Формувальні суміші з технічними лігносульфонатами та ПАР, що біологічно розкладаються: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / М.І. Куриленко, Нац. техн. у

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO OE?A?IE

“EE?ANUeEEE IIE?OAOII?*IEE ?INOEOOO”

EO?EEAIEI IEOAEEI ?AAIIAE*

OAeE 621.742.4

OI?IOAAEUeI? NOI?O? C OAOI?*IEIE E?AIINOEUeOIIAOAIE

OA IA?, UI A?IEIA?*II ?ICEEAAeATHOUeNss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.04 — Eeaa?ia ae?iaieoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? “Eeaa?ia ae?iaieoeoai /i?ieo oa eieuei?iaeo
iaoae?a” Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nueiiee A?eaae?e Iaaeiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e EA*EI

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?

Oeinueeee Ieaa Eineiiae/

O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a

oa nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a;

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aiaea?nii Aaea??e Aaaonoiae/

AO “EAIAO”,

aee?aeoi? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oeaio?o

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

i. Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 20 “ aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.002.12 Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “EI?” ca aae?anith: 252056, Ee?a,
i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37, IOOO “EI?”, ?OO, ei?ion ?9, aoae. 203.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “EI?” ca aae?anith: 252056, Ee?a,
i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37, IOOO “EI?”

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 19 “ na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oaaei?ia A.?.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

I?e aeaioiaeaii? no?eaei?a oa oi?i aeey /aaoiieo oa noaeueieo a?aeeeaie
oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny oaoi?/i? e?aiinoeueoiiaoe. Oi?ioaaeuei? oa
no?eaeiaa? noi?o? c oeei a’yaeo/ei iathoue aeinoaoiuei aenie?
oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino?, aeia?a aeaeaeythoueny ?c a?aeeeaie oa ia
iathoue i?iaeai ?c ?aaaia?aoe??th. Aeey ia?aaaaeaiiy noi?oae a
??aeeiieeiiee noai (?NN) oa iie?auaiiy ?ioeo aeanoeainoae oe?iei
aeei?enoiaothoueny iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie (IA?).

I?ioa iaei??th ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo niiaeea/eo oa?aeoa?enoee IA?, ia yeo
inoaii?i /anii caa?oathoue ana a?eueoo oaaao, ? ?o a?ieia?/ia
?iceeaaeaiiy — ?iciaae i?ae aieeaii aaeoa??e, eenith oa
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo i?iiai?a. Oea iaoiiaeth? ieeneaiiy i?iiooai?thth/eo
?a/iaeie aei NI2 oa I2I (40% a?ae iane IA?), a ?aooa canaith?oueny
i?e?ii?aai?ciaie. I?iieneia? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie a caeaaeiino?
a?ae nooiaith ?o a?ieia?/iiai ?iceeaaeaiiy i?ae?icae?eythoueny ia o?, ui
a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny oa o?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny.
IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceaaeathoueny, iathoue ?icaaeoaeaiee
aoaeaaiaeiaaee ?aaeeeae, yeee i?noeoue iane/aiee o?aoeiiee aai
/aoaa?oeiiee aoaeaoeue, eio?ee i?aeoe/ii ia i?aeaea?oueny ieeneaiith.
IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, iathoue e?i?eio no?oeoo?o
aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ?aaeeeaeo, o?i?/i? ca’ycee yeiai eaaei ?oeiothoueny i?ae
aieeaii aaeoa??e, eenith oa oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo i?iiai?a, ? a cia/i?e i???
i?aeaeathoueny a?io?i?/iiio i/euaiith. On? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie,
?ic?iaeai? ?ai?o aeey ?NN, a oiio /ene? ? c ENO, ? oeie, ui a?ieia?/ii
ia ?iceeaaeathoueny. I?iieneia? noiee, ui i?noyoue oe? ?a/iaeie, ?
aeieia?ii oe?aeeeaeie ? a iaeaeeae/? ?iee IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, aoaeooue ciyo? c ae?iaieoeoaa oa cai?iai? ia ?a/iaeie,
ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny.

Oiio caaea/a aeeiiaii? ?iaioe — iiooe oa ?ic?iaea aeey oi?ioaaeueieo oa
no?eaeiaaeo noi?oae c oaoi?/ieie e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo
?a/iaei, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy aieeao IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ia aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe?? “ENO+IA?”, ooi/iaiiy
iaoai?cio iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ENO iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie oa ?ic?iaea
e?eoa???a iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny,
ye? aecia/athoue ?o i?eaeaoi?noue aeey noi?oae c ENO.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

1. A?ae?a?aoe oe?ieee niaeo? IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, oa
aeine?aeeoe ?o aeanoeaino? a eiiiiceoe?? c e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie.

2. I?iaiae?coaaoe oa?aeoa? eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino?
i?iiooai?thth/eo aeanoeainoae nenoai ENO-IA?.

3. Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a aaeuei?iieeath/i? o?iiaoia?ao??,
aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-oa?i?/iiai aiae?co ooi/ieoe iaoai?ci aieeao IA? ??cieo
eean?a ia aeanoeaino? e?aiinoeueoiiao?a, eio?? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?o ye
iie?ia?i? ?a/iaeie.

4. Aecia/eoe e?eoa??? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ye? iaaeathoue eiiiiceoe?? “ENO-IA?” iaiao?aei?
i?iiooai?thth/? aeanoeaino? oa i?aeaeuothoue i?oeiinoi? aeanoeaino?
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a.

5. A?aei?aoethaaoe neeaaee a’yceiieanoe/ieo oa ??aeeiieeiieo
naiioaa?ae?th/eo noi?oae c e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie oaoi?/ieie oa
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia.

1. Aea/aii aieea ai?iiaeoeaieo oa ia?iiiaaiieo IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, — noeueoao?a, noeueoiiao?a, iaiiie?a, neioaiie?a,
aee?eieai?ae?a oa ?ioeo ia iniiai? o?ceei-o?i?/i? iieacieee
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a.

2. Iieacaii, ui i?e aca?iiae?? c ENO IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ia a?aei?io a?ae oeo, ui a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, ia a?aeaoaa?oueny /anoeiai? iie?eiiaeainaoe??
a’yaeo/iai oa i?aeaeuaiiy eiai iieaeoey?ii? iane. Oea a cia/i?e i???
cieaeo? a’yaeo/o caeaoi?noue eiiiiceoe?? “ENO-IA?”.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci, yeee iiynith? a?aei?ii?noue aieeao ia
a’yce?noue ?ic/eio “ENO-IA?” ia?iiiaaiieo oa ai?iiaeoeaieo IA?. A ?ac?
aeei?enoaiiy ia?iiiaaiieo IA? aiie ?ic/eiythoueny o aiae? c ooai?aiiyi
aaaeei?ic/eiiiai eiiieaeno, yeee i?aeaeuo? a’ce?noue eiiiiceoe??. I?e
aeei?enoaii? ai?iiaeoeaieo IA? a?aeaoaa?oueny ?o aeenioe?aoe?y o aiae?,
ooai?aiiy aiaeiaaeo ca’ce?a, ui ni?e/eiy? cieaeaiiy a’ceino? ?ic/eio.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a iaea?aeaiiy eiiieaenieo IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, c iaiao?aeiith no?ee?noth oa e?aoi?noth aeoiaeo i?ie
aeey iaea?aeaiiy ??aeeiieeiieo noi?oae. A?i iieyaa? o iaaiiio niieo/aii?
i?oeaei- oa iai?oeaeiooai?thth/eo IA?.

