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa;

q ?icaeoie nenoaie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy;

q ni?eyiiy ae?yeueiino? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e (ia’?aeiaiue)
i?aei?e?ioe?a.

A no/anieo oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ia ia?oa i?noea a ni?eyii?
iaeiio a?ciano, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeiia aeoiaeeoe ?aa?iiaeueia eiai
i?aeo?eiea. Aiia ? iaea?eueo ae??aith oa aoaeoeaiith c oi/ee ci?o
?aae?caoe?? i?noeaaeo ?i?oe?aoea oa i?aai?caoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
oa?eoi??aeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee.

?icaeoie a?o/eciyiiai iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa iio?aao? oaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?th/i? nenoaie o?iainoaaiiy, e?aaeeooaaiiy ? no?aooaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, yea a caaacia/eea ??aiee aeinooi an?i
noa’?eoai ainiiaea?thaaiiy aei o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo ?ano?n?a ca oiia
cai?ioiino? ? i?eaooeiaino? ?o iaaeaiiy.

O?iainiai-e?aaeeoia i?aeo?eiea iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa cae?enith?oueny
ca ?aooiie athaeaeaoieo, iicaathaeaeaoieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy
ia caai?iiaieo caeiiiaeaanoaii. I?ioa oea o?eueee iioaioe?eia
iiaeeea?noue. Eiooe a aea?aeaai? oiiaee aeae?eythoueny iaaeinoaoi? ?
ia?aaoey?ii. Oiio o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee
noa’?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa iiaeiii cae?enithaaoenue e ?ioeie
oeyoaie, o oiio /ene? ? oeyoii nieaoe iacia/ieo a?aenioe?a ca aeaeai?
aaie?anueeeie onoaiiaaie e?aaeeoe, /anoeiaiai iiaaoaiiy ?eceeo
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ca iaaeai? e?aaeeoe oeyoii iaaeaiiy o?iainiaeo
aa?aio?e.

I?aeo?eiea iiaeiia ianaiia?aae iaaeaaaoeny oei noa’?eoai iaeiai a?ciano,
ye? i?aoeththoue o i??i?eoaoieo aaeocyo aeiiii?ee. O?iainoaaiiy i?iaeo?a
ii i?aeo?eioe? iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa iiaeiii a?aeaoaaoeny, ye i?aaeei,
ia eiieo?ni?e iniia?.

A?aei?/ai? caoiaee iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeeeth/ii c iaoith
iii’yeoaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a no?oeoo?ieo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo ci?i ? ia
iiaeii? aeeeth/aoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a iaeano? aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo
noa’?eo?a iaeiai a?ciano ca naiino?eii i?eeiyo? ??oaiiy.

Ca neooaoe??, ui neeaeany a Oe?a?i?, oi?ioaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
eai?oaeo, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaea oaeiae cae?enithaaoenue a?aeiia?aeii
aei eiioeaioe?? iaoai?cio i?eoiaaieo ia?oia?nueeeo ca’yce?a. Ci?no
eiioeaioe?? iieyaa? a ?icae?eaii? eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoo ia ie?ai?
neeaaeia? /anoeie ? ?iciiae?eaii? oeeo /anoei na?aae ia?oia??a. Oey
eiioeaioe?y aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe iniaeeao oi?io i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? – o?ai/aeceia. ?icaeoie oaei? oi?ie aea? iiaeeea?noue
caaacia/eoe aeiaeaoeia? aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy, a?eueo aenie? oaiie
?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano, eiai a?eueoo no?ee?noue a ?eieiaiio
na?aaeiaeu?.

