Флот Запорозької Січі в XVI-XVIII ст.: структурна організація, технологія та військове мистецтво: Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / А.Л. Сокульський,

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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO ?NOI??? OE?A?IE

ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 947.04 (Oe?.)

NIEOEUeNUeEEE A?IIEUeAe EAII?AeIAE*

Oeio Caii?icueei? N?/? a XVI-XVIII no.:

no?oeoo?ia i?aai?caoe?y, oaoiieia?y

oa a?enueeiaa ienoaoeoai

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

Aiaiiae/ Ieaia Ieoaee?aia

eaiaeeaeao
?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie na?aaei?o a?e?a ?inoeoooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Aiaiiae/ Ieaia
Ieoaee?aia,

eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie ?i.O.Oaa/aiea, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Iaeueiee Eaii?ae Aa?aneiiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aeaaiuei? ? iiai? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Ai??oiee I aaei Aiae??eiae/,

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — *a?eanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai, eaoaae?a
?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 25 » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.235.01 a ?inoeooo? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie (aae?ana: 252001, Ee?a — 1, aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai,
4).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie (aae?ana: 252001, Ee?a — 1, aoe. I.A?ooaanueeiai,
4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 24 » o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
Iaoyo A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. ?noi??y a?enueeiai? ni?aae ? i?aai?/iith
neeaaeiaith caaaeueii? ?noi??? aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy o oe?e
noa?? aeicaieythoue ?noioii iiaeeaeoe iao? ciaiiy ? oyaeaiiy i?i
oa?aeoa?, ia?aa?a oa caeiiii??iino? ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. Oei /anii o
no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? cacia/aiee iai?yiie iaoeiaeo nooae?e
oaeoe/ii ia?aaoaa? ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?. Noino?oueny oea oaeiae ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai oeioo, a oiio /ene? a?enueeiaiai ii?aieaanoaa
caii?icueeeo eicae?a.

Ia aeaeue, ?noi?e/ia niaaeueia ia ia? aeiaeii? iaoeiai? ocaaaeueithth/i?
i?aoe? c icia/aii? i?iaeaie. Iei? ae, eiee iaeiie/aii cia/iee oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae, oaeineiiaeth?oueny iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiue, iac??ea
iio?aaa aea/aiiy noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai oeioo ye ie?aii?
iaoeiai? i?iaeaie.

Nai?/ani?noue ?? aeooae?co?oueny ianaiia?aae /a?ac oa, ui iinooiaeueiee
?icaeoie eiaeii? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae cia/iith i??ith aecia/aany
??aiai ?icaeoeo ii?aieaanoaa ye oi?aa?naeueiiai, eiioi?eaoe?eiiai ?
aeinoaoiuei aacia/iiai caniao ca’yceo c iaaeieeoi?i na?oii, yeee
caaacia/oaaa ? noeioethaaa ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeii?
(o?aiceoii?) oi?a?ae?, ni?eya iaeaaiaeaeaiith eiioaeo?a c
iaea?aeaeaeai?oeie e?a?iaie, ?icaeaaa oaoi?eo ii?aieaanoaa.

Iaa?ae?iiith ae no?oeoo?iith eaieith ?noi?e/ii? aaiethoe?? oeioo iaoi?
aea?aeaae ? ai?iia ii?aieaaaiiy eicae?a.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe caaeia?eueiei.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a oe?eiio ?nio? cia/ia e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue
c eicaoeueei? oaiaoeee, o oiio /ene?, c ?noi??? eiai a?enueeiaiai
ienoaoeoaa, an? aiie oi?eathoueny eeoa ie?aieo aniaeo?a eicaoeueeiai
ii?aieaanoaa.

Aia?oa ieoaiiy i?i ii?nuee? iioiaee caii?iaeoe?a ii?ooeee o
nai?o i?aoeyo I.Neiiiianueeee, I.??aaeueiai, A.?oaai, a oaeiae
Ae.Aaioeo-Eaiainueeee oa I.Ia?eaae/ Neiiiianeee I. E?aoeia iienaiea i
eacaoeeii iaei?inneeneii ia?iaea // *EIAe?. — 1847. — ? 2. — Naio.;
?eaaeueiai A. Eaoiieniia iiaanoaiaaiea a Iaeie ?innee // *EIAe?. — 1846.
— ?2; 1847. — ? 1-4; ?oaai A.A. E?aoeay eaoiienue Iaeuy ?innee. — NIa.,
1777; Aaiouo-Eaiaineee Ae.I. Enoi?ey Iaeie ?innee. — E., 1993; Ia?eaae/
I. Enoi?ey Iaei?innee. — O.?-IV. — I., 1842-1843.. O nai?o neioaoe/ieo
?ica?aeeao aiie iaaaee ei?ioe? a?aeiiino? i?i ai?ioueao ieciaiai
a?enueea ia ii?? c E?eiii ? Oo?a//eiith o OVI-XVII no.

sse?nii iiaee aoai o ni?aa? iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?enueeiaiai
ono?ith oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa (a o./. ? aeayeeo ieoaiue ae?yeueiino?
eicaoeueeiai oeioo) ?icii/eia?oueny c na?aaeeie O?O no. Cie?aia, oeth
i?iaeaio aaiace eicaoeoaa ?ice?eaathoue o nai?o i?aoeyo A.A.Aioiiiae/
oa I.?.Einoiia?ia Aioiiiae/ A.A. I?i eicaoeuee? /ane ia Oe?a?i?. — E.,
1991; Einoiia?ia I.E. Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee. — NIa., 1884. — O.1. .

Iaiaeiicia/ieie aoee iiaeyaee ia eicaoeoai I.I.Eoe?oa. A iaei?e ?c eiai
ia?oeo i?aoeue caii?iaeoe? iinoaee ni?aaaei?ie ?eoea?yie, caoenieeaie
Oe?a?ie a?ae ai?iaeeo iinyaaiue. Ioe?iea ?o ae?yeueiino? a 2-io oii?
“Enoi?ee ainniaaeeiaiey ?one” iaaoea i?ioeeaaeieo aeoeaio?a. Aaoi?
c?iaea caeeae eicaoeoao o a?aenooiino? eiino?oeoeaieo nee, aaeaeoaeino?
aei a??e, i?aaiaii? aei ?icaith Eoeeo I. Enoi?ey ainniaaeeiaiey ?one. —
O.1-3. — Nia., 1874-1877..