5. Iieacaii, ui ci?ia aeiaaeeie aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ?aaeeeaeo
aee?enoeueoao?a oa aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiao?a i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia
a’ce?noue oa a’yaeo/o caeaoi?noue ENO.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Aia?oa iieacaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy o
neeaaeao oi?ioaaeueieo oa no?eaeiaaeo noi?oae ia iniia? ENO IA?, ui
a?ieiae/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny. Cai?iiiiiaai? neeaaee a’yceiieanoe/ieo oa
??aeeiieeiieo naiioaa?ae?th/eo noi?oae c iioeiaeueieie iieacieeaie ia ?o
iniia?. Neeaaee cai?iiiiiaaieo noi?oae i?ieoee aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/?
aei?iaoaaiiy ia ae?iaie/eo aacao eaai?aoi??? eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?OO
IOOO”EI?” oa noaeaeeaa?iiai oeaoo Ee?anueeiai caaiaeo ?iaeaia?ieo iaoei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue oa
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia ne?aeoth/eo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu a eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa” (Eeaa,
1993a.), “Iiaua ia?niaeoeaiua iaoa?eaeu e oaoiieiaee a iaoaeeo?aee”
(Eeaa, 1994a.), “Iooe iiauoaiey ea/anoaa e yeiiiie/iinoe eeoaeiuo
i?ioeannia” (Iaeanna, 1994, 1995aa.), “Iiaua oaoiieiaeee e ia?eaoeia a
eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa” (Eeaa, 1995a.), “Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee
iieo/aiey e ia?aaioee nieaaia a iaoaeeo?aee e iaoeiino?iaiee” (Eeaa,
1998a.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 3 noaoo?, 6 oacen?a
aeiiia?aeae oa iaea?aeaiee iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, iniiaieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c? 66
iaeiaioaaiue. ?iaioa i?noeoue 165 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a
oiio /ene? 13 oaaeeoeue oa 28 iaethie?a. A aeiaeaoeo i?eaaaeai? aeoe
aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/eo aei?iaoaaiue oi?ioaaeueieo oa no?eaeiaaeo noi?oae
c IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

1. Iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy o neeaaeao
oi?ioaaeueieo oa no?eaeiaaeo noi?oae.

On? IA?, ye? aoee ?ic?iaeai? ?ai?o aeey noi?oae c ENO oa ??aeeei neeii,
? oaeeie, ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny. I?yia cai?ia oeeo
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ia IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny,
aiaeia?/ii? aoaeiae ia i?eaiaeeoue aei iiceoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo. Oea
iia’ycaii c oei, ui IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny oa a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, iaei??? ? o??? ae o?i?/ii? aoaeiae, iath/e iaiaeiaeiao
no?oeoo?o aoaeaaiaeiaaeo ?aaeeeae?a, iathoue ??ci? i?iiooai?thth/?
aeanoeaino?.

A inoaii? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiiy ii ?ic?iaoe? iiaa?iaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei,
ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, i?iaiaeeeenue o?eueee aeey ?NN c ??aeeei
neeii. Aeei?enoaiiy a ?NN c ENO iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ui
a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, eio?? aoee ?ic?iaeai? aeey noi?oae c
??aeeei neeii, ia aea? iaiao?aeiiai ?acoeueoaoo. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui
i?e aca?iiae?? IA? c ??aeeineeyieie ?ic/eiaie a?aeaoaa?oueny ci?ia ?o
i?iiooai?aiiy oa no?eeino? i?ie a ca’yceo c iia??oaiiyi ?ic/eiiino?
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, i?aeaeuaiiith ca’ycaii?noth aiaee o
a?ae?inee?eaoi? eiiieaene, aaeni?aoe??th IA? eiei?aeiei e?aiiacaiii oa
ciaioaiiyi oaeaeeino? aeeooc?? IA?. Oaoi?/i? e?aiinoeueoiiaoe nai?
oaeiae aieiae?thoue iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie aeanoeainoyie ?, ioaea, i?e
aeiaaaoe? aei ieo ?ioeo i?iiooai?thaa/?a iiaeeea yaeua neia?aecio. I?e
neia?aeci? noi?o aeae?eueeio iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei iiaea iaoe
aeanoeaino?, eio?? ia ia? i? iaeia ?c ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo IA?.

Aeey iaea?aeaiiy iiaii? ea?oeie aieeao aoaeiae IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ia ?o aeanoeaino? a eiiiiceoe?? c oaoi?/ieie
e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie oa, a ?acoeueoao? oeueiai ?ic?iaee
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei aeey noi?oae c ENO, iaiao?aeiee neioac
oe?ieiai niaeo?o IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, oa aeine?aeaeaiiy
?o aeanoeainoae a eiiiiceoe?? c e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie.

2. Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue eiiiiceoe?e “ENO-IA?” aecia/aeenue ?o
i?iiooai?thth/? aeanoeaino? (/an no?eeino? oa e?aoi?noue aeoiaeo i?ie)
oa i?oei?noue a’yceiieanoe/ieo noi?oae ia ?o iniia?, ui i?aeaeathoueny
oaieia?e noooe? (OO 13-0281036-89).

Ieeii?noue, aeeao/?noue, aacii?iieei?noue, no?ee?noue i?ie oa i?oei?noue
??aeeiieeiieo naiioaa?ae?th/eo noi?oae aecia/aeenue ca iaoiaeeeith, yea
iienaia ?ai?o.

Aeey aecia/aiiy i?ioean?a iie?eiiaeainaoe?? oa oi?ioaaiiy i?oeiino?
noi?oae c ENO, ia?iaeaieie IA?, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-oa?i?/iee aiae?c (DERIVOTOGRAPF Q-1500D) i?e
oaeaeeino? iaa??ao 25(N/oa, aaeuei?iieeath/a o?iiaoia?ao?y
(o?iiaoia?ao?/ia eieiiea c? niaoe?aeueiei aaeai naoaaeaen G25).

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao neeaaeo oa no?oeoo?e iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo
?a/iaei, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, ia oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino?
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a oaoi?/ieo.

IA?, eio?? aeei?enoiaothoueny a aeaiee /an a noi?oao c ENO, iaeaaeaoue a
iniiaiiio aei eean?a noeueoao?a oa noeueoiiao?a. Oe? IA? ? oi?ioeie
i?iiooai?thaa/aie, aaea iacia/i? aeiaaaee eio?eo aeicaieythoue
iaea?aeoaaoe aaeeeo i?io. Aei oiai ae aiie ? ia?niaeoeaieie a
ne?iaeiiiio oa ae?iaie/iio a?aeiioaiiyo. Oiio i?e a?aeai??
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao ENO aea?? aoei coieiaii ia
noeueoaoao oa noeueoiiaoao, cie?aia, ia ia?niaeoeaieo aee?enoeueoaoao oa
aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiaoao.

sse a?aeiii, a ?ic/eiao ?iiiaaiieo IA? o?eueee i?e aeiaaeei? ?aaeeeaeo
a?eueoa 7 aoaeaaiaeiaaeo aoii?a a?aeaoaa?oueny i?oeaeiooai?aiiy, ui
ni?e/eiy?, cie?aia, iaai? ci?ie i?iiooai?thth/eo aeanoeainoae. Oiio
aaeeeee ?ioa?an aeeeeeathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeiaaaie i?oeaei- oa
iai?oeaeioai?thth/eo IA?, oiaoi ?a/iaei c ??ciith aeiaaeeiith
aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ?aaeeeaeo, ia i?iiooai?aiiy aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a.

O?aoiaoth/e ana aeua neacaia, ca iaoei caeacii IAe?”IA?” (i.Oaaaeeii,
?in?y) aoee neioaciaai? aee?enoeueoaoe oa aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiaoe
o?aeoe?e a?ae 5 aei 20, a oaeiae iio?aei? oeeo ?a/iaei oeio
aee?ea?eenoeueoiiao?a, noeueoiaoieneeao?a oa ?i.

?c ia?iiiaaiieo IA? aoee ii?iaoaai? ieneaoeeiaai? iiiiaee?eoaiiee ia
iniia? o?eia??a i?iieeaio (a?aeii? i?ae iacaith “iaiiiee” OO 103625-87),
ui yaeythoue niaith oaoi?/io noi?o iie?ae?eieaaeo ao???a
iiiiaee?eoaiie?a. A oaia??oi?e /an iaeaaiaeaeo?oueny ae?iaieoeoai oeeo
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ? ieaio?oueny ?o aeei?enoaiiy a aaaaoueio
aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?. Oiio i?e?iaeiei ? ?ioa?an aei aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy a noi?oao c oaoi?/ieie e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie
ieneaoeeiaaieo ia?iiiaaiieo IA?.

Oe?a?ia ia ia? aeinoaoiuei? ne?iaeiii? aace aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei. Iaeiae ia ?? oa?eoi??? ciaoiaeeoueny ?yae
i?aei?e?inoa, ye? caeiathoueny ae?iaieoeoaii yo ieth/eo IA?, oae ?
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei aeey oaoi?/ieo oe?eae ?c i?ea?cii? ne?iaeie.
I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ye? ae?iaeythoueny a aeaiee /an ia Oe?a?i? aeey
oaoi?/ieo oe?eae, aeicaieea aae?a?aoe aeey aeine?aeaeaiue a neeaaeao
oi?ioaaeueieo oa no?eaeiaaeo noi?oie c ENO iaea?eueo yne?aaeo
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo eean?a: ai?iiaeoeai? IA? ia iniia?
aee?eaaicienoeueoiiao?a (noeueoiiiee); ia?iiiaaii? i?iiaanieee
aioeueaoth/i? ae??; ia?iiiaaii? IA? oeio neioaiie?a; ia?iiiaaii? IA?
oeio iaiiie?a; ia?iiiaaii? IA? oeio aee?eieai?ae?a.

