Формування багатошарового покриття на ніобії і танталі для захисту їх від окислення: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / Л.І. Кицкай, Нац. техн. ун-т У

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IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO OE?A?IE

“EE?ANUeEEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO”

EEOeEAE ETHAIA ?AAI?AIA

OAeE 621.793:669.293

OI?IOAAIIss AAAAOIOA?IAIAI IIE?EOOss

IA I?IA?? ? OAIOAE? AeEss CAOENOO ?O A?Ae IEENEAIIss

05.16.01 – iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy Oa?iii?euenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aecyaeeeaae/ TH??e Aieiaeeie?iae/, Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaa-iee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aiaothea, eaoaae?a
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eineooia Aieiaeeie? Oaaei?iae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, eaoaae?a iaoaeiciaanoaa oa
oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee.

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Eo/ea Ie?ii
Aaneeueiae/, ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aei-ciaanoaa ?iai? ?.I.O?aioeaae/a
IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a oa nieaa?a

IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “5“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.002.12 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie “Ee?anue-eee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo” ca aae?anith:
252056, i.Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37, ei?i. ? 9, aoae. ? 203.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo” ca
aae?anith: 252056, i.Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “28“ na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? Oaaei?ia A.?. niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?
?aaee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia i?iaeai? caoenoo i?ia?th ? oaioaeo a?ae
aeni-eioaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy ia ?oi?e iiaa?oi?
aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy c aenieeie aenieoaoaoe?eieie iieacieeaie, ui
aeicaiey? cia/ii ?icoe?e-oe iaeanoue canoinoaaiiy ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a.

I?ia?e, oaioae oa nieaae ia ?oi?e iniia? aeei?enoiaothoueny a
aeaeo?ii?oe? aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aiiae?a, n?oie ? eaoiae?a iai?yiiai
iaa??ao iiooaei?o aaia?aoi?ieo eaii, iaa??aa/?a ? caoenieo ae?ai?a
aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo aaeooiieo ia/ae; o iaoaeo?-a?eiiio ae?iaieoeoa? c
oaioaeiaeo nieaa?a aeaioiaeythoue oeae? aeey i/euaiiy ??aeei-caiaeueieo
iaoae?a, i?ae?a??aa/? oa ci?ooaa/?; i?ia?e oa eiai nieaae canoiniaothoue
ye eiino?oeoe?eiee iaoa??ae aeey aeaioiaeaiiy a?aeaeaa/?a aa?y/i? ieacie
a oa?ii-yaea?ieo onoaiiaeao, oo?a?iieo aeene?a ? iaioieiaeaeoaaieo
oo?a?iieo eiiaoie ?aeao-ieo aeaeaoi?a, nioiaeo eiino?oeoe?e a
o?ueiooa?iaeo iaiaeyo ??cieo oei?a oaiei-iai?iiee?a, a oaeiae iaieiiie
?aeao ? eainoe, ye? iiaa?oathoueny ia caieth. Iniiaiei iaaeie?eii
ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a ? iecueea aea?ino?ee?noue. ?niothoue ??ci? oeyoe
?ic-a’ycaiiy oe??? neeaaeii? i?iaeaie, cie?aia, iaianaiiy ia iaoaeaao
iiaa?oith ca-oenieo oa??a. C oe??th iaoith aeei?enoiaothoue aeeooc?ei?
iaoaeaa? ? iaiaoaeaa? ii-e?eooy, oe?ea?i? oa aeeooc?eii-oe?ea?i?
eiiiiceoe??. Aiae?c ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo i?i-aeai? caoenoo ooaiieaaeeo
iaoae?a a?ae ieeneaiiy, cana?ae/o?, ui i?e ?ic?iaoe? aea?i-no?eeeo
iie?eoo?a aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a ea?othoueny oei, ui caoeniee oa? iiaeiai
a?aeiia?aeaoe oe?eiio eiiieaeno aeiia, e?euee?noue yeeo i?e
aenieoaoaoe?? ae?iao a oii-aao ??cei? ci?ie oaieiaiai ?aaeeio cia/ii
c?inoa?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae oneeaaeith? ?ic-a’ycaiiy caaea/? i?aeaeuaiiy
aea?ino?eeino? ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a oeyoii iaianaiiy caoeniiai iie?eooy.
Ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii caoenoo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e ?c i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo a?ae aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy ? iaianaiiy ia ?oith
ii-aa?oith aaaaoioa?iai? eiiiiceoe??, a ye?e eiaeiee oa? aeeiio? iaaio
ooieoe?th, a a oe?eiio eiiiiceoe?y a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai, aenoiooei aei
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ii-e?eooy. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy eiiiiceoe?? iiaeia
aeei?enoaoe aacioaciee ii?ioeiaee ? oe?ea?iee iaoiaee. Ioaea, i?iaeaia
i?aeaeuaiiy aea?ino?eeino? i?ia?th ? oaioaeo ? aeooaeueiith ? aeiaaa?
?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy eiia?iiaaieie iaoiaeaie aaaaoioa?iaiai
iie?eooy, yea caaacia/oaaei a aoaeoeaiee caoeno ?o a?ae
aeniei-oaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy.

Ia i?ioyc? 1994-96 ?.?. aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ii iai?yieo
7.5. “?ic?iaea eiiiiceoe?eieo ciini- oa ei?ic?eiino?eeeo iie?eoo?a ?c
no?oeoo?ith cia-i?oiueiai oa?o, yea naiii?aai?co?oueny” (AeEIO), a c
1997 ?. aiia aoiaeeoue o eii?aee-iaoe?eiee ieai IAe? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie (?a?no?. ? 0198U000337) ca oaia-oeeith: “O?ce/ia oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e, oaciaee neeaae oa o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? ia?niaeoeaieo iaoaeaaeo
iaoa??ae?a, iie?eoue oa oiieeo oa??a”.

Iaoa ?iaioe: aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae i?ioeano iane/aiiy i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii, aieueo?aiii ? i?inoaaeaiiy aieeao aeoeaoth/eo
aeiaaaie ia oaeaee?noue ?inoo oa no?oeoo?o oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy;
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ai?eaeieo, nee?oeeaeieo ?
ai?inee?oeeaeieo oa??a ia iniia? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?-uaiiy oa ?oi?o
aeanoeainoae; ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a aeey iaea?aeaiiy ia
i?ia?? ? oaioae? aeeooc?eii-iaoa?iaaiiai iie?eooy c i?aeaeuaieie
iieacieeaie aea?ino?eeino? oa aeiaaia?/iino?.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ae??oai? oae? caaea/?:

1. Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii,
aieueo?aiii ? aecia-/aii iniiai? oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia ooai?aiiy
oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy.

2. I?inoaaeaii caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy ai?eaeieo,
nee?oeeaeieo ? ai?inee?-oeeaeieo oa??a ia iniia? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
cai?uaiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? oa ?oi? aeanoeaino?.

3. Aea/aii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ia iiia?aaeiuei iie?aaeaiiaaiiio ?
ai?inee?oe?eiaa-iiio i?ia?? ? oaioae? iaoa?iaaiiai iie?eooy oa ooai?aiiy
ia eiai iiaa?oi? ca-oenii? ie?aee; c’yniaaii aeanoeaino? aaaaoioa?iaiai
iie?eooy.

4. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th iaea?aeaiiy eiia?iiaaieie iaoiaeaie
aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy c iaoith caoenoo i?ia?th ? oaioaeo a?ae
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy.

Aaoi? caoeua?:

— caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano aeeooc?eiiai iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo
iie?aaeaiii, aieueo?aiii, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei oi?ioaaiiy a iaoaeao
oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?-uaiiy;

— aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iiaeeea?noue
iaea?aeaiiy ia iniia? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio iie?aaeaio a i?ia?? ? oaioae?
iio??eieo ai?eaeieo, nee?-oeeaeieo ? ai?inee?oeeaeieo oa??a ?c
i?aeaeuaieie aenieoaoaoe?eieie ia?aiao?aie;

— oaoiieia?th i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ia i?ia?? ? oaioae? aaaaoioa?iaiai
iie?eooy c aenieith aea?ino?ee?noth oa ?ano?nii ?iaioe a
ieenethaaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? a oii-aao ??cei? ci?ie oaieiaiai ?aaeeio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

· anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy a i?ia?? oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio cai?uaiiy o aeaeyae? /a?aoth/eo oa??a, a a oaioae? – nioa, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny ia iaae? aeie?a ca?ai; cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy
oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy a ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeao;

· aia?oa iieacaia iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy ia iniia? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
iie?aaeaio a i?ia?? ? oaioae? iio??eieo ai?eaeieo, nee?oeeaeieo ?
ai?inee?oeeaeieo oac ?c aenieith noaa?euei?noth oa aea?ino?ee?noth;