A oe?eiio iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei eicaoeoaa i?inoaaeo?oueny a
?in?enuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??. Oae, aeaeaoiee ?noi?ee N.I.Nieiaeia
iiynithaaa i?e/eie eiai iiyae a?aeoiaeieoeoaii ethaeae /a?ac ??ci?
ianoaaeie ia i?aaeaiia i?eei?aeiiiy o iiooeao eaaei? caeiae/?.
Oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai aei na?aaeeie OO?? no. a?i ioe?ithaaa ye
aioeaea?aeaaiee ?oei?aiee aeaiaio Nieiaueaa N.I. Enoi?ey ?innee n
ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai. — O.?O. — I., 1990..

Iaea?oioiai?oeie ? oaeoieia?/ii iaea?eueo iaiiaiaieie ? ia nueiaiaei?
caeeoathoueny iiiia?ao?? I.A?ooaanueeiai, Ae.ssai?ieoeueeiai,
?.E?eiyeaae/a.

Aea/aiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa i?iaeiaaeoaaee ?aaeyinuee?
a/ai? E.A.Aoneenoee ? A.I.Aieiaooeueeee Aoneenoee E.A. Ai?ioueaa
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo i?ioe ?iicaiieo iiiaaiethaa/?a ca aicc?aeiaiiy c
?in??th a XVI — i.i. XVII no. // Aecaieueia a?eia 1648-1654:
aicc?aeiaiiy Oe?a?ie c ?in??th. — E., 1954. — N.5-70; Aieiaooeeee A.A.
Caii?aeneia eaca/anoai. — E., 1962; Aai aea. Caii?i?aeneay Na/ue a
iineaaeiea aiaeu naiaai nouanoaiaaiey (1734-1775). — E., 1951; Aai aea.
*a?iiii?neia eaca/anoai. — E., 1956.. Iaeiae eeoa c na?aaeeie 80-o ?ie?a
ii/eiathoue c’yaeyoeny i?aoe?, a yeeo ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy ie?ai?
aniaeoe aaiace eicaoeoaa ye a?enueeiai? aa?noae. Cie?aia, ie?aiith
aa?noaith “a?enueeiaiai i?eei?aeiiiiai ianaeaiiy” aaaaea? eicaoeoai
ss.?.Aeaoeaae/, aeaiaey/e eiai iiyao c aaiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie
?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea (a?ae eiyaeeo /an?a aei 20-o ?ie?a OO
no.) — Euea?a, 1993. — N.3-8.. ?niothoue oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui a na?aaeei?
XVII no eicaoeoai ia?aae?a? ia naaa ooieoe?? i?ea?eaeiaaiiai
noni?eueiiai noaio Niie?e A. Eicaoeoai oa Caii?icueea N?/ o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioeanao XVI-XIX no. // Eicaoeuee? N?/? (ia?ene c
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa XVI-XIX no.). — Ee?a-Caii??aeaey, 1998.
— N. 3-14..

Cia/iei aianeii o ?ic?iaeo a?enueeiai? oaiaoeee a Oe?a?i?
noaea “?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea”, ui aeeoei i?ai?eioii 4-i
aeaeaiiyi o Eueaia?, (aeaeaaieoeoai “Na?o”, 1992 ?.). Iiiia?ao?y
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ia?aaeiiaith ss.Aeaoeaae/a ? eiiaioa?ai A.sseeiiae/a.
C /anii c’yaeythoueny iiiaeeiie?, aea caaaeuei? i?aoe? c a?enueeiai?
?noi??? eicaoeoaa. Aiie aia?oa oe?iei caeo/athoue iia?aeiieaiiy
iiiaieuenueeeo oa eeoaenueeeo e?oiien?a XI-XIV no. ? i?iiiiothoue
ianiiae?aai? a?iioace aeieeiaiiy ?aiiueiai eicaoeoaa. E??i oeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeai? c ?noi??? *i?iiii?nueeiai eicaoeueeiai a?enueea
(1788-1860) oa Eoaainueeiai eicaoeueeiai a?enueea (1860-1920) iaaiaeyoue
i?aoe? I.Ei?ieaiea oa ?.Aeieo?aiea Ei?ieaiei I. *a?iiii?neia eaca/uea
aienei. — Aeaoa?eiiaea?, 1910. — O.1; Aeieo?aiei I. Nai?iee enoi?e/aneeo
iaoa?eaeia ii enoi?ee Eoaaineiai eaca/ueaai aienea. — NIa, 1892-1898. —
O.1-4..

Oe?iei aeei?enoai? iaie e aeinyaiaiiy iaoeiai? niaaeueie
no/anieo a?o/eciyieo ?noi?ee?a: I.Aiaiiae/, A.Aeiaaeaiie, O.Oaa/aiea
Aiaiiae/ I.I.Ca?iei? neee Oe?a?ie ia?oi? iieiaeie XVIII no. — E., 1969;
Aeiaaeaithe A.?. A?enueeiaa ni?aaa a Ee?anuee?e ?on?. — E., 1950;
Oaa/aiei O.I. Iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? caycee Oe?a?ie c ?in??th a
na?aaeei? XVII no. — E., 1959. oa ?i.

Aea/eaoe oa i?iaiae?coaaaoe i?aoe? ?in?enueeeo iaoeiaoe?a, ui
i?aoeththoue o noa?? ai?iii-?noi?e/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee, aeena?oaio ae?eoia
aeniiaeo, ui ii?aieaanoai ia Eani?enueeiio, Acianueeiio oa *i?iiio ii?yo
a XVII-XVIII no. noaaeoueny ieie a caneoao ?in?enuee?e ?i?oe?aoea?.
Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ae?yeueiino? Iao?a ? ye ooiaeaoi?a
?in?enueeiai a?enueeiaiai oeioo. E??i oe??? eiinoaoaoe??, i?ia?aei?
?in?enuee? ?noi?eee (O.Aanaeaai, A.Iaa?iae?i Aanaeaai O. I/a?e ?onneie
enoi?ee. — NIa, 1875. — O.1; Iaa?iaeei A.A. Ia?aciaaiea ae?aaia?onneiai
ainoaea?noaa. — I., 1946. oa ?i.) iaaeaaaee i??i?eoaoi?noue aeeeth/ii
aea?aeaaiei ? o?yaeiaei /eiieeai o ?icaeoeo ii?aieaanoaa no?aeieo neia’
yi. ?noi?e/i?e oai?/ino? ia?iaeieo ian ?, cie?aia, eicaoeoao
a?aeaiaeeeanue ae?oai?yaeia ?ieue. Nooi?noue ii?nueeeo iioiae?a
caii?iaeoe?a ? aeiioe?a cia?aaeoaaeanue ye aieueieoey ?ica?eieoeueeeo
aaoaa “ca aeoiaiaie”. Ca aeneiaii O.Aanaeaai, ?in?y, ao?aoeaoe aeo?ae
aei Aaeo?enueeiai ii?y, ii?iaeeea aeao ia o?eueee o I?e/i?iiii?’?, a
e o Eiinoaioeiiiie?. Oeei aeaoii, i/aaeaeii, O.Aanaeaai aaaaeaa
eicaoeoai. O ?in?enuee?e, a caiaeii ? a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??,
ii?aieaanoai oe?a?ioe?a, ?o aianie a inai?iiy Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai
aanaeio ?ic/eiyeenue a oa?i?iieia?/iiio iiiyoo? “?onneia ii?aieaaaiea”.