A ca’yceo c oei, ui a eaai?aoi??yo Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai oa i?iaeoiiai
?inoeoooo o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino? (i.Ee?a) aaaeooueny ?iaioe ii
ae?iaieoeoao iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ?c a?o/eciyii? ne?iaeie, iaie aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoa
a?ae?a?aiee iaeei ?c oeeo IA? — ia?iiiaaiiee IA? ia iniia?
iiiiae?oea?eae?a ?ainiai? ie??.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue iaie aeey ii??aiyiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
IA?, eio?? canoiniaothoueny a oaia??oi?e /an a eeaa?iiio ae?iaieoeoa?:
noeueoiiie, aooeeiaooae?inoeueoiiaoe iao??th (“Cii/oaa/ IA”), E*I?.

Aieea a?ae?a?aieo c?ace?a IA? ia a’yce?noue oaoi?/ieo e?aiinoeueoiiao?a
iieacaii a oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Aieea iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei ia oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino?
eiiiiceoe?? “ENO+10% IA?”

? IA? A’yce?noue (?,

A?oia Iacaa Na?aaeiy iieaeoey?ia iana A?i?iceea

aeaiiy,

% eiiiiceoe??, n IIa

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 — — — — 80 0.52

Oaaeeoey 1. I?iaeiaaeaiiy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

NOEUeOAOE

2 Ai?iiaeoeai? AN5-6 197 (90 23 0.59

3 ( ( (( AN7-9 232 ( 90 24 0.60

4 ( ( (( AN8-10 246 (90 24 0.58

5 ( ( (( AN7-12 254 (90 20 0.61

6 ( ( (( AN12-14 302 (90 22 0.59

7 ( ( (( AN12-16 316 (90 20 0.60

8 ( ( (( AN10-18 316 (90 19 0.63

9 ( ( (( Aee?eaoiene

noeueoaoe 434 90 35 0.57

10 ( ( (( Aee?eoaiieaoiene

noeueoaoe 775 90 160 0.41

NOEUeOIIAOE

11 Ai?iiaeoeai? Aooeeiaooae?i

noeueoiiaoe 312 (45 21 0.98

12 ( ( (( E*I? 250 (50 19 1.20

13 ( ( (( Noeueoiiie

N8-N14 334 (50 21 1.10

14 ( ( (( Noeueoiiie

N8-N14 334 85 20 0.66

15 ( ( (( AAN8-10 306 90 22 0.64

16 ( ( (( AIN7-9 256 (90 21 0.63

17 ( ( (( AIN12-14 326 (90 22 0.61

18 ( ( (( AIN16-18 384 (90 20 0.60

19 ( ( (( AIN8-10OAA 306 (90 21 0.59

20 ( ( (( Noeueoi

aoieneeaoe 418 90 30 0.26

IAIIIEE

21 Ia?iiiaaii? Iaiiie AO9-7 512 85 160 0.43

22 ( ( (( Iaiiie i?ii?aeiee 622 85 165 0.40

Oaaeeoey 1. I?iaeiaaeaiiy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

23 ( ( (( Iaiiie AO9-12 732 85 173 0.39

24 ( ( (( Naaaiie NVP 600 85 100 0.52

25 Ai?iiaeoeai? NAO9-9 715 85 167 0.41

IIE?IENEI?IIEEAIIA? AAI IIE?IENEAOEEAIIA? AO??E IA?AEIIEO AEE?IEO
NIE?O?A

26 Ia?iiiaaii? I?iieiie A-400 12100 85 70 0.40

27 ( ( (( IAA 115 13915 85 72 0.33

NEIOAIIEE

28 ( ( (( Neioaiie AOeNA12 — 85 67 0.53

29 ( ( (( IN-20 — 85 71 0.54

AEE?EIEAI?AeE

30 Ia?iiiaaii? Oeeeeai?ae

N10-N16 931 85 30 0.65

IA? IA INIIA? IIIIAE?OeA?EAe?A ?AINIAI? IE??

31 Ai?iiaeoeai? AeIN 522 (90 86 0.53

sse aa/eii ?c iaaaaeaieo o oaaeeoe? 1 aeaieo, oa?aeoa? aieeao noeueoao?a
(iic. 2-8) oa noeueoiiao?a (iic. 11-20), ie??i
aee?eoaiieaoienenoeueoao?a (iic. 10), ia a’yce?noue eiiiiceoe?? “ENO+10%
IA?” aiaeia?/iee aieeao E*I? (iic. 12).

I?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo oeeo ?a/iaei aiane?aeie i?io?eath/eo
aaeni?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia iaae? iiae?eo oac “ENO-IA?” a?aeaoaa?oueny
cieaeaiiy a’yceino? e?aiinoeueoiiao?a. Ci?ia aeiaaeeie aoaeaaiaeiaaiai
?aaeeeaeo aee?enoeueoao?a oa aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiao?a ia ?iaeoue
cia/iiai aieeao ia a’yce?noue aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a e?aiinoeueoiiao?a
oaoi?/ieo. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, ui
a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny oa a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny,
aiaeia?/iiai neeaaeo iathoue iaeiaeiaee oa?aeoa? aieeao ia a’yce?noue
eiiiiceoe??. sse aa/eii, iaea?eueoith i??ith cieaeothoue a’yce?noue
aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a oaoi?/ieo e?aiinoeueoiiao?a, a ioaea, ? aoaeooue
ni?e/eiyoe iaeneiaeueia i?aeaeuaiiy a’yaeo/i? caeaoiino? ENO ca ?aooiie
ciaioaiiy oiaueie ie?aee a’yaeo/iai ia iiaa?oiino? iaiiaithaa/a,
ai?iiaeoeai? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie oeio noeueoao?a oa
noeueoiiao?a, cie?aia o?, ye? a?aeiinyoueny aei ?yae?a aee?enoeueoao?a,
aee?eaaicienoeueoiiao?a, aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiao?a oa
aooeeiaooae?inoeueoiiao?a (iic. 2-8, 11-19). C ia?iiiaaiieo IA? iaee?au?
?acoeueoaoe i?e ia?iaoe? e?aiinoeueoiiao?a oaoi?/ieo oeeeeai?aeii
N10-N16 (iic. 30).