· iioei?ciaaii oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ia i?ia?? ?
oaioae? aaaaoioa?iaiai aea?ino?eeiai iie?eooy c i?aeaeuaieie
aenieoaoaoe?eieie iieac-ieeaie.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oa?aeoa? iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaea
iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo iaoiae?a: iaoaeia?ao??,
i?e?iaeth?iiao???, ?aio-aaiioaciaiai, ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai oa
i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co, a oa-eiae ia?aiao?e/iiai iaoiaeo
aecia/aiiy aea?ino?eeino?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. ?ic?iaeaii neeaaee ii?ioeiaeo noi?oae aeey
iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii (aieueo?aiii) c iaoith
iaea?aeaiiy /a?aoth/eo oa??a oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy; niiniae
oi?ioaaiiy ia i?ia?? ? oaioae? ai?eaeieo, nee?oeeaeieo ?
ai?inee?oeeaeieo oa??a ia iniia? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy;
?ic-?iaeaii oaoiieia?th oi?ioaaiiy aeeooc?eii-oe?ea?iiai iie?eooy c
aenieeie iieac-ieeaie aea?ino?eeino?, yea ?aae?ciaaia ia i?aei?e?inoaao
AAO “Aao?a” oa “I??ii” (i.Oa?iii?eue).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe aee-na?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee i?aaeiaoii iaaiai?aiiy
ia:

· XVI Niaauaiee ii aea?inoieeei iie?uoeyi (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1995);

· ??? I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??-aenoaaoe? “I?iaeaie ei?ic?? oa
i?ioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a” (Euea?a, 1996);

· 14th International Plansee Seminar (Reutte, Tyrol, Austria, 1997);

· XVth Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science conference (Poland,
1998);

· “Diffusion and diffusional phase transformations in alloys”
(Cherkasy,1998);

· Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo Oa?ii-i?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(OAeIO) (Oa?iii?eue, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999).

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa oaeiae iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy OAeIO, 1999.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ia iaoa??aeao aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae ?
iaea?aeaii 2 iice-oeaieo ??oaiiy ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a.
?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 148 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 60 ?enoie?a, 7
oaaeeoeue ? 5 aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ioiieth? 156
iaeiaioaaiiy.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
aea?ino?eeino? ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a (i?ia?th, oaioaeo), aecia/athoueny
iaoa, caaaeaiiy ? iaoiaee aeine?ae-aeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia ?iaioe oa ?? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, cacia/athoueny iieiaeaiiy,
aeianai? ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? i?ioeano ieeneaiiy i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo, i?iaiae?ciaaii no/aniee noai i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
aea?ino?eeino? oa aeacaii oeyoe ?? ?ica’ycaiiy. Aena?oeaii iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeai? iaoiaee iaea?aeaiiy caoen-ieo oa??a ia ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeao.
Noi?ioeueiaaii aeiiae aei aenieioaiia?aoo?ii-ai iie?eooy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ia’?eo?a, iaoiaeeoe?
aeine?aeaeaiue oa aea/aiith aeanoeainoae iie?eooy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy oeyoii
aeeooc?eiiai iane/aiiy ?o iie?aaeaiii oa aieueo?aiii. I?inoaaeaii aieea
aeoeaaoi??a ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th i?i-oeano iane/aiiy. Aeine?aeaeaii
iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy

oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? —
? -oaa?-

aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy
ai?eaeieo, nee?oeeaeieo ? ai?inee?oeeaeieo oa??a ia iniia? oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio cai?uaiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? oa ?oi? aeanoeaino?.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaii i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioa?iai?
eiiiiceoe?? ia i?ia?? ? oaioae? oa aea/aii ?? aeanoeaino?. I?iaaaeaii
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aea?i-no?eeino? iie?eoo?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeey caoenoo i?ia?th ? oaioaeo a?ae aeniei-oaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy oa
aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy, iaea?aeaiiai eiia?iiaaieie iaoiaeaie.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe.

Aeiaeaoee. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean iie?aaeaioaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo oa oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii caoenoo ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a a?ae ieeneaiiy ?
oi?-ioaaiiy ia ?oi?e iiaa?oi? aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy, yea neeaaea?oueny
?c aeeooc?eii? oa oe?ea?ii? /anoei. Iaei??th ?c aeiia, ui aenoaa?oueny
aei aea?ino?eeiai iie?eooy, ? noi?ni?noue ?c iaoaeaaith iniiaith.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aca?iiae?? caoenieo oa??a c ooaiieaaeeie
iaoaeaie na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui, ii/eiath/e c 1200 iN, ?ioaineo?eothoueny
aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane ye a iaoa??ae? iniiae, oae ? iie?eooy, aiane?aeie
/iai a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia o?i?/iiai oa oaciaiai neeaaeo caoeniiai oa?o ?
ao?aoa iei o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo ? o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae. A?aeiii, ui
iio??ei? niieoee iathoue aenieo oa?iinoaa?eue-i?noue, oiio ?o
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeeooc?eii? /anoeie
iie?eo-oy, yea iiaea aooe noi?iiaaia ca o/anoth iaoae?a VI-A a?oie,
ine?eueee aiie ooai?th-thoue ?c i?ia??i ? oaioaeii oaa?ae? ?ic/eie
cai?uaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei o ?iaio? aea/a-ii caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano
iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii ? aieueo?aiii.

Iie?aaeaioaaiiy ? aieueo?aioaaiiy i?iaiaeeee o aaeooi? (?0,001 Ia) ?
aei-ne?aeaeoaaee aieea ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a (eiioeaio?aoe?y
aeeooiaeoth/iai aeaiaioo, oaiia?aoo?a oa aeniiceoe?y i?ioeano) ia
oi?ioaaiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? oaa?-aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iane/aiiy iaoae?a o ii?ioeia?e noi?o?, yea i?noeea a?ae
20 aei 80 % ii?ioeo iie?aaeaio ca?ieno?noth iaioa 40 iei, a ?aooa –
ieneae aethi?i?th, iieacaee, ui a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 1200-1400 iN a
i?ia?? ? oaioae? ooai?th?oueny — ? -oaa?aeee ?ic/ei cai?uaiiy.

O i?ia??aeo c?aceao, iie?aaeaiiaaieo i?e 1300 iN, o noi?o?, ui i?noeea
20 % iie?aaeaio, ia a?aeaeae? 5-7 iei a?ae iiaa?oi? oi?io?oueny ?yae ?c
ca?ai -oaa?aeiai ?ic-/eio ?ici??ii aei 1 iei. O oaioae? -oaa?aeee ?ic/ei
ooai?th?oueny ia iaae? ca?ai o aeaeyae? nioa oiaueiith aei 1 iei.
Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iie?aaeaio a noi?o? (aei 60 %) i?ecaiaeeoue
aei c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? iane/aiiy, i?i ui na?ae/aoue aaee/eie i?e?inoo
iane c?ace?a ? ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iie?aaeaio a oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei?
(?en.1,a). O i?ia?? ooai?th?oueny ciia ?c ca?ai -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
oe?eiith aei 30 iei, i?e oeueiio ?ici?? ?o nyaa? 3,5 iei. O oaioae?
niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ca?ai iniiaiiai iaoaeo oa ??no oiaueie oa?o
nioa -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. Aiaeii/an iie?aaeaioaaiiy aieeaa? ia
i?e?ioaa?ae?noue iaoae?a, cie?aia, ia i?ia?? aiia aeinyaa? 1,45 AIa, a
ia oaioae? – 1,32 AIa, ui ia 30 ? 50 % a?aeiia?aeii ia?aaeuo? aaee/eie
i?e?ioaa?aeino? ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui ci?ia
aaee/eie i?e?ioaa?aeino? iaoae?a ia? oaeeaiiae?aiee oa?aeoa? ?c
aneioioe/iei caanaiiyi. I?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo iie?aaeaio a iane/oaaeuei?e
noi?o? (60 % ? a?eueoa) aaaea aei ??ceiai c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? i?ioeano
iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo. I?ioa aeei-?enoaiiy na?aaeiaeu ?c aaeeeei
ai?noii iie?aaeaio (a?eueoa 60 %) ni?ey? ni?eaiith noi?o? ? iaeeiaiith
ii?ioeo iie?aaeaio aei iiaa?oi? c?ace?a. Ioaea, iie?aaeaioaaiiy i?ia?th
? oaioaeo aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe a noi?o?, ui i?noeoue 60 % Ii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano iie?aaeaioaaiiy a ?ioa?aae? 1200-1400 iN
i?ioyaii 2-12 aiae iieacaei, ui c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e oa
aeniiceoe?? i?ioean iane/aiiy i?eoaeaeoo?oueny, ? a no?oeoo?? iaoae?a
niinoa??aathoueny ci?ie. O i?ia??aeo c?aceao, iie?aaeaiiaaieo i?e 1200
iN i?ioyaii 6 aiae, ia a?aenoai? 9-12 iei a?ae iiaa?oi? ooai?th?oueny
ciia oe?eiith aei 20 iei, a ye?e ca?ia -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ?ici??ii 1,5-2
iei ?ici?uothoueny a ?yae. Ca?eueoaiiy aeniiceoe?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?inoo oe??? ciie, ? i?ney aeo?eiee 12 aiae ?? oe?eia noaiiaeoue
45 iei. A aeeaei? iaoaeo ca?ia

-oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ?ici?uothoueny oaioe/ii, ? ?oi?e ?ici?? oa
e?euee?noue ciaioo?oueny. I?e?ioaa?ae?noue i?ia?th ia aeeaei? 30 iei
noaiiaeoue 3,65 AIa, ui a 4 ?ace ia?aae-uo? i?e?ioaa?ae?noue aeo?aeiiai
iaoaeo. Iie?aaeaioaaiiy oaioaeo ni?ey? ?inoo ca?ai iaoaeo ia aeeaeio aei
100 iei, i?e oeueiio i?e?ioaa?ae?noue ci?ith?oueny a?ae 6,6 (e?ae
c?acea) aei 3,5 AIa (ia a?aeaeae? 100 iei a?ae iiaa?oi?).