Iaeiae caaaeai? ?iaioe eeoa iia?/ii noinothoueny iinoaaeaii? iaoeiai?
i?iaeaie, a iei? noai?aiiy aiae?oe/ii-neioaoe/ii? i?aoe? c ?noi???
Oe?a?inueeiai oeioo iinoaei ye aino?a aeiiaa /ano.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue eiiieaen a?o?aieo ?
ae?oeiaaieo iaoa??ae?a. Aaeeea cia/aiiy o aea/aii? ia?aae?noi???
eicaoeueeiai ii?aieaanoaa iathoue a?o/eciyi? e?oiiene. Iaeoe?ii?oeie o
ieai? ?ice?eooy ia?aii? oaie ? eicaoeuee? e?oiiene Naiiaeaeoey,
A.A?aayiee, N.Aaee/ea E?oiien Naiiaeaeoey. — E., 1971; A?aayiea A.
Enoi?ey i aeaenoaeyo i?acaeueiie e io ia/aea iieyeia e?iaaaaeoae a?aie
Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeeiai n iieyee. — E., 1854; Aaee/ei N. Eaoiienoue
niauoee a THai-Caiaaeiie ?innee a XVII aaea. — O.I-IV. — E., 1848-1864..
Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeaaiuei?onueeeo e?oiien?a, ye? ienaeeny ca ?ieaie,
eicaoeuee? ? oe?e?nieie aaoi?nueeeie i?aoeyie, noai?aieie a ae?oa?e
iieiaei? OVII-XVIII no., ye? “a?aecia/athoueny aeinoia??i?noth
a?aeia?aaeaieo iiae?e oa aeeaieeie ocaaaeueiaiiyie ”.

Aeia?a ia?ciai? c a?o/eciyieie e ?iicaiieie aeaea?aeaie oa
e?oa?aoo?ith, eicaoeuee? e?oiienoe? ae?oai? iieiaeie XVII-XVIII no.
iinoaaeee nia? ca iaoo iieacaoe oe?a?inueeee ia?iae ??aiei na?aae
?a?iiaenueei? ni?eueiioe. A?aeiia?aeia i?noea a ?o oai?ao a?aeaiaeeeiny
eicaoeoao, i?aaenoaaieeaie yeiai aoee ? nai? aaoi?e.

Iaeoe?ii?oith ae ca ci?noii ? ??ciiiai?oi?noth na?ae/aiue i?i
oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai a ia?o?e iieiaei? OO?? no. ? i?aoey o?aioeocueeiai
aeai?yieia, a?enueeiaiai ?iaeaia?a A?eiia Eaaanna?a aea Aiieaia “Iien
Oe?a?ie” Aiieai A.E. Iien Oe?a?ie. — E., 1990..

Na?aae iioae?eiaaieo aeieoiaio?a cia/iee ?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue ca??ieee
Ae.ssai?ieoeueeiai “Enoi/ieee aeey enoi?ee caii?iaeneeo eicaeia”
(o.1-2). Aeei?enoaia oaeiae a?oia ia?aoeaieo aeaea?ae: oo?aoeueeeo,
aano??enueeeo, iieuenueeeo, o?aioeocueeeo, aaiaoe?ainueeeo, i?iaoeueeeo,
aiae?enueeeo aeeieiiao?a oa iaiae??aiee?a: Ae’Aneie? (Iaeana,1902),
*aeaa? (Iineaa,1872,1961), Eynioe (Aaee?,1856, Ee?a, 1890), Aaeuenueeiai
(Naiie,1856), Ieieuenueeiai (Ee?a, 1896), Niaanueeiai (*a?i?a?a,1849),
Aiieaia (Ee?a,1896), Ia?neeuee? (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1737), Oa?aeaia
(Iineaa, 1937), Oaaaeue? (Ee?a, 1960), Iiiaea?? (Iineaa, 1827), Aei?ie
(Ee?a, 1990), I?eea?a (Iineaa, 1948), Oaoaa?oa (Eiiaeii, 1782), Aaea?a
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1782), Aaiia?a (A?aeaiue, 1830), I?o/aeea (Eiiaeii,
1949) oa ?i.

A aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iiae?e ii/aoeo XVIII no. oe?ii? a?aeiiino? i?i
*i?oiieeoeueeo oa Eai’yinueeo n?/? aeathoue aeieoiaioe c 5-oiiii? i?aoe?
I.Ono?yeiaa “Enoi?ey oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a Aaeeeiai” Ono?yeia I. Enoi?ey
oea?noaiaaiey Iao?a Aaeeeiai. — NIa, 1858-1863. — O.1-4, 6..

A aeena?oaoe?? oe?iei aeei?enoai? iaiioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee (aeieoiaioe e
?oeiiene) c a?o?ainoiaeu Ee?aa, Eueaiaa, Iaeane, Caii??aeaey,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea, a oaeiae Iineae oa Naieo-Iaoa?ao?ao.

Aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th aea? ei?ion aeieoiaio?a A?o?ao Eioa Iiai?
Caii?icueei? N?/?, ui caa??aa?oueny o Oeaio?aeueiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a?
Oe?a?ie a i.Ee?a?, Aonoeinueeee e?oiien (oeo? 309/540n), “O?ii?ea”
Iaoeay No?eeeianueeiai (oeo? ?, 57387/48) oa ie?ai? aeieoiaioaeuei?
ca??ieee, ui caa??aathoueny a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?ie ?i.
A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai. Aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ? aeieoiaioe oiiae?a
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeaai?o aeo?a ?O, cie?aia, 124
(Iaei?in?enuee? ni?aae Iinieuenueeiai i?eeaco), 229 (Iaei?in?enueeee
i?eeac), oiiae 1000 a?aeae?eo ?oeiien?a ?in?enueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
a?ae?ioaee ?i. I.Naeoeeiaa-Uaae??ia a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?. Cia/ia
e?euee?noue oeeo aeaea?ae i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii aena?oeth? ai?ioueao
ieciaiai eicaoeoaa c oaoa?aie e iniainueeei oeioii.