Ia?iiiaaii? IA? (iic. 21-24, 26-28) iaioith i??ith cieaeothoue
a’yce?noue aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a ENO. ??ciee aieea ia a’yce?noue oaoi?/ieo
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a ai?iiaeoeaieo oa ia?iiiaaiieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo
?a/iaei, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiynith?oueny ??cieie iaoai?ciaie ?o
?ic/eiiino?. Oae ?ic/eii?noue ai?iiaeoeaieo IA? iaoiiaeaia ?o
aeenioe?aoe??th o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao. Ia?iiiaaii? ae iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai?
?a/iaeie o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao ia aeenioe?ththoue, ?o ?ic/eii?noue
iaoiiaeaia ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?oiaie, ye? iathoue aaeeeo nii??aeiai?noue
c aiaeith. Aea/ai? iaie ia?iiiaaii? IA? yaeythoue niaith i?iaeoeoe
eiiaeainaoe?? i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei, ye? oo?eiothoue a nia? aeoeaiee
aiaeaiue c ieneaeii aoeeaio. A caeaaeiino? a?ae e?eueeino? i?e?aeiaieo
iie?a ieneaeo aoeeaio ci?ith?oueny ? ?o ?ic/eii?noue. I?e ca?eueoaii?
aeiaaeeie ieneaoeeaiiaiai eaioethaa ?ic/eii?noue ia?iiiaaiieo IA?
i?aeaeuo?oueny. Iaeiae o aea/aieo iaie ieneaoeeaiiaeo aee?eoaiie?a oa
IA? oeio ?o ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? iie?a ieneaeo aoeeaio ia?aeaeueii c
?ic/eii?noth aeeeeea? ooai?aiiy c aiaeith aaaeei?ic/eiieo eiiieaen?a,
cie?aia a?aeaoaa?oueny caa?oaiiy iieaeoe iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaii? ?a/iaeie oa
iaaie?eaiiy ii?iaeiei aiaee, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy aaeth, ui a
naith /a?ao aeeeeea? i?aeaeuaiiy a’ceino? ?ic/eio. Aaaaeaiiy a no?oeoo?o
ia?iiiaaiieo IA? oaeiai oeio aeiaeaoeiaeo a?ae?io?eueieo a?oi (cie?aia
ai?iia?oi aeey oeeeeai?aeo N10-N16) i?aeaeuo? ?o ?ic/eii?noue. O
ai?iiaeoeaieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ye? iathoue o no?oeoo??
ieneae aoeeaio, ia iaoo aeoieo, ia?aeaeueii ?c aeenioe?aoe??th iieaeoe
a?aeaoaa?oueny ? ooai?aiiy aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a ?, ioaea, a iaai?e i??? ?o
?ic/eii?noue caeaaeeoue ? a?ae nooiaith ieneaoaethaaiiy aai
ienei?iieethaaiiy. Oae noeueoiaaiee iaiiie NAO9-9 (iic. 25), oi/a ? ?
ai?iaeoeaiei IA?, aea iiae?aii aei iaiiie?a AO (iic. 21-23) i?aeaeuo?
a’yce?noue aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a e?aiinoeueoiiao?a. Ai?iiaeoeai? IA?
(noeueoiaoieneeaoe oa aee?eaoienenoeueoaoe), eio?? iathoue a nai?e
no?oeoo?? ieneaoeeaiiaee eaioetha, iaioith i??ith cieaeothoue a’yce?noue
ENO ii??aiyii c ?ioeie noeueoaoaie oa noeueoiiaoaie. I/aaeaeii, ooo
ia?aeaeueii c aeenioe?aoe??th iieaeoe oaeiae a?aeaoaa?oueny aca?iiae?y
aeaieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei c iieaeoeaie aiaee /a?ac ao??i? aoiie
eenith oa ooai?aiiy aaaeei?ic/eiieo eiiieaen?a.

sse aa/eii c oaaeeoe? 1, aeiaaaee IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, ye? a cia/i?e i??? cieaeothoue a’yce?noue aiaeieo
?ic/ei?a ENO, aeeeeeathoue cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy oei/aniaiai iii?o ?ic?eao
aenooaieo c?ace?a (iic. 11, 12, 13). Iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, ui
a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, eio?? oae, ye ? IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, a cia/i?e i??? cieaeothoue a’yce?noue
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a, iaaiith i??ith i?aeaeuothoue oei/aniaee ii?? ?ic?eao
a’yceiieanoe/ieo noi?oae caaaeyee e?auiio ?iciiae?eo ENO oa ciaioaiith
oiaueie ie?aee a’yaeo/iai ia iiaa?oi? iaiiaithaa/a (iic. 2-8, 14-19).
Iaeiae iiaeeo?eoth/ee ?oaeo i?e ia?iaoe? oeeie IA? e?aiinoeueoiiao?a a
1.5-1.8 ?ace iaioee, i?ae i?e aeei?enoaii? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei,
ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny.

Iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, ye?
i?aeaeuothoue a’ce?noue ENO, i?ecaiaeyoue aei a??oiai eiai ?iciiae?eo oa
noiauaiith ie?aee a’aeo/iai ia iiaa?oi? iaiiaithaa/a. Oea, a naith
/a?ao, ni?e/eiy? cieaeaiiy i?oeiinoieo aeanoeainoae a’yceiieanoe/ieo
noi?oae c aeaieie IA? (iic. 10, 21-23, 25).

IA?, ye? ia ?iaeyoue cia/iiai aieeao ia a’yce?noue aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a ENO,
i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaathoue ia i?oeiinoi? aeanoeaino? a’ceiieanoe/ieo
noi?oae , ui i?aeaeathoueny oaieia?e noooe? (iic. 24, 28, 29, 31).
Cieaeaiiy oei/aniaiai iii?o ?ic?eao c 0.52 IIa aei 0.33-0.40 IIa i?e
aeiaaaoe? a ENO i?iiaaniee?a A-400 oa IAA-115 (iic. 26, 27), eio?? a
iacia/i?e i??? iiieaeothoue a’ce?noue a’yaeo/iai, ia iaoo aeoieo
iiynith?oueny ne?aeoth/ei. sse aa/eii ?c oaaeeoe? 1, oe? IA? ?
aenieiiieaeoey?ieie ?a/iaeiaie (na?aaeiy iieaeoey?ia iana a?aeiia?aeii
12100 oa 13915). I?e aeiaaaoe? aei ENO aiie ooai?ththoue ia iiaa?oi?
a’yaeo/iai u?eueio ie?aeo, ui ? aeeeeea? ?o i?iiaanio ae?th. Ioaea, i?e
?iciiae?e? a’aeo/iai, ia?iaeaiiai aeaieie i?iiaanieeaie, i?ae /anoeieaie
iaiiaithaa/a, A-400 oa IAA-115 ?ici?uothoueny ia iiaa?oi? ie?aee ENO, ?,
oei naiei, noiauothoue ??. A oea, ye aaea cacia/aeinue, ni?e/eiy?
cieaeaiiy i?oeiinoieo aeanoeainoae noi?oae. C ae?oaiai aieo, aeiaaaee
A-400 oa IAA-115 ia aeeeeeathoue i?aeaeuaiiy a’aeo/i? cae?aiino? ENO ca
?aooiie aeiaeaoeiaiai aaiaeo o?aeoe?e c aaeeeith iieaeoey?iith ianith
(a?aeiia?aeii 12100 oa 13915) oiio, ui aeai? IA? ? oeie, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ?, ioaea, iathoue e?i?eio no?oeoo?o. A, ye a?aeiii,
e?i?ei? iieaeoee iie?ia??a iathoue aeoaea iecueeo a’yaeo/o caeaoi?noue.

Noeueoiaoieneeaoe, ye? ciaioothoue a’yce?noue aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a oaoi?/ieo iaeaea a 2 ?ace, cieaeothoue i?oei?noue
a’yceiieanoe/ieo noi?oae (iic. 20). Oea iiynith?oueny iecueeith
oaiia?aoo?ith aeano?oeoe?? oeeo IA?, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
?acoeueoaoaie aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-oa?i?/iiai aiae?co noeueoiaoieneeao?a.

sse aeo?ea? ?c iaaaaeaieo aeaieo, IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny oa
a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny, ii-??ciiio aieeaathoue ia a’yaeo/o
caeaoi?noue e?aiinoeueoiiao?a oaoi?/ieo. Oae i?e ia?iaoe? ENO
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, eio??
iiae?aii IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny, cieaeothoue a’yce?noue
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a oaoi?/ieo, i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiinoieo aeanoeainoae
a’yaeo/iai a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy oiaueie ie?aee
a’yaeo/iai ia iiaa?oi? iaiiaithaa/a. Iaeiae, oae ye aeei?enoiaoaai?
e?aiinoeueoiiaoe iathoue iaaenieo a’yce?noue ? ?o iieaeoee ? aeinoaoiuei
?ooeeaeie, oi oeae aieea iacia/iee. I?e ia?iaoe? ae ENO IA?, ui
a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny, iiaeio?eoth/ee ?oaeo ia iaiaaeo?oueny
o?eueee cieaeaiiyi a’ceino? a’yaeo/iai. I/aaeaeii ia?aeaeueii c oeei, ye
? o E*I?, a?aeaoaa?oueny aeiaeaoeiaa aca?iiae?y i?ae iieaeoeaie
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a oa IA?, yea ni?e/eiy? i?aeaeuaiiy a’yaeo/i? caeaoiino?
ENO.

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iaoeo i?eiouaiue i?iaaaeai? II? oa AeOA ?ic/ei?a
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a, ia?iaeaieo IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny oa
a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny. Aeey oe??? iaoe ?c IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, iaie aoee a?ae?a?ai? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, ye?
a?aeiinyoueny aei ??cieo eean?a IA? oa iii?oii cieaeothoue a’yce?noue
aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a ENO: noeueoiiie N8-N14, AAN8-10, oeeeeai?ae N10-N16 oa
ne?aeoth/? i?aaenoaaieee aee?enoeueoao?a: AN5-6, AN12-14 oa
aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiao?a: AIN7-9, AIN12-14, eio?? a cia/i?e i???
a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai aeiaaeeiith aoaeaaiaeiaaiai
?aaeeeaeo. Aeey ii??aiyiiy iaoai?cio aieeao IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny oa a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny, ia aeanoeaino?
e?aiinoeueoiiaoa canoiniaoaaeenue ne?aeoth/? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai?
?a/iaeie, ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny: aooeeiaooae?inoeueoiiaoe,
noeueoiiie N8-N14, E*I?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieaeoey?ii-ianiaiai ?iciiae?eo iaea?aeaieo eiiiiceoe?e
iieacaee, ui iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, ui a?ieia?/ii-?iceeaaeathoueny
oa a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny, ii-??ciiio aieeaathoue ia iieaeoey?io
iano oaoi?/ieo e?aiinoeueoiiao?a (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2.