I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo aei 1400 iN
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?ioaineaiiai c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? iie?aaeaio,
iniaeeai a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? iaoaeo oiaueiith aei 25 iei ? a ciiao, aea
no?oeoo?a neeaaea?oueny ?c ae??aieo ca?ai. Ca oaeeo oiia ca?eueoo?oueny
e?euee?noue ? ?ici?? ca?ai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. A i?ia?? oaa?aeee ?ic/ei
i?iieea? ia aeeaeio 180 iei, a a oaioae? – 120 iei. Ia iaoo aeoieo, oea
iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui eiao?oe??io aeeooc?? iie?aaeaio a i?ia??
a?eueoee, i?ae o oaioae?. Aiaeii/an ca?eueoaiiy aeniiceoe?? iane/aiiy
ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a aei 8 aiae

?en.1 ?iciiae?e iie?aaeaio a i?ia?? (a) oa ci?ia i?e?ioaa?aeino? (a)
caeaaeii a?ae oiaueie i?ieaoo: O=1300 iN; =6 aiae; Ii – 60 %, Al2O3 –
?aooa.

ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith a ieo eiioeaio?aoe?? iie?aaeaio, yea ca
?acoeueoaoaie i?e?i-?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co aeinyaa? 60 %.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai ?ici?? ca?ai -oaa?-aeiai ?ic/eio c?inoa?. No?oeoo?a a
i?ia?? neeaaea?oueny ?c iine?aeiaii ?ici?uaieo cii ?c iecueeith ?
aenieith i?e?ioaa?ae?noth. A oaioae?, ia a?aei?io a?ae i?ia?th,
-oaa?aeee ?ic/ei ?inoa a iniiaiiio ia iaae? ca?ai ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ooai?aiiy aeieiai? no?oeoo?e.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy aieeao nooiaiy aeaoi?ioaaiiy ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a ia
i?ioean aeeooc?eiiai iane/aiiy ?o iie?aaeaiii aeei?enoaii i?ieao
oiaueiith 0,4 ? 0,2 ii.. Iaoaeia?ao?/iee aiae?c iieacaa, ui a i?ia?? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy aea-oi?iaoe?? iaoaeo niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy
oe?eie cii ?c ??aiiaaeeeeie ca?iaie oa ??no cii ?c no?oeoo?ith, a ye?e
ca?ia i???ioiaai? a iai?yieo i?ieaooaaiiy. Anoa-iiaeaii, ui a?ae
iiaa?oi? a aeeaeio c?acea i?e?ioaa?ae?noue i?ia?th ? oaioaeo
ci?-ith?oueny oaeeaiiae?aii (?en.1,a). O?aaa cacia/eoe oaeiae, ui ?c
ciaioaiiyi oiaueie i?ieaoo iaoaeo i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e?ioaa?ae?noue
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ia aeeaeio aei 25 iei. Ine?eueee a i?ioean?
iaea?aeaiiy oiieieenoiaiai i?ieaoo nooi?iue aeaoi?iaoe?? ? aenieei, oi
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?icoe?aiiy cii ?c ii?ooaiith no?oeoo?ith. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? i?ia?th ? oaioaeo eiioeaio?aoe?y iie?aaeaio a ieo
c?inoa? ? aiaeii-/an i?aeaeuo?oueny i?e?ioaa?ae?noue iaoaeo, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueii.

C iaoith aeyniaiiy aieeao no?oeoo?e ooaiieaaeiai iaoaeo ia
oi?iiooai?aiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy iie?aaeaioaaee eeoee
i?ia??aee nieaa ia?ee 5AIOe-3 ?c na?aaei?i ?ici??ii ca?ia 80-120 iei.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaa?aeee ?ic/ei cai?uaiiy oi?io?oueny a nieaa? ia iaae?
ca?ai o aeaeyae? nioa, ye? ni?eythoue ooai?aiith aeie?a ca?ai, i?e
oeueiio eiioeaio?aoe?y iie?aaeaio ciaioo?oueny ia 30-40 % ii??aiyii c
ai?noii eiai a i?ieao?. Ioaea, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ia
oi?iiooai?aiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio a ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeao aieeaa? no?oeoo?a
aeo?aeiiai iaoaeo.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieythoue cai?iiiioaaoe
iaoai?ci ooai-?aiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? — ? -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy.

I?e iane/aii? ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a o aaeooi? ia?aianaiiy aeoeaieo aoii?a
iie?aaeaio aei iiaa?oi? i?ia?th ? oaioaeo cae?enith?oueny caaaeyee
aaciina?aaeiueiio eiioaeoo /anoeiie ii?ioeo aeeooiaeoth/iai aeaiaioo, a
oaeiae aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy ia?iaaciai? oace. Oi?ioaaiiy oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo noaae?e: aaeni?a-oe?? iiaa?oiath
ooaiieaaeiai iaoaeo aoii?a iie?aaeaio, aeeooc?? iie?aaeaio a
ii-aa?oiaaee oa?, a iio?i aeeooc?? aoii?a iie?aaeaio a iniiaiiio ii
iaae? ca?ai o aee-aeio iaoaeo. O ca’yceo c oei, ui iiaa?oiaaee oa?
eenoiaiai i?ieaoo ia? aeenia?aiaaio no?oeoo?o c aaeeeith e?euee?noth
aeaoaeo?a ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaea?eueoith i?iieeeea?noth, oi a i?ioean?
aaeni?aoe?? a iueiio aeieea? a?aae??io o?i?/iiai iioaioe?aeo, ?
i?a?aoe?y aoii?a iie?aaeaio noa? iai?aaeaiith, a /anoeiee iaaoaathoue
oaeaeeino? a iaaiiio iai?yieo, coiiaethth/e iiaa?oiaao aeeooc?th.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao i?ia?th ? oaioaeo noai?th?oueny
a?aae??io eiioeaio?aoe??, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ianiia?aianaiiy iie?aaeaio
a aeeaeio iaoaeo. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y aieeaa? ia
oa?aeoa? aeeooc?eiiai iioieo ia-ne/oaaeueiiai aeaiaioo, ? aeeooc?y ia
iaae? ca?ai ia aeiaaa? aaeeeeo aia?aaoe/ieo cao?ao, iiaeia i?eionoeoe,
ui oi?ioaaiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? — ? -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ca?iiiaaeiai? aeeooc?? iie?aaeaio c
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o a aeeaeio iaoaeo. Iniaeeai /?oei oea
i?iyaey?oueny a oaioae?, aea ??no oa?o

-oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ii/eia?oueny ia iaae? ca?ai. A?aeiii, ui a
IOeE-a?aooe? ooaiieaa-eeo iaoae?a ia eiaeiee aoii iaoaeo i?eiaaea? 3
ieoa- ? 6 oao?aii?. Ine?eueee ?aae?on aoiia iie?aaeaio iaioee, i?ae
i?ia?th ? oaioaeo, oi iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui a i?ioean? aeeooc?? aoiie
iie?aaeaio caeiathoue ieoa- ? oao?aii?e, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a a?aooe?
i?ia?th ? oaioaeo, ? oea ia aieeaa? ia ia?aiao?e a?aoee ooaiieaaeeo
iaoae?a ? ia i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy aioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue a
iaoaeao. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?acoeueoaoe ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai
aiae?co. Aiaeii/an aoiie iie?aaeaio, eiioeaio?oth/enue ia iaae? ca?ai,
cae?eiaothoue aeaoaeoe no?oeoo?e ? ciaioothoue ”no?oeoo?i?” a?aei?iiino?
i?ae ca?iaie ? iiaa?oiath ?o iiae?eo, ui ni?ey? ?inoo ca?ai, iniaeeai
oea oa?aeoa?ii aeey oaioaeo.