Aeena?oaioii ?aoaeueii ii?aoeueiaai? oiiaee ?inoeoooo ?oeiien?a
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i.A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai. Aaaeeeaei
aeaea?aeii aeey aea/aiiy oaie ? ni?aaa 228i/97 oiiaeo. Aeanyoee
aeieoiaio?a oe??? ni?aae (e?ioey XVII – ii/aoeo XVIII no.) aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe a iiaieo iaaeao e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ?ieue
? i?noea eicaoeoaa a ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyiiai ii?aieaanoaa.

Iaiao?aeia ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui oa?aeoa?eco? aeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue
N?/?, oi?a?aeth caii?iaeoe?a, acyoa, cie?aia, ?c oiiaeo 1791
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o i.Ee?a?.

Aeena?oaioii aeei?enoaii oaeiae ?noi?e/i? iaoa??aee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
caiia?aeieea “Oi?oeoey” o i.Caii??aeae?, Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
?noi?e/iiai iocath ?i.Ae.?.ssai?ieoeueeiai, iocaei? eieaeoe?? i?no
Iaeane, Oa?niio, Ieeiea?aa oa iaoeia? ca?oe aaoi?a c a?oaieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue Eai’yinueei?, Oi?oeoeueei? oa *i?oiieeoeueei? n?/ae, ui
caa??aathoueny a iaoeiaiio a?o?a? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee
aeena?oaioii iai?yi aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?/ii ii?aeio?oueny c
i?iaeaiaoeeith iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie a?aeae?eo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie na?aaei?o
a?e?a ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oeio Caii?icueei? N?/?,
aaiethoe?y eiai i?aai?caoe?? oa a?enueeiaiai ienoaoeoaa.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeena?oaoe??. I?eae?eyth/e cia/ia i?noea ?aii?e
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ii?aieaanoaa, aaoi? iniiaio oaaao cina?aaeaeo? ia
ia??iae?, ui ioiieth? XVI-XVIII no., oiaoi /an? noaiiaeaiiy,
iaea?eueoiai i?aeianaiiy oa iinooiiaiai i?eieiaiiy ?nioaaiiy
eicaoeueeiai noaio — i?ioeano, ui eoia iaa?aeae?eueii a?ae caaaeueieo
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoa aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia
iniia? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ?nioth/eo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie
aena?oeeoe ?noi??th noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo oeioo Caii?icueei? N?/?,
cynoaaoe eiai ?ieue o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ii?aieaanoaa.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy aaoi?a iieyaaee a oiio, uia:

— ia iniia? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co aeaea?ae oa iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e
i?ine?aeeoaaoe i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy oa noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai oeioo;

— aeine?aeeoe ?ieue ii?nueeiai oeioo o aioo??oiueiio,
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiio oa aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie;

— ?icaeyiooe i?aai?caoe?th ? oaoiieia?th oe?a?inueeiai noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? iniiai? i?eioeeie ?noi?e/iiai
i?ciaiiy, cie?aia, ?noi?e/iiai ia?eoea?cio, i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee oa
i?iaeaiii-oaiaoe/iee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? eiiieaenii ?icaeyiooa ?noi??y
ai?iiiai ii?aieaanoaa Caii?icueei? N?/?; ia iniia? oe?ieiai eiea
aeaea?ae ? ii?aoethaaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeine?aeieoeueei? e?oa?aoo?e
i?iaiae?ciaai? ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoie ? noai ai?caeaoiino?
ii?nueeiai a?enueea caii?iaeoe?a. O aeena?oaoe?? c iiaeo iaoeiaeo
iiceoe?e ?aeiino?oeiaai? iaeiaeine?aeaeai? ii?nuee? iioiaee caii?icueeeo
? aeiinueeeo eicae?a, aeyaeaia nooi?noue no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee ii?nueeeo
iioiae?a caii?iaeoe?a, aia?oa i?iiiio?oueny oaca i?i
i?aaaioeaii-ianooiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ii?nueei? ai?ioueae eicae?a i?ioe
iooiiainueei? aa?an?? c aieo Iniainueei? ?iia???. A ?acoeueoao?
e?eoe/iiai aiae?co oaeoieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a cia/ii ?icoe?aia o?iiieia?y
ii?nueeeo iioiae?a caii?icueeeo eicae?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaoe ?o aeey iaienaiiy ie?aieo niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue c
?noi??? a?o/eciyiiai ii?aieaanoaa, ii?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa
Caii?icueei? N?/?, noai?aiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e o
noa?? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioi?iie, ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy,
eiina?aaoe?? ? ioca?o?eaoe?? oa ?aeiino?oeoe?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a ?
o?aaiaio?a ieaacania?a ? oi?oeo?eaoe?? caii?icueeeo N?/ae.
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? a
aeniiceoeaiiio a?aeia?aaeaii? ?noi??? eicaoeoaa (oaiaoe/i? aenoaaee oa
aeniiceoe??, oo?enoe/ia aaeocue). Aii??e/iee iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe??
iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee o iaa/aeueii — aeoiaiiio i?ioean? oa o ni?aa?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo no/aniiai noni?eueiiai aeeooy,
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o ?ic?iaeo i?iaeaie iieyaa? a aiae?c?,
nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa ocaaaeueiaii? cia/iiai ca ianyaii
iaoa??aeo ? anoaiiaeaii? oiai oaeoo, ui a ia??iae ?aiiueiai eicaoeoaa
(ia?oa iieiaeia XVI no.) ia i.Oi?oeoey, Oiiae?anuee?e oa
Aacaaeooeuee?e n?/ao a?aeaoaaany i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ii?nueeiai a?enueea
eicae?a, ?icai?oaiiy ca?ieii? ai?ioueae ia ii?? ? a ae?e? Aei?i?a.
Aeena?oaioii anoaiiaeaii, ui aiiaae ?icaeoeo oeioo Caii?icueei? N?/?
i?eiaaea? ia ia?oo iieiaeio XVII no., a ae?? eiai a ia??iae
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? a?eie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo 1648-1676 ??.
aecia/aeeny ia?ai???ioaoe??th ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Caii??cueei? N?/?
uiaei ?in?? e Iooiiainueei? ?iia???.