Iieaeoey?ii-ianiaee ?iciiae?e oa na?aaeiy iieaeoey?ia iana ENO,
ia?iaeaieo IA?

? Iacaa IA? A?i?iceeaaeaiiy IA?, % Ai?no o?aeoe?e, %

Na?aaeiy iieaeoey?ia iana

AIO NIO IIO Iz Mw Mn

1 — — 35.3 23.9 40.8 116300 33200 5050

2 E*I? (50 37.0 31.4 31.6 118720 38890 8890

3 Noeueoiiie

N8-N14 (50 36.4 29.8 33.8 117340 37420 7620

4 Aooeeiaooae?i

noeueoiiaoe (45 37.1 30.8 32.1 117960 38370 8110

5 Noeueoiiie

N8-N14 85 35.4 24.2 40.4 116340 33420 5150

6 AAN8-10 90 35.3 25.1 39.6 116420 33290 5170

7 AN5-6 (90 35.6 23.9 40.5 116600 33240 5140

8 AN12-14 (90 35.2 24.0 40.8 116310 33220 5090

9 AIN7-9 (90 35.5 24.2 40.3 116620 33220 5080

10 AIN12-14 (90 35.2 23.8 41.0 116350 33260 5100

11 Oeeeeai?ae

N10-N16 85 35.7 24.1 40.2 116710 33310 5120

Oae noeueoiiie oa aooeeiaooae?inoeueoiiaoe, ui a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, ye ? E*I? iii?oii i?aeaeuothoue ai?no
na?aaeiueiiieaeoey?ieo o?aeoe?e oa ciaioothoue ai?no iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo
o?aeoe?e o neeaae? ENO (oaae. 2, iic. 2-4). Ia?iaea ae oaoi?/ieo
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, i?aeoe/ii ia aeeeeea? ci?ie ai?noo cacia/aieo o?aeoe?e
(iic. 5-11). *anoeiao iie?eiiaeainaoe?th iieaeoe e?aiinoeueoiiao?a i?e
ia?iaoe? ?o IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?
aeai? aeeoa?aioe?aeueii-oa?i?/iiai aiae?co eiiiiceoe?e.

??ci? iaoai?cie aca?iiae?? c e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo
?a/iaei, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny oa a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiyniththoueny ??ciith no?oeoo?ith ?o
iieaeoe. I?e ia?iaoe? e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie
a?aeaoaa?oueny aca?iiae?y i?ae iieaeoeaie IA? oa ENO, yea aeeeeea?
ca?eueoaiiy iieaeoe a’yaeo/iai. Aea e?i?ei? iieaeoee IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ooai?ththoue iaeeie/i? ca’ycee c iieaeoeaie
e?aiinoeueoiiao?a. Oea aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe o?eueee e?i?ei? eiiieaene,
ye? ia a?aei?io a?ae o?ei??ieo iathoue iaaaeeeo i?oei?noue ? eaaei
?oeiothoueny. ?icaaeoaeai? ae iieaeoee IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, iathoue o?ei??io no?oeoo?o ? iaeii/anii ooai?ththoue
aeae?eueea ca’yce?a c iieaeoeaie e?aiinoeueoiiao?a. I?e oeueiio
ooai?ththoueny ?icaaeoaeai? no?oeoo?e, ye? iiaeooue ca’ycoaaoenue a
i?oeiee o?ei??iee eiiieaen ?c caeo/aiith aieiaith, yeee caa??aa? iiaio
?ooeea?noue, ui ia a?aeaeaa?oueny ia a’yceino? ?ic/eio.

?c aeua iaaaaeaiiai iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui IA?, ye? a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, ia a?aei?io a?ae oeo, ui a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny, iie?auothoue a’yaeo/? aeanoeaino? e?aiinoeueoiiao?a
oaoi?/ieo o?eueee ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy a’yceino? oa iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao
ENO, ?, aiane?aeie oeueiai, e?auiai ?iciiae?eo a’yaeo/iai oa ciaioaiiy
oiaueie eiai ie?aee ia iiaa?oi? iaiiaithaa/a. *anoeiaa iie?eiiaeainaoe?y
a’yaeo/iai i?e oeueiio ia a?aeaoaa?oueny. Aea, oae ye iieaeoee
aeei?enoiaaieo e?aiinoeueoiiao?a iathoue aenieo ?ooeea?noue oa iiaeooue
ooai?thaaoe aeinoaoiuei oiie? ie?aee ia iiaa?oi? iaiiaithaa/a ? aac
aeiaeaoeiaiai aaaaeaiiy iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, oi i?aeaeuaiiy
a’yaeo/i? caeaoiino? i?e oeueiio ia cia/ia ? noaiiaeoue anueiai 20-25%
a?ae i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino?, eio?a niinoa??aa?oueny i?e iiaea?ei?e ae??
IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny.

IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, iiaeooue aeaoe cia/iee aoaeo i?e
iiaeeo?eoaaii? e?aiinoeueoiiao?a c aenieith a’yce?noth, cie?aia
A?oaiaaeuenueeiai, Eainueeiai, Eae?i?a?aaenueeiai, Nie?eainueeiai OeIE.
?c aeine?aeaeo?ieo IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, iiaeia
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeey oe??? iaoe ne?aeoth/? cieaeoaa/? a’yceino?:
aee?eaaicienoeueoiiaoe, aee?enoeueoaoe, aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiaoe,
aee?eaoienenoeueoaoe, oeeeeai?ae N10-N16.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iiooai?thth/eo aeanoeainoae eiiiiceoe?e “Aiaeiee
?ic/ei e?aiinoeueoiiao?a oaoi?/ieo – iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie”.

sse oaea cacia/aeinue, oae? aeanoeaino? ?NN, ye ieeii?noue, aeeao/?noue,
aacii?iieei?noue, ii?eno?noue, i?oei?noue iaoiiaeththoueny
i?iiooai?thth/ith caeaoi?noth eiiiiceoe?? “Aiaeiee ?ic/ei ENO — IA?”.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie i?iaiaeeeenue ia eiiiiceoe?? “?ic/ei ENO — IA?” c?
ai?noii nooeo ?a/iaei o a’yaeo/iio 30%. Aea/aeenue on? a?ae?a?ai?
iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, a aeey
ii??aiyiiy oaeiae ne?aeoth/? ?a/iaeie, ui a?ieia?/ii ia
?iceeaaeathoueny: E*I?, noeueoiiie N8-N14, aooeeiaooae?inoeueoiiaoe.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? aeiaaeeie
aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ?aaeeeaeo oeeo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei
i?iiooai?thth/? aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe?? “ENO-IA?” ia?aoiaeyoue /a?ac
iaeneioi, oae ye aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa? i?e oeueiio ia? iiaa?oiaaa
aeoeai?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo IA?. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui IA?, ye?
a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny, caaaeyee ?icaaeoaeai?e no?oeoo??
iieaeoee, aeicaieythoue iaea?aeoaaoe iooeo aenieo i?io c iaaenieei /anii
?? no?eeino?. E?i?ei? ae iieaeoee IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny,
aaia?othoue no?eeo ae??aiiii?enoo i?io. ?c on?o aeine?aeaeaieo iaie IA?,
ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, iaee?au? i?iiooai?thth/? aeanoeaino?
iathoue i?aaenoaaieee noeueoao?a oa noeueoiiao?a. I?e ia?iaoe? aeaieie
?a/iaeiaie ?ic/ei?a e?aiinoeueoiiao?a a?aeaoaa?oueny aaeni?aoe?eia
aca?iiae?y i?ae iiaa?iaai-aeoeaieie eiiiiiaioaie ?ic/eio:

— aaeni?aoe?y iieaeoe IA? iieaeoeaie e?aiinoeueoiiao?a, eio?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? IA? ni?e/eiy? ooai?aiiy 1-ai, 2-ai aai
3-ai aaeni?aoe?eieo oa??a, ui aeeeeea? ci?io a?ae?io?eueii-a?ae?ioiaiiai
aaeaino iieaeoe e?aiinoeueoiiiaiai eiiieaeno;

— iacaeaaeia aaeni?aoe?y iieaeoe IA? ia iiaa?oiino? ?ic/eio oa, ioaea,
aeoeniaiiy iieaeoe e?aiinoeueoiiao?a c iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o.