Ia nueiaiaei? ?aaeuei?oith ? aoaeoeai?oith iiaea noaoe iai?yia oi?ia
i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa /a?ac i?eueae a nenoai?
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. A ?iaio? iaa?oioiaai? iniiaiiieiaei? i?eioeeie
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie. Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea a noa?? iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa iiaeiia aeoiaeeoe c oiai, ui ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
nenoaia oa aaca aeey ia?aooaaiiy iiaeaoe?a iiaeii? aooe noaa?eueieie ?
noeioethaaoe iaeee a?cian. Aeey iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa aeioe?eueii
canoiniaoaaoe ni?iuaio nenoaio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oeyoii aaaaeaiiy ?aeeiiai
iiaeaoeo ia noeoiiee aeioiae ? anoaiiaeaiiy eiai a?aie/iiai ?ici??o, a
aeey o?ce/ieo in?a – cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oeyoii
nieaoe aa?oino? iaoaioo.

I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy naeoi?a iaeiai a?ciano a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie
aeaio aeaea?ae – naiii?aai?caoe?? oa i?eaaoecaoe??. Ia nueiaiaei? ca
?aooiie i?eaaoecaoe?? noai?aii 45,8 oen. iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa (46%) ? oea
aeaea?aei i?aeoe/ii aeei?enoaia. Aeey noai?aiiy ae eiieo?aioiiai
na?aaeiaeua iaiao?aeii iaoe “e?eoe/io iano” iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa, i?e ye?e
iaeee a?cian ciiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe a?ae/ooio ?ieue a aeiiii?oe?, aenooiaoe
?aaeueiei eiieo?aioii aaeeeeo aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa. Oiio, iaeiei ?c
?aaeueieo aeaea?ae ca?eueoaiiy iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa iiaea aooe
?ai?aai?caoe?y aaeeeeo.

I?ioean ?ai?aai?caoe?? aeicaieeoue ia?aoai?eoe aaeee? i?aei?e?inoaa a
aeae?eueea naiino?eieo iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa c iaaeaiiyi ?i noaoono
th?eaee/ii? iniae. Oae? no?oeoo?e noaiooue c?o/ieie aeey oi?aae?iiy ?
i?eaeaoieie aeey i?eaaoecaoe??. Nenoaia a?aeiinei i?ae ieie, ia iaoo
aeoieo, iiaea a aooe o?ai/aeceiaiaith.

Oeae iai?yiie aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ia aeiaaa? cia/ieo eioo?a ? iiaea
ae??oeoe aeaa iniiaieo ieoaiiy: i?enei?eoe i?eaaoecaoe?th aaeeeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ia ye?nii iia?e iniia? ? cia/ii ca?eueoeoe e?euee?noue
iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeia o?eueee iaaia i?aai?caoe?eia
?iaioa, cie?aia, oi?ioaaiiy iaiao?aeieo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a oa
oe?eani?yiiaaia ae?yeuei?noue aaeeeeo no?oeoo?, ye? iaeaea ia
ooieoe?iiothoue, ? iiiiiie?yie ? aei oeueiai /ano ia i?eaaoeciaai?.

Aeey Oe?a?ie oeae aa??aio ? iaeiei ?c cia/ieo ?aca?a?a ?icaeoeo iaeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, ?icoe?aiiy
?eie?a caooo, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a ? iineoa.

?aae?caoe?y oeeo ? ?ai?oa cacia/aieo caoiae?a aeanoue ciiao noai?eoe
oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, iineeeoe eiai ?ieue o
?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, cieceoe nioe?aeueio
iai?oao a noni?euenoa?.

AENIIAEE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiaceno oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? nooiino?
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? iaeiai a?ciano oa iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo inoaiiueiai a
Oe?a?i? aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? iniiai? aeniiaee.

1. C iiceoe?e aaoi?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io nooi?noue i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeiiii?/io eaoaai??th, niaoeeo?/iee oaeoi?
ae?iaieoeoaa, aeoeaiee ? aeeiai?/iee aeaiaio a?ciano, iniaeeaee aeae
ae?yeueiino?, iaai? oei ? noeeue ainiiaea?nueei? iiaaae?iee.

2. ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ? cie?aia eiai iaea?eueo
iioe?aii? neeaaeiai? — iaeiai a?ciano – oea iaeei c iaea?eueo ?aaeueieo
oeyo?a aeoiaeo e?a?ie c aeiiii?/ii? e?ece (iaeiaio athaeaeaoii?noeee
can?a noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, noaa?eueia oa aeinoaoiuei aaaiia
aeaea?aei iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeao?a ??cieo ??ai?a),
cae?eniaiiy no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee, caaacia/aiiy oaeaeei?
ieoii?no? aeo?ao, iane/aiiy ?eieo oiaa?aie oa iineoaaie, ?aae?caoe??
?iiiaaoe?e, noai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue.

3. Noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ia? nai?
ae?aci? iniaeeaino?, ye? aecia/athoueny aaaaoueia oaeoi?aie. Oiio i?inoa
ia?aianaiiy iaaooiai ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo a iao? oiiae aaaaea?ii
ia?aoe?iiaeueiei. Caa?aaeaiiy no/anieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iaeiai
a?ciano a Oe?a?i? iiaea i?ecaanoe aei cai?oaiiy oeueiai naeoi?a ?
caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a e?a?i? a oe?eiio.

4. Ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa iaeiai a?ciano ia’?eoeaii ca nai?th
i?e?iaeith ? a?aceeaith ca oiia ianoaa?eueiino? oa ??cieo eieeaaiue
?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e. Naia oiio oeae cia/ouee naeoi? aeiiii?ee iio?aao?
oi?ioaaiiy niaoeeo?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, yea ni?eyoeia eiai aeeiai?/iiio
?icaeoeo, eiiiaino? iaaeie?ee aai iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ?eieo uiaei
noa’?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee
noa’?eo?a iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aeeeoo?oueny oaeiae ? iniaeeainoyie
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aeao?oeeoii ?ano?n?a.

5. Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea ii a?aeiioaiith aei iaeiai a?ciano iiaeiia
ia?aaeaa/aoe noai?aiiy caaaeueieo i?aaiaeo, aeiiii?/ieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo
? nioe?aeueieo oiia, ye? oi?iothoue iioeaaoe?eiee iaoai?ci ?icaeoeo
iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueii? aea?aeaaii? nenoaie
i?aeo?eiee oeueiai aaaeeeaiai naeoi?a, yeo iaiao?aeii ?aae?ciaoaaoe
/a?ac a?aeiia?aei? aea?aeaai? ? ?aa?iiaeuei? i?ia?aie.

6. I??i?eoaoe o aeei?enoaii? iaoai?ci?a aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai
a?ciano iathoue ci?ithaaoeny a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ano?nieo iiaeeeainoae
aea?aeaae oa ??aiy ?icaeoeo naiiai iaeiai a?ciano.

7. O no/anieo oiiaao, ye iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaea?eueo ae??aeie ? iaoai?cie oii?yaeeoaaiiy nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
noa’?eo?a iaeiai a?ciano oa ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa
oeyoii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aaeeeeo. Oea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue noai?eoe
“e?eoe/io iano” iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ni?eyoe ia?aoiaeo iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aei ye?nii iiaiai aoaio eiai ?icaeoeo.

Ia?ae?e ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeue aaoi?a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy

O oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo:

1. Ua?aeia I.A. Oiiae noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?
// I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee: I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee
ca??iee. Aei. 4. — E.: EAeAO, 1996. — n. 136-141. — 0,3 ae?oe. a?e.

2. Ua?aeia I.A. I?noea, ?ieue ? cia/aiiy iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o
no?oeoo?? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee // Aeiiii?ea oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai: Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo oa ani??aio?a. Aei. 1. — E.: EIAO,
1997. — n. 80 — 86. – 0,35 ae?oe. a?e.