Aieiaiee aeniiaie, yeiai ae?eoia aeena?oaio, iieyaa? a oiio, ui
eicaoeueeee oeio o no?oeoo?? ca?ieieo nee Caii?icueei? N?/?
a?ae?a?aa aaaiio ?ieue a ai?iouea? c oo?aoeueei — oaoa?nueeith
aa?an??th, aecia/aany iai?iiii — i?aaaioeaiith no?aoaa??th ? aoaeoeaiith
oaeoeeith o aeaiai? c i?ioeaieeii o Aei?i?ianueei-Aocueeiio eeiai?,
*i?iiio e Acianueeiio ii?yo. ?noi?e/ia cia/aiiy ii?nueeiai ai?iiiai
ienoaoeoaa eicae?a cana?ae/o? i??i?eoaoi?noue oe?a?ioe?a a inai?ii?
Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiai aanaeio.

Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui aeina?ae oe?a?inueeiai ii?aieaanoaa
caaaa/oaaany eicaeaie /a?ac eiioaeoe oa aca?iiaieeae c
aaaaoueia e?a?iaie cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueei?, ?neainueei?,
na?aaecaiiiii?nueei? oeea?e?caoe?e. Aeina?ae eicaeoaaiiy oa aaaeaiiy
aieiaeo ae?e ia ??/eao ? ii?yo i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui caii?iaeoe?,
oniaaeeoaaaoe e aeei?enoaaoe iiia?aaei?e aeina?ae ii?aieaanoaa
aeiae ?one — Oe?a?ie, oni?oii eiai canoiniaoaaee ? ?icaeaaee aeae?.

Iaoeiaa ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeueeiai ii?aieaanoaa aoee
aia?oa ii?eethaeiai? caeiaoaa/ai o ni?aaaoi?noa? c O.E.Oaa/aiei,
A.Oaa/aiei, N..Ooiiaeith oa ?i. a oaiaoe/i?e no?oeoo?? oa
oaiaoeei-aeniiceoe?eiiio ieai? iocath ?noi??? caii?icueeiai
eicaoeoaa ia i.Oi?oeoey.

Iniiai? aaoi?nuee? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeeeaaeai? iei o 5 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo o oaoiaeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, a oaeiae o iiiia?ao??
«Ii?nuee? iioiaee caii?iaeoe?a» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,1995; 221 n.). E??i
oiai, caeiaoaa/ acya o/anoue o ?yae? i?aeia?iaeieo oa a?o/eciyieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? iao? oa caaaeaiiyi i?aoe?. Aiia
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai
nieneo (193 iiceoe??). Caaaeueiee ianya oaenoo noaiiaeoue 179 noi??iee.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? eiai
i?aaeiao, o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy,
?icaeyiooa ?noi??ia?ao?y, i?iaiae?ciaai? aeaea?aea, aeacaii ia iaoeiao
iiaecio oa i?aeoe/iia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Oe?a?inueea ii?aieaanoai aei na?aaeeie XVI no.»
?icaeyiooi oiiae, i?e/eie, aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? /eiieee noaiiaeaiiy ?
i?aai?caoe?? a?o/eciyiiai ii?aieaanoaa c eiyaei? aeiae aei aeieeiaiiy
ia?oeo n?/ae ia Caii?iaeae?, aena?oeaii ?ieue aeaaiuei?onueeiai,
a?iaeieoeueeiai oa ?aiiueieicaoeueeiai ii?aieaaaiiy (?O-XVI no.).

Aeaaiuei?onueea ii?aieaanoai iaei aaaeeeaa iie?oe/ia, a?enueeiaa,
aeiiii?/ia cia/aiiy ia eeoa aeey ?on?-Oe?a?ie, a e aeey an???
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe eiinoaoo?oueny, ui
aeaaiuei?onuee?, a?iaeieoeuee? o?aaeeoe?? noaeiiieaanoaa noaee
ia?aaeoiiaith ca?iaeaeaiiy eicaoeueeiai ii?aieaaaiiy, yea a ianooii?
/ane nyaa? aiiaath naiai ?icaeoeo.

A?iaeieoeueea oaia ?ic?iaey?oueny a aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? ia iniia? aaeeei? ca ianyaii a?oaieia?/ii? oa e?oiienii?
?ioi?iaoe??. Aieiaie/a ianaeaiiy — a?iaeieee Iiaei?i?iay — aoei
ia?aaaaeii neiayinueeei, aea ia aoiaeeei aei neeaaeo aeiaeiiai
eiyc?anoaa. A?iaeieoeueea «eicaeoaaiiy» a aeaaiuei?onueeeo e?oiienao,
oai?nueeeo oa a?caio?enueeeo aeaea?aeao O??-O??? no. caaaeaee
iiaycoaaeiny c aieiaie/ei ianaeaiiyi, i?eaycaiei aei a?iae?a, ia?ai?aa
/a?ac ??ee. Iniiaiei eiai caiyooyi aoei noaeiiieaanoai, eioeiainueea
neoaeaa.

A?iaeieee O??-O??? no. noaee o??th eaieith cayceo, caaaeyee ye?e
ii?nueea ienoaoeoai ?one/?a aoei oniaaeeiaaia e ?icaeiooa caii?iaeoeyie.
Caaaeyee a?iaeieeai ?onue-Oe?a?ia caa??aaea ca niaith aeo?ae a ii?y
Na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai aanaeio. Ai?i?ciaaia ianaeaiiy noaiiai? ciie
oi?ioaaeinue c iaoeaioe?a Aieei?, Iiae?eey, *a?eaueie. Noa?ith ?o aieeao
aoa i?aaeaiiee caoeniee iiyn o ei/?aieoeueeiio noaio, ui oo?eioaaa i?ae
eiio?ieai aiaei? caycee i?ae ?a?iiith ? Noiaeii. O ?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny
oaca noiniaii oiai, ui a?iaeieee, i?iaeiaaeoth/e aeaaiuei?onueeo
aoiiiie?oe/io neooaoe?th a i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo noaiao, noai?eee oiiae aeey
ooai?aiiy a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? o iiiecc? Aei?i?a —
Oi?oeoeueei? Caii?icueei? N?/?, yea iiaea aooe ioioiaeiaia c e?oiieniei
«I?ioie/a» ia ino?ia? Oi?oeoey.