Iecueeiiieaeoey?i? IA?, ui ia ooai?ththoue i?oeae (aeiaaeeia
aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ?aaeeeaeo iaioa 7), ia iiaeooue cia/ii ci?ieoe
a?ae?io?euei?noue e?aiinoeueoiiiaiai eiiieaeno ? i?e iaeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?yo i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaathoue ia no?ee?noue i?ie eiiiiceoe??.
I?e aaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo oe? IA? aaeni?aothoueny a iiaa?oiaaiio oa??
?ic/eio ?, ine?eueee aiie ? i?iiaanieeaie, no?ee?noue i?ie cieaeo?oueny.
No?ee?noue i?ie i?oeaeiooai?thth/eo IA? ci?ith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei
ci?ie a?ae?io?eueii-a?ae?ioiaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?aiinoeueoiiiaiai
eiiieaeno aiane?aeie aaeni?aoe?? iei iieaeoe IA?. I?e aenie?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? IA? no?ee?noue i?ie aecia/a?oueny ?o iacaeaaeiith
aaeni?aoe??th a iiaa?oiaaiio oa??.

?c on?o ia?iiiaaiieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei aenie? i?iiooai?thth/?
aeanoeaino? iathoue o?eueee IA? oeio aee?eieai?ae?a, cie?aia oeeeeai?ae
N10-N16.

I?aeoe/ii on? aeine?aeaeai? iaie IA? ? i?oeaeiooai?thth/eie. I?e
aeinyaiaii? iaiao?aeii? e?aoiino? aeoiaeo i?ie eiiiiceoe?? (2.4-2.5
iae.) ?? no?ee?noue aecia/a?oueny iacaeaaeiith aaeni?aoe??th aeaieo IA?
a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? ? aeey i?oeaeiooai?thth/eo ?a/iaei iaaoaa? aaeeeeo
cia/aiue (a?eueoa 120 oa). ??aeeiieeii? naiioaa?ae?th/? noi?o? aac
oaieiai? nooee i?e aeei?enoaii? oaeeo IA? ia iathoue aacii?iieeiino?.

No?ee?noue i?ie iai?oeaeiooai?thth/eo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei i?e
aeinyaiaii? iaiao?aeii? e?aoiino? oaeiae aecia/a?oueny ?o aaeni?aoe??th
a iiaa?oiaaiio oa??. A oiio, ui ?a/iaeie ? i?iiaanieeaie, eiiiiceoe?y
ia? aeoaea iecueeee /an no?eeino? i?ie (120 nae). I?e aeei?enoaii? oaeeo
IA? ?NN i?aeoe/ii ia iathoue aeeao/ino?.

Oaeei /eiii ie iiaeaii c?iaeoe ne?aeoth/ee aeniiaie — aeey iaea?aeaiiy
eiiiiceoe?? c iioeiaeueieie i?iiooai?th/eie aeanoeainoyie (e?aoi?noue
aeoiaeo i?ie — 2.4-2.5 iae., /an no?eeino? i?ie — 200 nae) iaiao?aeii
canoiniaoaaoe eiiieaeni? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny. Aieiaia aeiiaa — iayai?noue noi?o? i?iiooai?thaa/?a oa
i?iiaaniee?a. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui o yeino? i?iiaanieea iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iecueeiiieaeoey?i? iai?oeaeiooai?thth/? IA?. Aeiaaaee
i?iiaaniee?a aioeueaoth/i? ae??, oeio IAA-115 oa i?iieiie A-400,
ni?e/eiythoue aaeni?aoe?eia aeoeniaiiy iieaeoe i?iiooai?thaa/a c
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o ? aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe?? i?e oeueiio acia/athoueny
aeanoeainoyie i?iiaanieea. I?e aeei?enoaii? ae noi?o?
iai?oeaeiooai?thth/eo oa i?oeaeiooai?thth/eo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei
a?aeaoaathoueny ne?aeoth/? i?ioeane. I?oeaeiooai?thth/? i?iiooai?thaa/?,
aaeni?aoth/enue ia iiaa?oi? eiiiiceoe?? “?ic/ei ENO — IA?”, iaaeathoue
?e aenie? e?aoi?noue aeoiaeo oa /an no?eeino? i?ie. Aeiaeaoeiaa
aaeni?aoe?y iai?oeaeiooai?thth/eo i?iiaaniee?a, oiaoi IA? c aeiaaeeiith
aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ?aaeeeaeo iaioa 7, aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy /ano no?eeino?
i?ie ca ?aooiie ?o i?iiaanii? ae??, oae ye aiie aaeni?aothoueny i?ae
aaeeeeie iieaeoeaie i?iiooai?thaa/a ? ?iciooothoue i?io. Cieaeaiiy ae
e?aoiino? aeoiaeo i?ie i?e oeueiio ia a?aeaoaa?oueny ?c-ca yaeua
neia?aecio — i?e aeei?enoaii? noi?o? iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo oa
aenieiiieaeoey?ieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei a?aeaoaa?oueny ooai?aiiy
anioeeao?a c i?aeaeuaiiyi ?o i?iiooai?thth/eo aeanoeainoae. Aeanoeaino?,
iaea?eueo aeecuee? aei iioeiaeueieo, iathoue ne?aeoth/? eiiiiceoe??:
AN5-6 — 2.5% oa AN8-10 -5.0% (e?aoi?noue auoiaeo 2.5 iae., no?ee?noue
i?ie 8 oa); AN5-6 — 3.0% oa AN8-10 -5.0% (2.5 iae., 4 oa); AN5-6 — 2.5%
oa AN10-18 — 7.5% (2.8 iae., 10 oa); AN5-6 — 3.0% oa AN10-18 — 7.5%
(2.8 iae., 6 oa); AN5-6 — 2.75% oa AN12-14 — 4.0% (2.9 iae., 9 oa);
AN5-6 — 3.0% oa AN12-14 — 4.0% (2.9 iae., 6 oa).

5. ?ic?iaea iioeiaeueieo neeaae?a ??aeeiieeiieo naiioaa?ae?th/eo noi?oae
c oaoi?/ieie e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie oa IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaie i?e a?aei?aoeueiaoaaii?
neeaae?a ?NN c iioeiaeueieie oaoiieia?/ieie aeanoeainoyie (oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3.

Oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ?NN c ENO oa eiiieaenieie IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny

I?ii

ooai?th

aa/ Ai?no i?ii

ooai?thaa/a, ian./. Ai?no

AN5-6,, ian./.

Oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? ?NN

a

?NN a

ENO a

?NN a

ENO Ieei

i?noue, ii AEeao

/?noue, oa Aacii?iieei?noue, iae, /a?ac, aiae I?oei?noue,

IIa, /a?ac, aiae

1 2 24 1 2 24

0.425 5 0.17 2.0 108 8 77 119 134 0.25 0.37 1.6

AN8-10 0.425 5 0.21 2.5 106 7 136 163 171 0.32 0.44 1.62

0.425 5 0.26 3.0 100 2 138 178 193 0.30 0.51 1.7

AN10-18 0.65 7.5 0.21 2.5 119 11 151 178 193 0.35 0.51 1.6

0.65 7.5 0.26 3.0 122 7 167 173 198 0.36 0.56 1.6

0.34 4 0.24 2.75 126 12 146 183 193 0.37 0.61 1.62

AN12-14 0.34 4 0.26 3.0 131 8 167 178 198 0.39 0.62 1.4

0.34 4 0.425 5.0 106 1 167 173 185 0.35 0.64 1.3

E*I? 0.65 7.5 — — 105 5 112 122 167 0.55 0.7 2.1

sse aa/eii, aa??thth/e ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi eiiiiiaio?a eiiieaenieo IA? ie
iiaeaii ?aaoethaaoe oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? noi?oae. sse aeo?ea? ?c
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, i?e aeei?enoaii? IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, aeey io?eiaiiy ??aeeiieeiieo naiioaa?ae?th/eo noi?oae
c? a’yaeo/ei ENO, ye? aoaeooue iaoe aenieo aeeao/?noue, oaeo/?noue,
aacii?iieei?noue, iaiao?aeii, uia no?ee?noue i?ie eiiiiceoe?? “?ic/ei
ENO — IA?” ciaoiaeeeanue a iaaeao 7-9 oa, a e?aoi?noue aeoiaeo i?ie —
aeua 2.5 iae.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui cai?iiiiiaai? iaie ??aeeiieeii? naiioaa?ae?th/?
noi?o? c eiiieaenieie iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, iathoue aeaui cieaeai? i?oeiinoi? aeanoeaino?
ii??aiyii c ?NN c E*I?, iniaeeai a ia?o? aiaeeie oaa?ae?iiy. Aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiinoieo aeanoeainoae ??aeeiieeiieo naiioaa?ae?th/eo
noi?oae c IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, ie ?aeiiaiaeo?ii
cieaeaiiy ai?noo aieiae a noi?o? ia 0.5 ian./. Oea eiiiaino? aieiao, yea
aaiaeeoueny c iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie. I?e oeueiio
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? aei 1.85-1.95 IIa oa iacia/ia
cieaeaiiy ieeiiino? oa aeeao/ino? noi?o?. Aea i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo
i?iiooai?thaa/a ia 0.05-0.15 ian./. iiiiaeth? iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i?
aeanoeaino? aeeao/ino? oa ieeiiino? noi?o?. Oaeei /eiii, iioeiaeuei?
oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? iathoue ?NN ne?aeoth/iai neeaaeo (ian./): i?nie
— 97, aeeia — 3, ENO(32% n.?.) — 8.5, CrO3 — 0.5, eiiieaeniee IA? —
0.75-1.1.

Eiiieaeniee IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaea?oueny, iaiao?aeii aiooaaoe
oeyoii ia?ai?oaiiy i?iiooai?thaa/a oa i?iiaanieea a iaiao?aeieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo. Iiaeeeaa oaeiae ?icae?eueia aaaaeaiiy eiiiiiaio?a.
Iioeiaeueieie ? ne?aeoth/? aeiaaaee eiiieaenieo iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo
?a/iaei (ian./.): 0.55-0.60 AC8-10 + 0.2-0.25 AN5-6; 0.65-0.70 AN10-18 +
0.2-0.25 AN5-6; 0.35-0.40 AN12-14 + 0.25-0.27 AN5-6.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee

1. Aea/aii aieea ai?iiaeoeaieo oa ia?iiiaaiieo IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny — noeueoao?a, noeueoiiao?a, iaiiie?a, neioaiie?a,
aee?eieai?ae?a oa ?i. ia iniiai? o?ceei-o?i?/i? iieacieee (a’yce?noue,
e?aoi?noue aeoiaeo oa no?ee?noue i?ie, oei/aniaee ii?? ?ic?eao)
a’yaeo/iai ENO. Iieacaii, ui e?au? iieacieee i?iyaeythoueny i?e
aeei?enoaii? ai?iiaeoeaieo IA? oeio aee?enoeueoao?a (AN10-18),
aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiao?a (AIN16-18) oa aee?eaaicienoeueoiiao?a
(AAN8-10).

2. Iieacaii, ui ci?ia aeiaaeeie aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ?aaeeeaeo
aee?enoeueoao?a oa aeueoaieao?inoeueoiiao?a i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia
a’yce?noue oa a’yaeo/o caeaoi?noue ENO.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?iiiaaii? IA?, ye? a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, a
iaio?e i??? cieaeothoue a’yce?noue ?ic/ei?a ENO, i?ae ai?iiaeoeai?. Oea
iiynith?oueny a?aei?ii?noth iaoai?ci?a ?o ?ic/eiiino?. Ia?iiiaaii? IA?
i?e ?ic/eiaii? o aiae? ooai?ththoue aaaeei?ic/eii? eiiieaene i?aeaeuaii?
a’ceino?. I?e ?ic/eiaii? ai?iiaeoeaieo IA? a?aeaoaa?oueny ?o
aeenioe?aoe?y oa ooai?aiiy aiaeiaaeo ca’yce?a, ui a cia/i?e i??? cieaeo?
a’yce?noue ?ic/eio.

4. Iaoiaeaie aaeuei?iieeath/i? o?iiaoia?ao?? oa AeOA anoaiiaeaii, ui
ia?iaea ENO IA?, ye? a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny, (noeueoiiie, E*I?,
aooeeiaooae?inoeueoiiaoe) ni?e/eiy? eiai /anoeiao iie?eiiaeainaoe?th.
Ia?iaea ENO IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, ia ni?e/eiy? iiae?aiiai
?oaeoo.

5. Iieacaii, ui IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, ia a?aei?io a?ae
oeo, ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny, iie?auothoue a’yaeo/o
caeaoi?noue ENO a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy a’yceino? ?ic/eio,
e?auiai eiai ?iciiae?eo oa ciaioaiiy oiaueie ie?aee a’yaeo/iai ia
iiaa?oi? iaiiaithaa/a. *anoeiaa iie?eiiaeainaoe?y i?e oeueiio ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny ? a ?acoeueoao? ?oaeo neeaaea? 20-25% a?ae oiai, ui
iaea?aeaiee i?e ia?iaoe? ENO IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ia ?iceeaaeathoueny.

6. Aea/aii aieea IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, ia i?iiooai?thth/?
(e?aoi?noue aeoiaeo, no?ee?noue i?ie) aeanoeaino? eiiiiceoe?? “ENO-IA?”.
E?au? i?iiooai?thth/? aeanoeaino? iathoue i?aaenoaaieee noeueoao?a,
noeueoiiao?a oa aee?eieai?ae?a (e?aoi?noue aeoiaeo i?ie 2.4-2.5 iae.).

7. Iieacaii, ui IA?, ye? a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, aiane?aeie
caeaoiino? aei i?oeaeiooai?aiiy, ooai?ththoue a ?ic/ei? “ENO-IA?” i?io
c? no?ee?noth a?eueoa 120 oa. Oea ia aea? iiaeeeaino? io?eiaiiy
aacii?iieeieo ?NN. Aeey cieaeaiiy no?eeino? i?ie eiiiiceoe?? iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iai?oeaeioai?thth/? IA?, eio?? yaeythoueny
i?iiaanieeaie.

8. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ii?aeiaiiy i?oeaei- oa iai?oeaeiooai?thth/eo IA?, ye?
a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, a eiiiiceoe?? “ENO-IA?” aeicaiey?
iaea?aeoaaoe e?aoi?noue aeoiaeo i?ie — 2.5-2.9 iae. oa /an no?eeino? a
iaaeao 4-10 oa. Oae? aeanoeaino? iathoue AN5-6(3%) oa AN8-10(5%),
AN5-6(2.7%) oa AN12-14(4%), AN5-6(2.5%) oa AN10-18(7.5%).

9. ?ic?iaeai? iioeiaeuei? neeaaee a’yceiieanoe/ieo oa ??aeeiieeiieo
naiioaa?ae?th/eo noi?oae ia iniia? ENO oa IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny. Aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy noi?oae i?iaaaeai?
ia ae?iaie/eo aacao ee?anueeiai caaiaeo ?iaeaia?ieo iaoei oa eaai?aoi???
eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?iaeaia?ii-o?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo IOOO”EI?”.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a ne?aeoth/eo
iniiaieo ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo:

Eo?eeaiei I.E., N?iee A.I., A?oaiueaa A.A. e ae?. I?eiaiaiea
aeieiae/anee ?aceaaaaiuo iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuo aauanoa a
aeeaeeiiiaeaeaeiuo naiioaa?aeathueo nianyo n ?aceaaaaiuie naycothueie
iaoa?eaeaie. — I?ioeannu eeouey, 1998, ?2, n.61-66.

N?iee A.I., Eo?eeaiei I.E., ?aeoa? E.A., A?oaiueaa A.A. Oi?aaeaiea
i?ioeannii ioaa?aeaeaiey oaoie/aneeo eeaiinoeueoiiaoia a
oieiaeiioaa?aeathueo oi?iiai/iuo e noa?aeiaauo nianyo. – Iaoaeeu e
eeoue? Oe?aeiu, 1998, ?9-10, n.43-46.

N?iee A.I., A?oaiueaa A.A., Eo?eeaiei I.E. e ae?. ?ac?aaioea iiauo
naycothueo e naycothueo iaoa?eaeia aeey eeoaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia
iniiaa ianoiuo iaoa?eaeia Oe?aeiu. – Iaoaeeu e eeoue? Oe?aeiu, ?9-10,
n.49-51.