Iaoaeia?ao?/iee aiae?c c?ace?a eenoiaiai i?ieaoo i?ia?th ? oaioaeo
na?ae/eoue, ui no?oeoo?a ci?ith?oueny a?ae iiaa?oi? a aeeaeio iaoaeo, a
oaeiae caeaaeii a?ae oiaue-ie i?ieaoo. Iiaa?oiaaee oa? neeaaea?oueny c
aeoaea ae??aieo ca?ai ?ici??ii aei 3 iei, a a aeeaei? iaoaeo
niinoa??aa?oueny /a?aoaaiiy oa??a ae??aieo (5-7 iei) ? aaeeeeo (aei 15
iei) ca?ai, i???ioiaaieo o iai?yieo i?ieaooaaiiy. A oa?ao c ae??aieie
ca?iaie no?oeoo?a ia? aaaaoi aeaoaeo?a, ye? ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith
eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc??, aiane?aeie /iai eiioeaio?aoe?y iie?aaeaio a oeeo
oa?ao aoaea cia/ii a?eueoith, i?ae o oa?ao iaoaeo c aaeeeeie ca?iaie.
Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie i?e?i?aioaaii-niaeo?aeueiiai
aiae?co. A oa?ia?e no?oeoo?? c ??ciei nooiaiai aeaoaeoiino?
oaeae-e?noue aeeooc?? iie?aaeaio a ooaiieaaeee iaoae aoaea
iaiaeeiaeiaith. Aiaeii/an iaia-o?aeii cacia/eoe, ui /ei aeae? a aeeaeio
iaoaeo, oei ?ioaineai?oa ciaioo?oueny aa-ee/eia eiioeaio?aoe??
iie?aaeaio. A na?aaeei? iaoaeo (0,5 oiaueie) no?oeoo?ia
iaiae-ii??aei?noue i?iyaey?oueny iaioa, aiane?aeie /iai eiioeaio?aoe?y
iie?aaeaio a oa?ao ca-?ai i?ia?th ? oaioaeo ae??aith?oueny.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c i?aeaeuai-iyi nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe??
iaoaeo (ciaioaiiy oiaueie eenoiaiai i?ieaoo) eiioeaio?a-oe?y iie?aaeaio
a oaa?aeiio ?ic/eio c?inoa?. Aiaeia?/ia ea?oeia niinoa??aa?oueny i?e
aei??thaaii? i?e?ioaa?aeino?. Ioaea, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ia
oa?aeoa? aeeooc?? iie?aaeaio a i?ia?? ? oaioae? aieeaa? no?oeoo?iee
oaeoi?.

Aea/aiiy i?ioeano aieueo?aioaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iieacaei, ui a
iaoaeao oi?io?oueny oaa?aeee ?ic/ei cai?uaiiy o aeaeyae? ca?ai, ?ici??
yeeo ? aeeaeia i?i-ieeiaiiy a iaoaeaao iniiao caeaaeeoue a?ae ai?noo a
noi?o? aieueo?aio, oaiia?aoo?e oa aeniiceoe?? i?ioeano iane/aiiy. I?e
aeei?enoaii? aeua caaaeaieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a oaa?aeee ?ic/ei a
i?ia?? iioe?th?oueny ia aeeaeio aei 140 iei, a a oaioae? – 100 iei. Ia
i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui
oi?ioaaiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy a ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeao
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca aeua iienaiei iaoai?ciii.

Iaeiae iie?aaeaioaaiiy, aieueo?aioaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo i?e aenieeo
oaiia-?aoo?ao ia ni?ey? ?ic?iaoe? aia?aicaa??aaeueii? oaoiieia?? ? i?e
1400 iN ia i?ia?? niinoa??aa?oueny ??no ca?ai. O ca’yceo c oei
aeioe?eueii aoei aeine?aeeoe iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy aeey iane/aiiy
ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a a?eueo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? oeyoii oaaaeaiiy a
ii?ioeiao noi?o aeoeaoth/eo aeiaaaie. Na?aae ieo iaea?eueo oe?iei
aeei?enoiaothoueny ooi?eaee eoaeieo ? eoaeiicaiaeueieo iaoae?a. Aa?o/e
aei oaaae oa, ui o?i?/ia aeoeai?noue eoaeieo aeaiaio?a c?inoa? a?ae
e?o?th aei o?aioe?th, aoei c’yni-aaii aieea ooi?eae?a iaoae?a I-A a?oie
ia caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy a
i?ia?? ? oaioae?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano iie?aaeaioaaiiy (aieueo?aioaaiiy) i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo i?i-aiaeeee a na?aaeiaeu?, ui i?noeei 60 % ii?ioeo iie?aaeaio
(aieueo?aio), ooi?enoee aeoeaaoi? (NaF, KF, RbF) ? ieneae aethi?i?th.
Eiioeaio?aoe?th aeoeaaoi?a ci?ithaaee a?ae 1 aei 10 %. Iane/aiiy
cae?enithaaee a eiioaeia?ao ?c ieaaeei caoai?ii i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1050 iN
i?ioyaii 6 aiae.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaaaeaiiy a ii?ioeiao noi?o ooi?eae?a iaoae?a ?-A a?oie
i?e-oaeaeoo? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
cai?uaiiy. Iane/o-aaeueia caeaoi?noue na?aaeiaeua caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith
aeoeaaoi??a c?inoa? a iai?yieo NaFKFRbF. Aa?o/e aei oaaae ye?noue
ia?iaethaaii? iiaa?oi? c?ace?a ? aa?o?noue ae-oeaaoi??a, iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui iaeaeioe?euei?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey iane-/aiiy ooi?enoee
iao??e a e?eueeino? aei 5 %, ine?eueee i?e 1050 iN a?i caaacia/o?
oo-ai?aiiy a ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeao oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy ia aeeaeio
aei 150 iei, ? aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe oi?ioo /enoioo c?ace?a.

Ii??aithth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iie?aaeaioaaiiy, aieueo?aioaaiiy
i?ia?th ? oaioaeo ca o/anoth ooi?enoiai iao??th oa caaaeath/e ia
aa?o?noue ii?ioe?a, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a?eueo aeioe?eueii
iane/oaaoe ?o iie?aaeaiii, ine?eueee i?e oeuei-io a iaoaeao
ooai?th?oueny oaa?aeee ?ic/ei cai?uaiiy o aeaeyae? /a?aoth/eo oa??a ia
aeeaeio aei 180 iei, ui iaeaea a 2 ?ace ia?aaeuo? oiaueio oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio, noi?-iiaaiiai i?ae /an aieueo?aioaaiiy. E??i oeueiai,
canoinoaaiiy ii?ioeo iie?aaeaio ni?ey? ?ic?iaoe? ?ano?nicaa??aaeueii?
oaoiieia?? aeeooc?eiiai iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue aea/ai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy ia
ooaiieaa-eeo iaoaeao aeaieiiiiiaioiiai aeeooc?eiiai iie?eooy ia c?acie
Ia-A ? Ia-Si, aiaeii/an a?aenooi? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/ai? oi?ioaaiith
ai?eaeieo, nee?oeeaeieo ? ai?inee?oeeaeieo oac ia iniia? oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a cai?uaiiy oa ?o aeanoeaino?.

Aeey ai?oaaiiy iiia?aaeiuei iie?aaeaiiaaieo i?ia??aeo ? oaioaeiaeo
c?ace?a ae-ei?enoiaoaaee ii?ioeiao noi?o, yea i?noeea 60 % B4C
ca?ieno?noth 100-120 iei,

3 % NaF ? Al2O3 – ?aooa. I?ioean aea/aee a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 950-1100
iN i?ioy-aii 2-12 aiae.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia i?ia?? ? oaioae? ooai?th?oueny aeaioa?iaa iie?eooy,
ciai?oi?e oa? yeiai ? aeeai?eae ooaiieaaeiai iaoaeo, a aioo??oi?e –
iiiiai?eaeia oaca. Ai?eae-i? oace i?noyoue a?ae 85 aei 45 % iie?aaeaio.
Iie?eooy ia ia? o??uei, neie?a ? u?eueii i?eeyaa? aei iniiae. Ai?eaeia
oaca ia? ae??aiica?ienoo aie/aoo no?oeoo?o, yea a?eueo oa?aeoa?ia aeey
ai?eae?a iie?aaeaio ? aieueo?aio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii/aoeiai? noaae?? i?ioeano ai?oaaiiy iie?aaeaiiaaiiai
i?ia?th ? oaioaeo a ii?ioeo ea?a?aeo ai?o iieacaei, ui ia iiaa?oi?
c?ace?a ooai?th?oueny aaaa-oa ai?ii oaca IaA2, aiaeia?/ii ye o aeiaaeeo
iane/aiiy ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a o aii?oiiio ai??. Oea aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?enooi?noue iie?aaeaio a iiaa?oia-aeo oa?ao i?ia?th
? oaioaeo ni?ey? i?ioiaeaeaiith aeaiaioa?iiai aeoo aeeooc?? ai?o /a?ac
ai?eaeio oaco, caaaeyee /iio caaacia/o?oueny iaiao?aeiee a?aae??io
eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?o, yeee i?ecaiaeeoue aei eiai aacia?a?aii? aeeooc?? a
iie?eoo? i?ioyaii anueiai i?i-oeano iane/aiiy. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui a
i?ioean? iie?aaeaioaaiiy aoiie iie?aaeaio cae-iathoue ieoa- ? oao?aii?e,
ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a a?aooe? i?ia?th ? oaioaeo, a oaeiae ?acoeueoa-oe
?ia?o, i?enay/aieo aea/aiith iio??eieo ai?eaeieo niieoe, oi niieoeo, ui
noaii-aeoue iniiao ciai?oiueiai oa?o ai?eaeiiai iie?eooy, iiaeia
i?aaenoaaeoe oi?ioeith (Ia, Ii)A2 , a aioo??oiueiai – (Ia, Ii)A.