Nueiaiaei? ua iaia? oi?aa?naeueieo oai??e, ye? a iiaee aeinoaiaiii
iiynieoe aaiaco ye a?iaeieoeueeiai, oae ? eicaoeueeiai caii?iaeoaaiiy. A
?iaio? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui eeoa eiiieaenia a?aooaaiiy on?o oaeoi??a ?
oiia ca?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo eicaeoaaiiy iiaea iaaeeceoe iaoeiaoe?a aei
iaea?eueo a??ia?aeii? aa?n?? noiniaii oeueiai noni?eueiiai yaeua.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Caii?icueeee oeio o ai?iouea? c E?eiii oa
Oo?a//eiith a ae?oa?e iieiaei? OVI — XVIII no.» aena?oeth?oueny eiiieaen
oiia ? oa?aeoa? noaiiaeaiiy oeioo Caii?icueei? N?/? cacia/aiiai
ia??iaeo. Noaiiaeaiiy eicaoeueeiai oeioo i?eiaaea? ia /ane Oi?oeoeueei?
? Oiiae?anueei? N?/ae. Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith oeueiai ia??iaeo aoei oa,
ui caii?icueea eicaoeoai anooieei a c??eo oaco naiai ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo. Oeioe Aacaaeooeueei?, Ieeeoeinueei? N?/ae ae?oai? iieiaeie XVI
— XVII no. oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny iaeaeuith aieiaith aeoeai?noth, iioiaee ia
oo?aoeueea ? e?einueea ocaa?aaeaey noathoue iaeaea ui??/ieie. Ia?eoaie
eicaoeueeeo ooo?i?a aoee oi?oaoe?-ii?oe, ii?nuee? i?noa oa
oi?oeo?eaoe?ei? ia?eoe, ca?aeee i?aai?ciaoaaeanue aa?an?y ia oe?a?inuee?
caie? oa cina?aaeaeoaaeeny iaa?eueieoeuee? ?eiee.

Caii?icueea N?/ o caii?iaeoe?a, na?aaei? Iiaeiiiy a aeiinueeeo eicae?a
aoee iniiaieie oeaio?aie noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy. Aieiaa ni?aae?oaei?noue iaio
eicaoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ni?eyea ae?iaeaiith niaoeeo?/ieo ii?i
ii?nueeiai cae/a?aiai i?aaa, yea aoei ?aaoeyoi?ii ni?eueieo ae?e ia
ii??, ?iciiae?eo caeiae/?. ?noi??y oeeo aca?iei, ca aeiyoeii ia??iaeo
Aecaieueii? a?eie, ia cia? nooo?aeo noia?a/iinoae a ioe?ieao.

A ?iaio? aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aea?oueny oeiieia?y
ica?i?iiy ae?iaae?a eicaoeueeeo /aeie. Ia ia?oeo ii?ao naiai ?icaeoeo
caii?icueea eicaoeoai aeei?enoiaoaaei eoe, a?aaeao, iooeao,
aaiaoe?ainuee? ? aaioacnueeiai oeio ei?aaaeuei? aa?iaoe. Ia ea?oao
eai?oai?a aaioacueeeo aaeae iii?/ai? oi?aia? oaeoi??? a iiiecc? Aei?i?a
(a ?aeii? no/anii? Ciaiaiee (ia Caii?iaeae?) oa a aei?i?ianueeiio eeiai?
(eieeoi? Ieaooy ia Aaeeeiiioueiie?inueeiio ino?ia?)). I?ci?oa, o
XVII-XVIII no. eicaoeueea «a?iaoa» iiiiaieeanue /e ia an?ia oeiaie
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aa?iao. O i?ioean? ai?ioueae c
a?enueeiai-ii?nueeeie neeaie Oo?a//eie caii?iaeoe? noai?eee na?e
oaeaee?niee, iaiaa?iaee, oaeaeei a?aeiiaethaaiee oeio. Ii?nuee? oeioee??
/aeie aoee i?oeii ci?aai?ciaai?, ?aoe?iiaeueii ica?i?i?. Iia?aoeaia
ienoaoeoai eicae?a ia ii?? na?ae/eei i?i ?o caeaoi?noue iaaycaoe
i?ioeaieeia? nai? oiiae ii?nueei? a?eie.

Aaaiiith aoea o/anoue oeioo N?/? a ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo a?eiao a
oiiaao caaino?aiiy noia?a/iinoae i?ae Caii?icueeith N?//th,
Aaoueiaiueiith oa ?in??th. Iaaaeiaieaiiy N?/? iie?oeeith Aaoo?eia ?
Iineae iaei iiaaaei? i?e/eie. I?ae /an E?einueeeo ai?i (1687 oa 1689
??.) oa Aciai-Aei?i?ianueeeo iioiae?a (ae?oaa iieiaeia 90-o ??.) aieiaa
aeoeai?noue eicae?a iaaaaeoaaea i?iienee ii aeiaoaaiith cania?a aeey
?nioaaiiy. Ii a?aeiioaiith aei N?/? E?ei iaiieaaeeai i?aaioa
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c iath. Iie?oeea Iineae aeoeaii
ni?yiiaoaaeanue ia ae??oaiiy iniiaii? i?iaeaie ?? ?noi??? — caaithaaiiy
I?e/i?iiii?y ca ?aooiie E?eio ? caiaeue N?/?. ?in?y naiia?eueii a iaaeao
Caii?iaeaey nii?oaeaeoaaea oi?oaoe? aeey ai?ioueae c E?eiii ? aeey
eiio?ieth ca N?//th, oea?eci ao?o/aany a iie?oe/i? caycee N?/? c
non?aei?ie aea?aeaaaie, aaa/ath/e a caii?icueeiio a?enueeo eeoa
neooiyiiai o/anieea o a?eiao c Iooiiainueeith ?iia???th. ?acii c oeei
Aaoo?ei ? Iineaa aaee oa?ii? ia?aaiai?e c Aao/ena?a?i i?i oeeaaeaiiy
ie?iiai aeiaiai?o (ca nieiith eicae?a), oa i?aai?ciaoaaeenue aaoueiaiii
iioiaee ia E?ei i?ae /an ia?aie?y caii?iaeoe?a c oaoa?aie. Ia?aaoey?ia
iinoa/aiiy N?/?, e?euee?nia iaiaaeaiiy eicaoeueeeo iinieuenoa a Iineao,
o??caiiy i?aa eicaoeueeeo ye ia Aaoueiaiuei?, oae ? ia Caii?iaeae? —
aeaeaei ia ae/a?iiee ia?ae?e oa?enaenueeiai noaaeaiiy oea?ecio aei nai?o
non?ae?a.