3. Ua?aeia I.A. Aiae?oe/ia ioe?iea oaiaeaioe?e noaiiaeaiiy iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa // I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee:
I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee ca??iee. Aei.5. — E.: EIAO, 1997. — n. 208-213. —
0,35 ae?oe. a?e.

4. Ua?aeia I.A. Nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao //I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai,
oicyenoai e i?aai. – E., 1997. — ? 11. — n. 43-47. — 0, 45 ae?oe. a?e.

5. Ua?aeia I.A. Iai?yiee aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua nenoaie
i?aeo?eiee iaeiai a?ciano // I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee:
I?aea?aeii/ee iaoeiaee ca??iee. Aei. 6. — E.: EIAO, 1998. – c. 194 —
197. — 0,45 ae?oe. a?e.

6. Ua?aeia I.A. Oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie iaeiai a?ciano
// I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, oicyenoai e i?aai. — E., 1998. — ? 7. — n.
23-27. – 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.

A ?ioeo aeaeaiiyo:

7. Ua?aeia I.A. Iai?yiee oi?ioaaiiy na?aaeiaeua ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano
// Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/iiai eiiieaeno
(AIE) oa eiai ?io?ano?oeoo?: Aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. -Euea?a, 1996. – n. 318-321. – 0,25
ae?oe. a?e.

8. Ua?aeia I.A. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea a oneiaeyo ?uiea //
Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie aeaeaaie/i-iie?a?ao?/iiai eiiieaeno
(AIE) oa eiai ?io?ano?oeoo?: Aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. -Euea?a, 1996. – n. 337-340. — 0,2
ae?oe. a?e.

Ua?aeia I. A. Oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee aea?aeaaii?
i?aeo?eiee iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? (ia iaoa??aeao noa’?eo?a
iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 — “I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa
ia?eaoeia”. – Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao.
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith c iiceoe?e nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo
aaiaceno ? nooiino? iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, c’ynoaaiith eiai i?noey,
?ie? ? cia/aiiy a no?oeoo?? aeiiii?ee, aecia/aiith noaio, no/anieo
iniaeeainoae ? oaiaeaioe?e eiai ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i? ? ia aac? oeueiai
ooi/iaiith oa?i?iieia?/iiai aia?aoo oa ii?aoethaaiith ae??aeo iai?yie?a
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei aeoea?caoe?? ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano.

Cai?iiiiiaaii ? iaa?oioiaaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a
?aae?caoe?? iaiao?aeieo i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo caoiae?a aeey
?icaeoeo ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, a naia: oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua,
?io?ano?oeoo?e ni?eyiiy, o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? i?aeo?eiee iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, a oaeiae iaoai?ci ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iaeeo
i?aei?e?inoa oeyoii ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aaeeeeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aei?e?iieoeoai, a?cian, iaea i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaeee
a?cian, iaea i?aei?e?inoai, i?aei?e?iieoeueea na?aaeiaeua, aea?aeaaia
i?aeo?eiea.

Ua?aeia I. A. Oi?ie?iaaiea iaoaieciia ?aaeecaoeee iieeoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a Oe?aeia (ia
iaoa?eaeao noauaeoia iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 — “I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e
ia?eaoeia”. — Eeaaneee iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao,
Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia aii?inai enneaaeiaaiey n iiceoeee
nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea aaiacena e nouiinoe iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
auyniaieth aai ianoa, ?iee e cia/aiey a no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee,
ii?aaeaeaiey e iainiiaaiey nia?aiaiiuo i?ei?eoaoia e iaoaieciia
?aaeecaoeee iieeoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a Oe?aeia.

?ane?uoa nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay i?e?iaea iaeiai aeciana eae
iniaaiiiai iiaeaeaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ii?aaeaeaiu aai ianoi, ?ieue
e cia/aiea a ?uii/iie nenoaia oicyenoaiaaiey.