Iaoaio ia ecia?aoaiea UA 10239 A. Ioaa?aeeoaeue aeey i?aaie/aneeo
naycothueo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa oaoie/aneeo eeaiinoeueoiiaoia / N?iee
A.I., ?aeoa? E.A., A?oaiueaa A.A., Eo?eeaiei I.E. / Athe. ?4. – 1996.

N?iee A.I., A?oaiueaa A.A., Eo?eeaiei I.E. Aeieiae/anee iyaeea IAA aeey
AENN // Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Nia?aiaiiua
oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu a eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa». – Eeaa : EIE, 1993
– N.14-15.

Eo?eeaiei I.E. Yeieiaae/aneea i?iaeaiu i?aaie/aneeo nianae n
eeaiinoeueoiiaoaie // Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee
«Iiaua ia?niaeoeaiua iaoa?eaeu e oaoiieiaee a iaoaeeo?aee». – Eeaa :
EIE, 1994 – N.14.

N?iee A.I., A?oaiueaa A.A., Eo?eeaiei I.E., ?ono TH.Ae. Aiciiaeiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa a Oe?aeia iaoa?eaeia aeey oi?iiai/iuo e noa?aeiaauo nianae
// Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee «Iooe iiauoaiey
ea/anoaa e yeiiiie/iinoe eeoaeiuo i?ioeannia». – Iaeanna : IIO, 1995 –
N.34.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eo?eeaiei I.?. Oi?ioaaeuei?noi?o? c oaoi?/ieie e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie oa
IA?,

ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.16.04 – eeaa?ia ae?iaieoeoai. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie «EI?», Ee?a, 1999.

Iieacaii aieea IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, ia oaoiieia?/i?
aeanoeaino? oi?ioaaeueieo noi?oae c oaoi?/ieie e?aiinoeueoiiaoaie.
Ooi/iaiee iaoai?ci iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ENO IA? oa ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? aeai?o
IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii ?iceeaaeathoueny, i?eaeaoieo aeey noi?oae c ENO.

?ic?iaeai? iioeiaeuei? neeaaee a”yceiieanoe/ieo oa ??aeeiieeiieo
naiioaa?ae?th/eo noi?oae ia iniia? ENO oa IA?, ui a?ieia?/ii
?iceeaaeathoueny, oa i?iaaaeai? ?o aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oi?ioaaeueia noi?o, iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaia ?a/iaeia,
a?i?iceeaaeaiiy, iie?eiiaeainaoe?y, i?iiooai?thth/? aeanoeaino?.

AIIOAOeEss

Eo?eeaiei I.E. Oi?iiai/iua niane n oaoie/aneeie eeaiinoeueoiiaoaie e
aeieiae/anee ?aceaaaaiuie IAA. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.04 – eeoaeiia i?iecaiaenoai. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue
oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu «EIE», Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa eco/aii aeeyiea aieiiaeoeaiuo e iaeiiiaaiiuo aei?aceaaaaiuo
iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuo aauanoa ia iniiaiua oeceei-oeie/aneea iieacaoaee
(ayceinoue, e?aoiinoue auoiaea e onoie/eainoue iaiu, a?aiaiiia
nii?ioeaeaiea ?ac?uao) naycothuaai eeaiinoeueoiiaou oaoie/aneea. A
?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiee onoaiiaeaii, /oi eo/oea iieacaoaee
i?iyaeythony i?e aeiaaaea aieiiaeoeaiuo IAA oeia aeeeenoeueoaoia,
aeueoaieaoeinoeueoiiaoia e aeeeeaaicienoeueoiiaoia. Iieacaii, /oi
iaeiiiaaiiua aei?aceaaaaiua IAA a iaiueoae noaiaie nieaeatho ayceinoue
?anoai?ia ENO, /ai aieiiaeoeaiua. Yoi iauyniyaony ?acee/eai iaoaieciia
eo ?anoai?eiinoe. Iaeiiiaaiiua IAA i?e ?anoai?aiee a aiaea ia?acotho
o?oaeii?anoai?eiua eiiieaenu iiauoaiiie ayceinoe. I?e ?anoai?aiee a
aiaea aieiiaeoeaiuo IAA i?ienoiaeeo eo aeennioeeaoeey e ia?aciaaiea
aiaei?iaeiuo naycae, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a nieaeaao ayceinoue
?anoai?a.

A ?aaioa iaoiaeaie aaeuei?iieeathuae o?iiaoia?aoee e AeOA onoaiiaeaii,
/oi ia?aaioea ENO aeieiae/anee ia?aceaaaaiuie IAA (noeueoiiie, E*I?,
aooeeiaooaeeinoeueoiiao) i?eaiaeeo e aai /anoe/iie iieeeiiaeainaoeee.
Ia?aaioea aea ENO aei?aceaaaaiuie IAA iiaeiaiiai yooaeoa ia aucuaaao.
Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aeieiae/anee ?aceaaaaiua IAA a ioee/ea io
aeieiae/anee ia?aceaaaaiuo oeo/oatho naycothuoth niiniaiinoue ENO a
iniiaiii ca n/?o nieaeaiey ayceinoe naycothuaai, eo/oaai aai
?ani?aaeaeaiey a niane e oiaiueoaiey ie?iee naycothuaai ia iiaa?oiinoe
iaiieieoaey e a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai yooaeo ninoaaeyao 20-25% io
iieo/aaiiai i?e ia?aaioea ENO aeiia?aceaaaaiuie IAA.

Onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea aei?aceaaaaiuo IAA ia iaiiia?acothuea naienoaa
eiiiiceoeee “ENO-IAA” aeey eco/aiey aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey yoeo IAA a
ninoaaa aeeaeeiiiaeaeaeiuo naiioaa?aeathueo nianae. Eo/oeie
iaiiia?acothueie naienoaaie iaeaaeatho i?aaenoaaeoaee noeueoaoia,
noeueoiiaoia e aeeeeieaieaeia. Iieacaii, /oi aei?aceaaaaiua IAA
aneaaenoaea niiniaiinoe e ieoeaeeiia?aciaaieth ia?acotho a ?anoai?a
“ENO-IAA” iaio n onoie/eainoueth aieaa 120 iei, /oi ia aea?o
aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey aacii?iieoeaaiuo AENN. Aeey nieaeaiey
onoie/eainoe iaiu eiiiiceoeee iaiaoiaeeii i?eiaiyoue
iaieoeaeeiia?acothuea IAA, eioi?ua yaeythony iaiiaaneoaeyie.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ni/aoaiea ieoeaeei- e iaieoeaeeiia?acothueo
aei?aceaaaaiuo IAA a eiiiiceoeee “ENO-IAA” iicaieyao iieo/eoue
e?aoiinoue auoiaea iaiu — 2.5-2.9 aae. e a?aiy onoie/eainoe a i?aaeaeao
4-10 iei.

A ?aaioa ?ac?aaioaiu iioeiaeueiua ninoaau ayceiieanoe/iuo e
aeeaeeiiiaeaeaeiuo naiioaa?aeathueo nianae ia iniiaa ENO e aeieiae/anee
?aceaaaaiuo IAA. Iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiua ii?iaiaaiey nianae i?iaaaeaiu ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aacao eeaaneiai caaiaea eiaeaia?iuo iaoei e
eaai?aoi?ee eeoaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eiaeaia?ii-oece/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa
IOOO”EIE”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oi?iiai/iay nianue, iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiia aauanoai,
aei?aceaaaaiinoue, iieeeiiaeainaoeey, iaiiia?acothuea naienoaa.

RESUME

Kurilenko M.I. The molding mixtures with technical lignuasysphates and
biologically decomposements SAS.- Manuscripts.

The dissertation work for the degree of candidates of technical
sciences, specialty 05.16.04.- Foundry production.- National Technical
University of Ukraine “KPI”, Kiev, 1999.

It was shown the influence of biologically decomposements surface
activity substance (SAS) on technological properties of molding mixtures
with technical lingnosulfonates (LST). The mechanism of modifying LST
SAS was declared and the methods of choosing the bio SAS are developed
for mixtures with LST.

The optimal composition of liquidmoving self-forming mixtures on the
LST-basis and biologically decomposing SAS worked out and resultates of
industrial test have been shown.

Key words: molding mixture, surface activity substance, biodecomposment,
polycondensation, foamforming qualities.

PAGE 6

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