Ia oaeaee?noue ?inoo ? ye?noue ai?eaeieo oa??a aiaeii/an ?c
oaiia?aoo?ith aieeaa? ? o?eaae?noue iane/aiiy. Ca?eueoaiiy aeniiceoe??
i?ioeano ai?oaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo aei 12 aiae (O=1100 iN) ni?ey?
cia/iiio ?inoo oiaueie ciai?oiueiai oa?o iie?eooy oa ai?eaeieo aieie,
ye? i?iieeathoue o aeeaeio oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. Cana?ae/aii, ui ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi oiaueie iie?eooy eiai ye?noue iia??oo?oueny.
Niinoa??aa?oueny iiyaa iicaeiaaei?o o??uei ? ?icoa?oaaiiy iie?eooy.
Iecueeo ye?noue ai?eaeiiai iie?eooy iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui i?e
oaiia?aoo?? iane/aiiy 1100 iN i?aeaeuo?oueny ianiaee iio?e aoaeaoeth ?c
ii?ioeiaiai na?aaeiaeua a iaoaeaao iniiao, i?e oeueiio aoiie aoaeaoeth
cai?iththoue aoiie ai?o a ieineeo n?oeao aaenaaiiaeueii? a?aoee (Ia,
Ii)A2, aiane?aeie /iai eiioeaio?aoe?y aoaeaoeth a aeeai?eae? c?inoa?.
Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie ia?aiao??a e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee, ?ic?eao
ca’yce?a ai?-ai? ? aeieeiaiiy aioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue, aaee/eia yeeo
cia/ii ia?aaeuo? ?aeaenaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? a?aoee. A ?acoeueoao?
ianooia? oaciaa naiiiaeeaioaaiiy ? ooai?th?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue
iiaeo iiaa?oiiue a ia’?i? aeeai?eaeo ooaiieaaeiai iaoaeo, oiaoi
i?e?io??ueie, ui i?ae-oaa?aeaeo?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee
aeeooc?eieo ia?a-iao??a i?ioeano ai?oaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo. Iaea?aeai?
cia/aiiy aoaeoeaii? aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? i?ioeano iane/aiiy ia?aaeuothoue
o 3 ?ace aaee/eio Q i?ioeano ai?oaaiiy iaiie?aaeaiiaaieo iaoae?a. Iiaeia
i?eionoeoe, ui aaeee? cia/aiiy aoaeoeaii? aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? ?inoo oa?o
aeeai?eaeo i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iia’ycai? c aenieith i?oei?n-oth o?i?/ieo
ca’yce?a o oac? i?ia?e (oaioae) – iie?aaeai – ai?, a oaeiae c oei, ui a
i?i-oean? iane/aiiy ia iaae? oac a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaoaeiaa ?iia?/ii?
a?aoee iiiiai?eaeo a aaenaaiiaeueio aeeai?eaeii? oace. E??i oeueiai,
i?ae /an ?inoo oa?o (Ia, Ii)A2 niinoa-??aa?oueny cnoa oace (Ia, Ii)A a
aeeaeio oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio ? iiiiai?eaeia oaca ? i?e?iaei?i aa?’??ii, ui
aaeueio? ??no oace (Ia, Ii)A2 . Ioaea, oaeee i?ioean aoaea ae-iaaaoe
aaeeeeo aia?aaoe/ieo cao?ao.

C?noaaeaiiy oiauei ai?eaeiiai oa?o, noi?iiaaiiai ia iie?aaeaiiaaiiio
i?ia?? ? oaioae? oa iaea?aeaiiai ia iaia?iaeaieo c?aceao, na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui iayai?noue ii-e?aaeaio a i?ia?? ? oaioae? i?aeaeuo? a 2 ? 3 ?ace,
a?aeiia?aeii, oaeaee?noue ?inoo ai?eaeii-ai iie?eooy, i?e oeueiio
ye?noue eiai ia iia??oo?oueny. Ioaea, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iie?aaeai i?eoaeaeoo? ??no ai?eaeiiai iie?eooy ia i?ia?? ? oaioae?, ia
cieaeoth/e eiai yeino?. Oaeei /eiii, iayai?noue iie?aaeaio a ooaiieaaeeo
iaoaeao aieeaa? ia no?oeoo?i- ? oaciooai?aiiy, ??no oiaueie ai?eaeiiai
oa?o ? aaee/eio aoaeoeaii? aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy
iie?eooy.

Aea/aiiy i?ioeano nee?oe?thaaiiy iiia?aaeiuei iie?aaeaiiaaiiai i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 950-1100 iN o?eaae?noth aei 12 aiae
iieacaei, ui ia iaoaeao ooai?th?oueny aeaioa?iaa iie?eooy,
aioo??oi?e oa? yeiai ? nee?oeeaeia oaca

(Ia, Ii)5Si3 , a ciai?oi?e – (Ia, Ii)Si2 . I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
(iiiaae 1050 iN) ? o?eaaeino? (> 10 aiae) iane/aiiy a 2 ?ace
i?eoaeaeoo? ??no oiaueie oa?o iie?eooy, aea aiaeii/an ca?eueoo?oueny
e?euee?noue ? oe?eia ?aae?aeueieo o??uei, a oaeiae niinoa??aa?oueny
iiyaa e?aeiaiai aoaeoo ? a?aeie?aieaiiy iie?eooy a?ae iniiae. Ia
i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aii aeeooc?ei? ia?aiao?e
nee?oe?thaaiiy. Iaea?aeai? cia/aiiy aaee/ei aoaeoeaii? aia?a??
aeoeaaoe?? i?ioeano iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo ia?aaeuothoue ia 10 ? 20
% a?aeiia?aeii aaee/eio Q nee?oe?thaaiiy iaii-e?aaeaiiaaieo ooaiieaaeeo
iaoae?a. Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui oea iia’ycaii c iayai?noth iie?aaeaio a
i?ia?? ? oaioae?, aiane?aeie /iai i?aeaeuothoueny aia?aaoe/i? cao?aoe ia
??no oiaueie oa?o iie?eooy.

Iine?aeiaia iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo ai?ii ? e?aii??i ? ia?niaeoeaiei
nii-niaii aeey iaea?aeaiiy aeeooc?eii? /anoeie aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy.
I?e oeueiio ia-iao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ai?eaei? oace ia?aoeiaeaeathoue
aeeooc?? e?aii?th a iaoaeaao iniiao. O ca’yceo c oeei aoei aea/aii aieea
iiia?aaeiueiai iie?aaeaioaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo ia i?ioean
ai?inee?oe?thaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia iaoaeao oi?io?oueny ii-e?eooy,
yea neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo oa??a: ciai?oi?e – aeenee?oeeae ooaiieaaeiai
iaoaeo (Ia, Ii)Si2 oa nee?oeeaeia oaca (Me, Mo)5Si3, a
aioo??oi?e – ai?eaeia oaca (Ia, Ii)A2. Aea/aiiy e?iaoeee i?ioeano
nee?oe?thaaiiy ai?iaaieo iaoae?a iieacaei, ui i?ae /an iane/aiiy ?o
e?aii??i ai?eaeiee oa? iiai?noth ia?ai?uo?oueny a aeeaeio iaoaeaai?
iniiae, ia ci?ithth/e i?e oeueiio nai?? aaee/eie. Aiaeii/an a?i aieeaa?
ia oiaueio nee?oeeaeiiai oa?o. *ei a?eueoa oiaueia ai?eaeii? oace, oei
iaioa aaee-/eia nee?oeeaeiiai iie?eooy. I?ioean aaeueioaaiiy ?inoo
nee?oeeaeieo oac iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oaioae?, aea
ai?eaeia oaca oiaueiith 60 iei ia aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe nee?oeeaeia
iie?eooy oiaueiith a?eueoa 10 iei. Ii??aithth/e aa?’??i? aeanoeaino?
ai?eaeieo oa??a, noi?iiaaieo ia iiia?aaeiuei iie?aaeaiiaaieo
ooai-ieaaeeo iaoaeao ? iaia?iaeaieo, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui ai?eaei?
oace (Nb, Mo)B2 i (Ta, Mo)B2 o 3 ?ace ?ioaineai?oa aaeueiothoue
iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo e?aii??i, i?ae iiaea?ei? ai?eaee. Ioaea,
aeeai?eaei? oace (Ia, Ii)A2 iathoue aa?’??i? aeanoeaino?. Cai?iiiiiaaii
iaea?eueo ?iia??iee iaoai?ci cnoao ai?eaeiiai oa?o i?ae /an ?inoo
nee?oeeaeieo oac.