Iaiauai ca?oaaaeiue iiuo ii oi?ie?iaaieth nenoai e iaoaieciia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e iiaeaea?aeea iaeiai aeciana n oeaeueth
nicaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu aiaeiae/iiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
iacia/aiey. Ii?aaeaeaiu oeiiaua ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa ioiineoaeueii
?acaeoey e iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I?iaaaeaia nenoaiaoecaoeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ii ?yaeo ea/anoaaiiuo
i?eciaeia, a oaeaea eiiieaeniay aiaeeoe/aneay ioeaiea ianooaaia
nia?aiaiiuo oaiaeaioeee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a Oe?aeia.

Auyaeaiu iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey naeoi?a iaeiai aeciana,
onoaiiaeaiu iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua i?e/eiu e oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeaiu
i?iaeaiu, naea?aeeaathuea ?acaeoea noauaeoia iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a Oe?aeia.

I?iaaaeai e?eoe/aneee aiaeec e aeaia ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e iauanoaaiiuo einoeoooia a noa?a iaeiai aeciana.

Aeiaaaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaee/ey “e?eoe/aneie iannu” noauaeoia naeoi?a
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ue yaeyaony iaioaieaiui, iauaeoeaii
iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii ethaie oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu e aac eioi?iai
yeiiiieea e iauanoai a oeaeii ia iiaoo ii?iaeueii nouanoaiaaoue e
?acaeaaoueny.

Aeieacaii, /oi iaeue aecian ioaeaeaaony a iniaii ioiioaiee ni noi?iiu
ainoaea?noaa a ieaia oi?ie?iaaiey niaoeeoe/aneie n?aaeu,
aeaaii?eyonoaothuae aai ?acaeoeth.

Iainiiaaia iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeinoiie nenoaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Ii?aaeaeaiu i?ei?eoaou ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai aeciana,
o/eouaathuea nia?aiaiioth iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth neooaoeeth a Oe?aeia.
Iainiiaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaoaieciia eo ?aaeecaoeee
a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, a eiaiii: oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaiaie n?aaeu nenoaiu
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai aeciana; nicaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiie eio?ano?oeoo?u
niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth iaeiai aeciana; niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?i, iaoiaeia e
iaoaieciia oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa; ?aoi?ie?iaaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa; eniieueciaaiea iaoaiecia oaaee/aiey eiee/anoaa
iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee iooai ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee e?oiiuo.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey ioiineoaeueii ?aoi?ie?iaaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e i?aaeeiaeaiey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai aeciana i?ioee
ai?iaaoeeth a niioaaonoaothueo ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo e
eniieuecothony a o/aaiii i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee iaaeno?ia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, aecian, iaeia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaeue aecian, iaeia i?aaei?eyoea,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay n?aaea, ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea.

Shcherbina O.V. The formation of the Mechanism of the Realization of the
State Support Policy of small entrepreneurship in Ukraine (based on the
material of the subject of small entrepreneurship). Manuscript.

The dissertation is presented for the scientific degree of Candidate in
Economics. Spesiality 08.06.02 — » Entrepreneurship, Management and
Marketing» — Kyiv National University of Economics. The Ministry of
Education of Ukraine. Kyiv,1999.

The dissertation is dedicated to the problems of investigation from a
position of system genesis and essence of small entrepreneurship
explaining its place, role and significance in the structure of the
economy, defining the state modern peculiarities and tendencies of its
development in Ukraine, and, on the basis of mentioned above, making
more precise the terminological apparatus and working out effective
directions of the state policy for activization of the development of
small business.

There are suggested and grounded a number of propositions for improving
the mechanisms of realization of necessary organizational and economic
measures development and increasing functional effectiveness of small
entrepreneurship, namely: forming up-to-date legal environment,
infrastructure of promoting, finance and credit support of small
entrepreneurship and also the mechanism of increasing small businesses
by means of restructuring the big ones.

Key-words: entrepreneurship, small entrepreneurship, small business,
small enterprise, entrepreneurial environment, state support.

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