Oaea iie?oe/ia ianoaiiaea cana?ae/oaaea, ui aaea ia ii/aoeo XVIII no.
na?aae iai?aieo e?e aeic??ea ?aeay cieuaiiy N?/?. Aea a nai?e a?eueoino?
eicaoeoai caeeoaeiny i?ioeaieeii a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
c E?eiii ? i?iaeiaaeoaaei a?aoe o/anoue o neeaae? ?in?enueei? a?i?? o
ai?iieo ae?yo i?ioe Iniainueei? ?iia???.

Caii?icueea N?/ i?iaeiaaeoaaea na?e aii??e/iee ?icaeoie ? aei naii?
e?ea?aeaoe??. Aieiaa ienoaoeoai eicae?a ia ao?a/aei aeanoeai? eiio
aoaeoeaiino?, a?enueeiaa iie?oeea, iiaoaeiaa a?enueea, no?aoaa?y ?
oaeoeea ai?iieo iia?aoe?e caa??aaee iciaee oniaaeeiaaiiai a?enueeiaiai
aeina?aeo ieioeeo noie?oue. sseui iiia?aaei? XVI-XVIII no. oeio N?/?
ai?iany c oo?aoeueei-oaoa?nueeith aa?an??th ? i?aaioa e?ea?aeoaaoe
aeieaaeo oo?e?a a ae?eao aaeeeeo ??e I?e/i?iiii?y, aaaeeeaeo ai?iieo ?
oi?aiaaeueieo oeyo?a a Aciai-*i?iiii?nueeiio aanaei?, oi a neeo iiaeo
iie?oe/ieo ianoaaei XVIII no. i?ae E?eiii ? Caii?iaeaeyi aeieeaee
?aaeuei? ia?niaeoeae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, oi?a?ae?, aca?ii?icoi?iiy. Ie?ia
ni?a?nioaaiiy N?/? ? E?eio aa?aiooaaei ?icoe?aiiy ?eaieo, ieneeanueeeo,
nieyieo i?iiene?a, iiaeaaaeaiiy ii?nueei? oi?a?ae? ?, ye iane?aeie —
caaacia/aiiy naaa iaiao?aeieie caniaaie ?nioaaiiy.

Caii?iaeoe? aenooiaee ca i?aeo?eieo Ea?ea O?? ? ?.Iacaie, aea oaoa?e ia
c?aae?coaaee nai? iiaeeeaino? iaaeiaoeny c oaaaenueei-oe?a?inueeei
a?enueeii. Iiceoe?y Oo?a//eie aoea iiieeeiaith, i?i?aooiee ??
aeeieiiao?? iaee aeaeaeinyaei? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ye aeey E?eio e
Oo?a//eie, oae ? aeey Caii?icueei? N?/?, a ianaiia?aae aeey Oe?a?ie.
I?ney Iieoaae (1709), ia?ane?aeoth/e iacaieioe?a, o?yae ?in?? c?oeioaaa
*i?oiieeoeueeo (1709), a i?ae /an I?oonueeiai iioiaeo ? Eaiyinueeo N?/?
(1711), ui ia?aaoaaee i?ae oo?aoeueeei i?ioaeoi?aoii. Cae/aeii, a iaio
aeiaaeeao aoee cieuai? oeioee?? eicaoeueeeo /aeie. Aei a?eie c
Oo?a//eiith ?in?y aoea i?aeaioiaeaia iiaaii, iniaeeai ia ii??.
A?aenooi?noue a?enueeiaiai oeioo, cie?aia, noaeai eeano «??ea-ii?a»,
aaeeeeo ia?onieo ei?aae?a, a oaeiae a?aenooi?noue eaae??a c ii?nueeei
aeina?aeii noaaeei ?in?th o ne?ooia noaiiaeua. Oea cioneei ?in?enueeee
o?yae aeaoe aeica?e ia iiaa?iaiiy eicaoeoaa c oo?aoeueeeo aieiae?iue ia
i?noea Noa?i? N?/?, aea ? aoea i?aai?ciaaia Iiaa N?/ (1734-1775).
Anoia?a/ oaa?aeaeaiue ?in?enueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? aaaaea?ii, ui naia
caii?icueeee oeio i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ?.Iaeaoaae/a, I.Eaeieoaanueeiai,
ss.N?aeeianueeiai oa ?ioeo eicaoeueeeo iieeiaiaeoe?a ? oeioiaiaeoe?a
aei?n oaanue oyaa? inoaii?o ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo ai?i: 1735-1739 oa
1769-1774 ??. Eicaeai-ii?yeai eieeoiuei? N?/? oa ?o iioiieai ua ia ?ac
aeiaiaeeeinue i?ieeaaoe e?ia a ii?nueeeo aaoae?yo o ianooiieo
?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo a?eiao XVIII oa O?O no.

Aia?oa ?in?enueeee ai?iiee ei?aaaeue «E?aiinoue» cyaeany a Ea?/einuee?e
i?ioioe? ? aia?oa caeoia a Naaanoiiieuenueeo aoooo a /a?ai? 1700 ?.
Ca?aeoe c 170 iieiieie ?in?yiaie iiaa?ioany a Acia.