Aa?o/e aei oaaae oa, ui noi?ni?noue iie?eooy c iniiaith a?ae?a?a?
aaaeeeao ?ieue o caa?aaeaii? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo ? o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? eiiii-ceoe??, a ?iaio? i?inoaaeaii noaa?euei?noue
ai?eaeieo, nee?oeeaeieo ? ai?inee?oeeaeieo oac ia i?ia?? ? oaioae? a
?ioa?aae? 1200-1500 iN o aaeooi? (?=0,001 Ia) i?ioyaii 12 aiae.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?eaeia iie?eooy aca?iiae?? c iniiaith, ii/eiath/e c
1500 iN. Ia iaae? iie?eooy-iniiaa ooai?th?oueny oiieee i?ioa?ie, yeee ca
?acoeueoaoaie i?e?i-?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co neeaaea?oueny ?c
ai?eae?a (Ia, Ii)3A4 ? (Ia, Ii)A. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi o?eaaeino? a?aeiaeo
oiaueia ai?eaeiiai i?ioa?eo c?inoa? iaei. I?n-

ey 12 aiaeeiii? aeniiceoe?? oiaueia oa?o (Nb, Mo)B2 ciaioo?oueny
ia 12 iei, a

(Oa, Ii)A2 – ia 10 iei. Ni?anoaaeyth/e ci?io oiaueie aeeai?eaeii? oace,
ooai?aii? ia iiia?aaeiuei iie?aaeaiiaaiiio i?ia?? ? oaioae?, a oaeiae ia
iaoaeao aac o/ano? iie?aaeaio, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
noaa?euei?noue ai?eaeieo oac (Nb, Mo)B2 i (Ta, Mo)B2 o 3 ?ace aeua,
i?ae ai?eaeiiai oa?o, ooai?aiiai ?c aeaio eiiiiiaio?a ia-oae-ai?. Oea
aeicaiey? i?aeiyoe ia 100 iN ?iai/o oaiia?aoo?o ai?eaeiiai iie?eooy.

Aca?iiae?y nee?oeeaeiiai iie?eooy ?c iaoaeaaith iniiaith ii/eia?oueny
i?e oai-ia?aoo?? 1400 iN. Ia iaae? nee?oeeaeia oaca (Ia, Ii)5Si3 –
ooaiieaaeee iaoae ooai?th-?oueny nee?oeeaeiee i?ioa?ie, yeee
neeaaea?oueny ?c nee?oeeae?a iie?aaeaio MomSin ? ieae-/iai nee?oeeaeo
i?ia?th (oaioaeo) Ia5Si3. Ca?eueoaiiy o?eaaeino? a?aeiaeo i?ecaiaeeoue
aei iacia/iiai ?inoo eiai oiaueie. I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e a?aeiaeo aei
1500 iN aa-aea aei ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a ye ia
aioo??oi?e, oae ? ia ciai?oi?e iaaeao iie?eooy, aiane?aeie /iai oiaueia
oa?o oace (Ia, Io)Si2 ia i?ia?? i?ney 12 aiae aeo?eiee ciaioo?oueny a 2
?ace, a ia oaioae? – a 5 ?ac?a. Iaa??aaiiy nee?oe?eiaaieo c?ace?a, ia
yeeo iie?eooy, noi?iiaaia aac o/ano? iie?aaeaio, i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai,
ui i?ney 6 aiae a?aeiaeo aeenee?oeeaeia oaca iiai?noth ia?aoiaeeoue o
ieae/ee nee?oeeae. Ioaea, iiia?aaei? iie?aaeaioaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo
cia/ii i?aeaeuo? noaa?euei?noue nee?oeeae-iiai iie?eooy oa ca?eueoo?
eiai ?ano?n ?iaioe.

Ii??aithth/e oaeaee?noue aca?iiae?? nee?oeeaeieo ? ai?inee?oeeaeieo
iie?eoo?a ?c iniiaith, iiaeia a?aecia/eoe a?eueo aenieo noaa?euei?noue
inoaii?o. Ioaea, iayai?noue ai-?eaeiiai i?ioa?eo i?aeaeuo?
noaa?euei?noue nee?oeeaeieo oac. Oea aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iiia?aaei? iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii, a iio?i ai?ii ?
e?aii??i iiaea nooo?ai ca?eueoeoe ?ano?n ?iaioe nee?oeeaeiiai iie?eooy.

Aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy nee?oeeaeiiai ?
ai?inee?oeeaeiiai iie?eooy, noi?iiaaiiai ia iiia?aaeiuei iie?aaeaiiaaieo
ooaiieaa-eeo iaoaeao, a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 1200-1500 iN c o?eaae?noth
10 aiae iieacaei, ui a nee?oeeaeiiio iie?eoo? a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie
oaciaiai neeaaeo. Ia iiaa?oi? ooai-?th?oueny ieneaeia ie?aea, yea i?oeii
c/aieaia c iie?eooyi ? aeia?a ni?ea?oueny aeua 1400 iN. I?e oaiia?aoo??
1500 iN noaa?eueiith aeyaey?oueny aii?oia eiiiiiaioa SiO2, yea ia? e?au?
caoeni? aeanoeaino?, i?ae -e?enoaeiaae?o. Oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy
nee?oeeaeiiai iie?eooy ia i?ia?? ieae/a, i?ae ia oaioae?, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i aenieo noa-a?euei?noue nee?oeeae?a i?ia?th, ye? i?noyoue iie?aaeai.
I?ioean ieeneaiiy nee?oeeaeiiai ii-e?eooy a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeyee
aeeooc?? eenith /a?ac ie?aeo SiO2, iniiaieie oeyoaie yei? ? eeniaa?
aaeain??, ? ?o eiioeaio?aoe?y aecia/a? oaeaee?noue ia?aianaiiy eenith.
I?enooi?noue ?ii?a Ii+6 a ieneaei?e ie?aoe? iiieaeo? eiioeaio?aoe?th
aaeain?e eenith ? ciaioo? eiai aeeooc?eiee iio?e. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe,
ui ?iie iie?aaeaio iiaeooue ?ici?uoaaoeny a oeaio?? aaenaaiiaeueieo
eaiae?a e?aiiacaio, oei naiei aeieoth/e eaiaee i?ioiaeaeaiiy eenith.
Aaaaoi?aciaa iaa??aaiiy ? ioieiaeaeaiiy nee?oe?eiaaieo c?ace?a ia
iia??oo? ieanoe/iino? ieneaeii? ie?aee, ine?eueee ooai?th?oueny cia/ia
e?euee?noue iiiiieneaeo e?aii?th, yeee ?ic/eiy?oueny a SiO2, ao?eioth/e
eiai a neei-aeaeiiio noai?, ? ia aeath/e iiaeeeaino? eiio
e?enoae?coaaoeny. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii-ia?aaei? iane/aiiy i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii i?aeaeuo? aea?ino?ee?noue nee?oeeae-iiai iie?eooy ?
caoeua? ae?iae a?ae ieeneaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?? 1500 iN i?ioyaii 100 aiae.

I?e iaa??aaii? ? ioieiaeaeaii? ai?inee?oeeaeiiai iie?eooy eeoa i?e 1400
iN a iueiio niinoa??aathoueny iacia/i? ci?ie oaciaiai neeaaeo.
I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e (aei 1500 iN) ? o?eaaeino? ieeneaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?eoaeaeoaiiy i?ioeano aca?iiae?? ye ia iaae?
na?aaeiaeua-iie?eooy, oae ? iie?eooy-iniiaa. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui
i?ioyaii 300 aiae oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy iie?eooy ia iaio iaoaeao iaeaea
iaeiaeiaa, eeoa iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy aeniiceoe?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano aca?ii-ae??. Ii??aithth/e ?cioa?ie ieeneaiiy
nee?oeeaeiiai ? ai?inee?oeeaeiiai iie?eooy, iiae-ia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
aea?ino?ee?noue ai?inee?oeeaeiiai iie?eooy a 4 ?ace aeua, i?ae
nee?oeeaeiiai. Ioaea, ai?eaeiee oa? ia o?eueee aaeueio? aeeooc?th
e?aii?th a iaoaea-ao iniiao, aea e ni?ey? ooai?aiith aaciiai?iieeeeai?
ieneaeii? ie?aee, yea no?eio? iio?e eenith a iie?eooy.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ia
aea?ino?e-e?noue ai?inee?oeeaeieo iie?eoo?a nooo?ai aieeaa? ye?noue
iie?eooy oa noaa?euei?noue aee-ooc?eieo oa??a.

Ia?niaeoeaiei iai?yieii i?aeaeuaiiy aea?ino?eeino? iie?eooy ?
canoinoaaiiy oe?ea?iiai iaoiaeo, yeee aeicaiey? ia o?eueee ia?inoeoe
eiai oiaueio, aea e ci?ieoe neeaae ca ?aooiie oaaaeaiiy a?eueo
ieaeeiino?eeeo eiiiiiaio?a. O ca’yceo c oeei ia ai?inee?oe?eiaaio
iiaa?oith iaiineee oe?ea?io eiiiiceoe?th, yeo iaea?aeoaaee oey-oii
ci?ooaaiiy ii?ioeiaiai iaiiaithaa/a, ca’ycoth/iai ? ??aeei? oace.
Eiiiiiai-oaie iaiiaithaa/a neoaoaaee: oee?eii??ai?o???aa ea?ai?ea
Oe?N-2, ieneae aethi?i?th ? aeenee?oeeae iie?aaeaio. Ooieoe?th
ca’ycoth/iai aeeiioaaa iao??e aethi?iao NaAlO2, a aeenoeeueiaaia aiaea
neoaoaaea ??aeeith oacith. C iaoith caaacia/aiiy aeniei? aea?i-no?eeino?
iie?eooth oa ieaaii? ci?ie aaee/eie EO? (a?ae ciai?oiuei? iaae? iie?eooy
aei iniiae) oi?ioaaiiy oe?ea?ii? /anoeie eiiiiceoe?? aoei
aaaaoinooiaiaaei. O eiaeiiio ianooiiiio oa?? a?aenioeiaee ai?no
aeenee?oeeaeo iie?aaeaio ciaiooaaany ia 5 %, a e?euee?noue Oe?N-2
c?inoaea ia oaeo naio aaee/eio. Oiaueia oa?o ia ia?a-aeuoaaea 100 iei. O
?acoeueoao? aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai a?aeiaeo ia iiaa?oi? aaaaoi-oa?iaiai
iie?eooy ooai?th?oueny caoenia ie?aea, yea, e??i nee?oeeae?a iie?aaeaio,
i?n-oeoue oae? ieneaee: ZrSiO4, HfSiO4, YAlO3, Y4Al2O9 oa ?io?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy ia iiia?aaeiuei iie?aaeaiiaaiiio i?ia?? ?
oaioae? aaaaoioa?iai? eiiiiceoe?? oeyoii iine?aeiaiiai iane/aiiy iaoae?a
ai?ii ? e?aii??i ?c ianooiiei iaianaiiyi ia ai?inee?oe?eiaaio iiaa?oith
oe?ea?iiai oa?o caoeua? iniiao a?ae ieeneaiiy a ?ioa?aae? 1200-1500 iN
i?ioyaii 6000-2000 aiae ye a aac-ia?a?aiiio, oae ? ia??iaee/iiio
?aaeeiao aenieoaoaoe?? ae?iao. Iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui aaaaoioa?iaa
iie?eooy iaei/ooeeaa aei ia?aa??ao, ? ye na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioo, caeaoia aei naiicae?eiaoaaiiy, eiai iiaeia iaiineoe ye ia
aeiaaeeiai iioeiaeaeai? iiaa?oi?, oae ? iiaoi?ii ia ae?iae, ui ?ai?oa
aenieoaooaaeeny.

Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui aaaaoioa?iaa iie?eooy iaae?eii caoeua? ooaiieaae?
iaoaee a?ae aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai ieeneaiiy aoei ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th
oi?ioaaiiy aea-?ino?eei? eiiiiceoe?? ia i?ia??a? iaa??aa/? ? oaioaeia?
ae?aie, yea ?aae?ciaaia ia i?aei?e?inoaao AAO“Aao?a” oa “I??ii” (i.
Oa?iii?eue).

AENIIAEE

1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?niaeoeaiei caoenoii i?ia?th ? oaioaeo a?ae
aenieioaiia?a-oo?iiai ieeneaiiy ? iaianaiiy ia ?oith iiaa?oith
aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy, a yeiio eiaeiee oa? aeeiio? a?aeiia?aeio
ooieoe?th.

2. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeaiaioe
i?ioeano ia-ne/aiiy o aaeooi? ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a iie?aaeaiii ?
aieueo?aiii. I?e iie?aaeaio-aaii? i?ia?th ooai?th?oueny oaa?aeee ?ic/ei
cai?uaiiy o aeaeyae? /a?aoth/eo oa??a, a a oaioae? – nioa, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny ia iaae? aeie?a ca?ai; iane/aiiy ooaiieaaeeo ia-oae?a
aieueo?aiii i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy a ieo ca?ai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
cai?-uaiiy, yeee i?iieea? a iniiaiiio ia aeeaeio aei 140 iei. Iieacaii,
ui c i?aeae-uaiiyi nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? eenoiaiai i?ieaoo ooaiieaaeiai
iaoaeo eiioeaio?aoe?y iie?aaeaio a oa?ao (nioaao) oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
c?inoa? ia 30-40 %.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy ooi?eae?a iaoae?a ?-A a?oie ye
aeoeaaoi??a, aeicai-ey? iiieceoe oaiia?aoo?o iane/aiiy ooaiieaaeeo
iaoae?a ?c 1400 iN aei 1050 iN, caaacia/oth/e i?e oeueiio ooai?aiiy a
ieo oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy o aeaeyae? oa??a (nioa).

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy a i?ia?? ? oaioae? oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio cai?-uaiiy, yeee neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo noaae?e:

a) aaeni?aoe?? iiaa?oiath ooaiieaaeiai iaoaeo aoii?a iie?aaeaio;

a) aeeooc?? iie?aaeaio a iiaa?oiaaee oa?;

a) aeeooc?? aoii?a iie?aaeaio a iniiaiiio ii iaae? ca?ai a aeeaeio
i?ia?th (oaioaeo).

5. Aia?oa iieacaii iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy ia iniia? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
cai?uaiiy iie?aaeaio a i?ia?? ? oaioae? iio??eieo ai?eaeieo (Me, Mo)B2,
(Me, Mo)B ? nee?-oeeaeieo (Me, Mo)Si2, (Me,Mo)5Si3 oac. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
i?enooi?noue iie?aaeaio a iio??eieo niieoeao i?aeaeuo? o 3 ?ace
noaa?euei?noue ai?eaeieo ? ia 100 iN ii?? ieeneaiith nee?oeeaeieo oac.

6. ?ic?iaeaii iia? niiniae oi?ioaaiiy ia ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeao caoenieo
oa??a, ye? ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy, ? aiie
caoeuai? iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie.

7. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaoioa?iaa iie?eooy caoeua? ae?iae c i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo a?ae ieeneaiiy i?e 1500 iN i?ioyaii 2100 ? 2150 aiae
a?aeiia?aeii. Aiaeii/an, iie?eooy iaei/ooeeaa aei ia?aa??ao, caeaoia aei
naiicae?eiaoaaiiy, eiai iiaeia iaiineoe ye ia aeiaaeeiai iioeiaeaeai?
iiaa?oi?, oae ? iiaoi?ii ia ae?iae, ui ?ai?oa aenieoa-ooaaeeny.

8. Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th
oi?ioaaiiy eiia?-iiaaieie iaoiaeaie aaaaoioa?iaiai aea?ino?eeiai
iie?eooy ia i?ia??a? iaa??aa/? ? oaioaeia? ae?aie, yea ?aae?ciaaia ia
i?aei?e?inoaao AAO “Aao?a” oa “I??ii” (i.Oa?iii?eue).

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aecyaeeeaae/ TH.A., Eeoeeae E.?. Caoeno i?ia?th ? oaioaeo a?ae
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? aaciai? ei?ic?? // Ii?ioeiaay iaoaeeo?aey.-1997.-?
1/2.-N.85-93.

2. Dzyadykevich Y.V. and Kytskay L.I. Improving the Oxidation
Protection of Niobium and Tantalum by the use of Multilayer
Coatings//JOM.-1997.-January.-P.30-31.

3. Borisova A., Dzyadykevich Yu., Kytskay L. Multilayer diffusion —
slurry coatings for oxidation protection of refractory
metals//Proceedings of the 14th International Plansee Seminar,
Eds.G.Kneringer, P.Roedhammer and P.Wilhartitz, Plansee AG, Reutte
Austria.-V.1.-1997.-P.710-719.

4. Eeoeeae E.?. Aieea aeoeaaoi??a ia i?ioean aieueo?aioaaiiy i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo// Iaoaeiciaanoai oa ia?iaea iaoae?a.-1998.-? 4.-N.40-43.

5. Aecyaeeeaae/ TH.A., Eeoeeae E.?. Aieea aeoeaaoi??a ia i?ioean
iie?aaeaioaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo// Iaoeiiciaanoai.-1998.-?
11/12.-N.16-19.

6. Aecyaeeeaae/ TH.A., Eeoeeae E.?., Ni?yi I.Ae. Aeeooc?eia iane/aiiy
i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii//Aeiiia?ae? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie.-1998.-?10.-N.102-108.

7. Dzyadykevich Yu.V., Kytskay L.I. Forming boride and silicide
coatings in niobium and tantalum the basis of solid solution//
International Workshop “Diffusion and diffusional phase transformations
in alloys” (DIFTRANS’98).-Cherkasy, Ukraina.-1998.-P.53.

8. Iiceo. ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae. Aecyaeeeaae/ TH.A.,
Eeoeeae E.?. Ii?ioeiaa noi?o aeey iie?aaeaioaaiiy ae?ia?a ?c i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo. ?a?no?.

? 98010053 a?ae 06.01.1998.

9. Iiceo. ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae. Aecyaeeeaae/ TH.A.,
Eeoeeae E.?. Neeaae noi?o? aeey aieueo?aioaaiiy ae?ia?a ?c i?ia?th ?
oaioaeo. ?a?no?.

? 98010054 a?ae 06.01.1998.

INIAENOEE AIANIE AAOI?A

A [1] i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy aea?ino?eeino? ae?ia?a ?c
i?ia?th ? oaioaeo oa ?oi?o nieaa?a, ia iniia? yeiai noi?ioeueiaaii
iniiai? iai?yiee ?ic?iaee caoenieo aea?ino?eeeo iie?eoo?a. A [2,3]
aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano ieeneaiiy aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy
ia ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeao. A [4,5] aea/aii aieea aeoeaaoi??a ia i?ioean
iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii oa aieueo?aiii. A [6]
i?inoaaeaii caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio
cai?uaiiy ia i?ia?? ? oaioae? caeaaeii a?ae oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a. A
?iaio? [7] iieacaia iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy ai?eaeiiai ? nee?oeeaeieo
oa??a ia iniia? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy ia i?ia?? ? oaioae?. A [8,9]
cai?iiiiiaaii neeaae ii?ioeiai? noi?o? aeey iie?aaeaioaaiiy oa
aieueo?aioaaiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eeoeeae E.?. “Oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioa?iaiai iie?eooy ia i?ia?? ? oaioae?
aeey ca-oenoo ?o a?ae ieeneaiiy”, ?oeiien aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaea-oa oaoi?/ieo iaoe c? niaoe?aeueiino?
05.16.01 “Iaoaeiciaanoai oa oa?i?/ia ia?iaea iaoae?a”. Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, Ee?a,
1999. Caoeuathoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue caeiiii??iinoae i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy ia i?ia?? ? oaioae? oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy ia iniia?
iaoae?a VI-A a?oie. Aea/aii aieea ooi?eae?a iaoae?a I-A a?oie ia
?ioaineo?eaoe?th i?ioeano iane/aiiy i?ia?th ? oaioaeo iie?aaeaiii oa
aieueo?aiii. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aei-ne?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaii
iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cai?uaiiy a ooai-ieaaeeo iaoaeao.
Aia?oa iieacaia iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy ia iniia? oaa?aeiai ?ic/e-io
iie?aaeaio a i?ia?? ? oaioae? ai?eaeieo, nee?oeeaeieo ? ai?inee?oeeaeieo
oac, ye? ? neeaaeiaeie aeaiaioaie aeeooc?eii? /anoeie aaaaoioa?iaiai
iie?eooy. Aecia/aii oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ia i?ia??
? oaioae? aaaaoioa?iaiai aea?ino?eeiai iie?eooy c i?aeaeuaieie
aenieoaoaoe?eieie iieacieeaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ia?e, oaioae, iie?aaeai, aieueo?ai, iane/aiiy,
aeeooc?y, oaa?-aeee ?ic/ei, iie?eooy, aea?ino?ee?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eeoeeae E.E. “Oi?ie?iaaiea iiiaineieiiai iie?uoey ia ieiaee e oaioaea
aeey caueou eo io ieeneaiey”, ?oeiienue aeenna?oaoeee ia nieneaiea
o/aiie noaiaie eai-aeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.01
“Iaoaeeiaaaeaiea e oa?ie-/aneay ia?aaioea iaoaeeia”, Iaoeeiiaeueiue
oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu “Eeaaneee iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo”,
Eeaa, 1999 a. Caueuathony ?acoeueoaou en-neaaeiaaiee caeiiiia?iinoae
i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey ia ieiaee e oaioaea oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a caiauaiey
ia iniiaa iaoaeeia VI-A a?oiiu. Eco/aii aeeyiea ooi?eaeia iaoaeeia I-A
a?oiiu ia eioaineoeeaoeeth i?ioeanna ianuuaiey ieiaey e oaioaea
ii-eeaaeaiii e aieueo?aiii. Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee
i?aaeeiaeaii ia-oaieci oi?ie?iaaiey oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a caiauaiey a
ooaiieaaeeo iaoaeeao. Aia?-aua iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey ia
iniiaa oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a iieeaaeaia a iei-aee e oaioaea ai?eaeiuo,
neeeoeeaeiuo e ai?ineeeoeeaeiuo oac, yaeythueony ninoaa-iuie yeaiaioaie
aeeoooceiiiie /anoe iiiaineieiiai iie?uoey. Ii?aaeaeaiu oao-iieiae/aneea
ia?aiao?u i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey ia ieiaee e oaioaea iiiaineie-iiai
aea?inoieeiai iie?uoey n iiauoaiiuie yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie iieacaoaeyie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ieiaee, oaioae, iieeaaeai, aieueo?ai, ianuuaiea,
aeeooocey, oaa?aeue ?anoai?, iie?uoea, aea?inoieeinoue.

ABSTRACT

Kytskay L.I. “Forming a Multilayer Coating on Niobium and Tantalum for
Their Protection against Oxidation”, manuscript. Thesis for the
scientific degree Master of Sciences (Engineering). Speciality 05.16.01
– “Metal studies and metal thermal treatment”. National Technical
University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnical Institute”, Kyiv, 1999.

A promising trend in the protection of niobium and tantalum against
oxidation in applying to their surfaces of a multilayer coating in
which each layer performs a certain function and as a whole it meets the
requirements set to a heat-resistant coating. For the production of a
diffusion part of the coating on niobium and tantalum a solid solution
of VI-A group metals is used as a base metal. Regularities and the main
factors influencing the process of molybdenising and tungstenising
niobium and tantalum have been studied. The process of molybdenising and
tungstenising niobium and tantalum can be intensified by means of
applying activating admixtures, in particular, I-A group metals
fluorides (NaF, KF, RbF). With applying activators the saturating
ability of the medium has been found to increase in the direction of
NaFKFRbF, but NaF is the most expedient to be used. A mechanism of
production of a solid substitution solution in niobium and tantalum has
been offered on the basis of the investigation performed. Comparing the
results of the study of the process of molybdenising and tungstenising
niobium and tantalum and taking into account the cost of the powders one
can reach the conclusion that saturation of refractory metals with
molybdenum is preferable.

Since triple compounds possess considerably higher thermostability than
double ones, the paper deals with the regularities of the process of
forming boride, silicide and boride-silicide phases bases on a solid
substitution solution and their properties. The availability of
molybdenum in niobium and tantalum has been found to influence the
structure-phase formation, the speed of the coating growth and the
amount of the effective activation energy of the process. Preliminary
saturation of niobium, tantalum with molybdenum and then with boron and
silicon increases the stability of boride phases, heat-resistance and
the life of silicide and boride-silicide coatings.

Taking into account the fact that a promising trend of increasing,
heat-resistance of a coating in the application of a slurry method which
provides not only for increasing its thickness but also for changing the
composition on account of introducing more scale-resistant components.
In this connection a slurry composition was applied to boride-silicide
surface, obtained by means of mixing the powder filler, ligament and a
liquid phase. The filler components were zirconiumyitrium ceramics
(ZYC-2), aluminium oxide and molybdenum disilicide. NaAlO2 served as a
ligament. After high-temperature sintering, a protective film is formed
on the surface of a multilayer coating, which, in addition to molybdenum
silicides contains the following silicides: ZrSiO4, HfSiO4, Y4Al2O9,
YAlO3 et. al.

It was found that production of a multilayer composition on niobium and
tantalum, molybdenised previously, by means of consistent metal
saturation with boron and silicon along with successive saturation on
boride-silicide surface of slurry layer protects the base metal against
oxidation in the temperature range of 1200-1500 oC during 6000-2000 hrs
in both constant and periodic functional conditions.

Technological principles of the process of production by combined
methods of a multilayer coating for the protection of niobium and
tungsten against oxidation have been formulated on the basis of the
investigation performed.

Key words: niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, saturation,
diffusion, solid solution, coating, heat-resistance.

Aeneiaethth ue?o iiaeyeo ae.o.i. A.A. Oeaeiyeo ca iaoeia? eiinoeueoaoe??
oa ii?aaee i?e iaaiai?aii? ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

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