Ca Eth/oe-Eaeiaaeaee?nueeei aeiaiai?ii ?in?y io?eiaea i?aai a?eueiiai
noaeiiieaanoaa *i?iei ii?ai /a?ac Ainoi? ? Aea?aeaiaeee oa caoiaeo
?in?enueeeo eiia?oe?eieo noaeai a oo?aoeuee? ii?oe. Ca oeei aeiaiai?ii
?in?y ia iaea i?aaa aaiaeeoe a *i?ia ii?a a?enueeiaee oeio. Oo?a//eia
caa?aaea ca niaith I/ae?a. ?in?y aeieeaea aaaaoi coneeue, uia iaeaaeiei
/eiii caaacia/eoe nai? aea?aeaai? ?ioa?ane a *i?iiio ii??. ? o?eueee ca
ssnnueeei ie?iei aeiaiai?ii (1791) aei ?in?? a?ae?eoea oa?eoi??y i?ae
I?aaeaiiei Aoaii ? Aei?no?ii, aeeth/ath/e I/ae?a. Oea ? aoei ae??oaiiy
*i?iiii?nueei? i?iaeaie ?in?? ? noai?aiiy ?in?enueeiai *i?iiii?nueeiai
oeioo. Aiii noaei iiaeeeaei caaaeyee 300-e?oi?e iiia?aaei?e ai?iouea?
eicaoeoaa ia ii??. Aeei??ithth/e eicaoeoai, ia?aoai?thth/e Oe?a?io a
i?ia?ioe?th ?iia???, oea?eci i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?iia?nueeo iie?oeeo ? a
ianooiiee ia??iae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Cia/aiiy eicaoeueeiai oeioo a aeiiii?/iiio
?icaeoeo N?/?» ?ice?eaathoueny oaoiieia?/i? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oeioo
caii?iaeoe?a oa eiai i?noea ? ?ieue o n?/ia?e aeiiii?oe?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy «/aeie» a caii?iaeoe?a ? «no?oa?a» a aeiioe?a ia
aeyaey? ?noioieo a?aei?iiinoae, aeina?ae noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy caii?iaeoe?a
oaeaeei iioe?eany ia Aeiio. A?oea-aaei??ae Ei?iae?e E?then cacia/aa, ui
aoae?aieoeoai ii?nueeeo /iai?a o caii?iaeoe?a aoei i?aai?ciaaii a
iniaeeaiio i?noe? N?/? — a?enueeia?e nea?aieoe?. *aeee caii?iaeoe?a, ca
eiai na?ae/aiiyi, iaaaaeoaaee iaaiie?oainuee? oaethee, ?niainuee?
aa?eaeiiae, aino?? ?c iina, aac e?ey e iaeoae. ?ici??e ?o aoee ??cieie,
a?ae 50 aei 70 ooo?a caaaeiaaeee, oe?eiith a?ae 10 aei 12 /e a?ae 18 aei
20, ? caaaeoee aei 12 ooo?a. Iniiaith oaeiai noaeia aoea aeaeiaaaia c
aa?aiaiai /e eeiiaiai noiaao?a eieiaea caaaeiaaeee 45 ooo?a; cieco ?
aeiaa?oo c iaio aie?a iaaeaaeenue aeoaia? aeioee caaaeiaaeee aei 12 e
caaoe?oee aei 1 oooa eiaeia. Ii caaa?oaii? iaoeaee aeiuie /iaai
iniiethaaee ? anoaiiaethaaee aeaa ea?ia /e caa??ai? aanea, iaeia ia
ei?i?, ae?oaa ia iin?, ui aeicaieyei oaeaeei i?iyoe noaeio aaen iaeaea
ia i?noe?. ?c ciai?oiueiai aieo noaeia, acaeiaae ai?o?a a?ae ei?ie aei
iina i?ee??iethaaee eeeii aai aeiaeii u?eueii caycai? io/ee i/a?aoo
oiaueiith 6-8 ooo?a, uia aaa?aaoe noaeii a?ae ii?nueeeo oaeeue, iaaeaoe
eiio aii?oecaoe?eiino? i?e aai?aeaae? c ei?aaeai i?ioeaieea /e i?e
i?e/aethaaii? aei eaiyienoiai aa?aaa ? iaa?oue caoenoeoe ai?oe a?ae
ai?iaeeo yaea? ? eoeue. Ae.ssai?ieoeueeee oea aaaaeaa caoenoii «a?ae
ai?iaeeo no??e». Oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaioiaeaiiy eicaoeueeeo /aeie o Aiieaia
? E?thena iaeaea oioiaei?. Ae.ssai?ieoeueeee, iineeath/enue ia e?oiien
Naiiaeaeoey, aeaiaeeoue iacao «/aeea» a?ae oaoa?nueeiai «ea?e» — «/a?e»,
ui cia/eoue «e?oaeee /iaai».

Ii?nueea oi?a?aey, aioo??oi? oi?a?aaeuei? caycee Caii?icueei? N?/?
caeaaeaee a?ae ai?iiiai iai?oaeaiiy oa a?ae oa?aeoa?o ae?iaie/i?
ae?yeueiino? eicaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii?, a nai?e N?/?, a?ae
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, o non?aei?o aea?aeaaao.
Ieoiia aaaa eicaoeueeiai ii?aieaanoaa ? noaeiiieaanoaa a ciai?oi?e ?
aioo??oi?e oi?a?ae? aoea aeineoue cia/iith. Caii?iaeaey iii?oii
?icoe?eei oi?a?aeth c *i?iiii?nueei-Aeoiaenueeeie e?a?iaie. A /ane
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ie?iiai ni?a?nioaaiiy i?ae N?//th, E?einueeei oaiaoii ?
Iooiiainueeith ?iia???th i?ae ieie aaeenue aeoeai? oi?a?aaeuei? caycee.
Oi?a?aey c Oo?a//eiith ? E?eiii aaeanue ia oo?aoeueeeo noaeiao, ye?
i?aei?iaeeny aai?o ii Aei?i?o aei N?/?. Caii?iaeoe? caaacia/oaaee ?i
eioeiainueeo neoaeao, cae?aee o?aoo e ?io? iiaeaoee.

Caii?icueea N?/ ?aaii eiio?iethaaea ii?nueeo ? aei?i?ianueeo oi?a?aeth,
ieeueii noaaeeea, uia ?? iiceoe?? i?ooi ia ni?a ineaaethaaoe.
Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai ? aeiaia?? i?i ii?aieaanoai ia *i?iiio e Acianueeiio
ii?yo, oeeaaeaiee a 1649 ?. Oaeei /eiii, a ie?aneaiee ia??iae ia *i?iiio
e Acianueeiio ii?yo ia?aaaaeaei ai?iia ii?aieaanoai, iaoa yeiai aoea
ni?yiiaaia ia iai?iio oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, c ?ioiai aieo — ai?ioueaa
aaeanue ca naiaiaeo ii?nueei? oi?a?ae? ? i?iiene?a. Eicaoeueea
ii?aieaaaiiy ia *i?iiio e Acianueeiio ii?yo aecia/aeinue ye ai?iia
ii?aieaaaiiy.

O aeniiaeao i?aenoiiaothoueny ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe
ianooii? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1.Caii?icueea N?/ c /an?a naiii?aai?caoe?? ? aei e?ea?aeaoe?? a 1775 ?.
?icaeaaeany aii??e/ii. A?enueeiaa ienoaoeoai eicae?a — a?enueeiaa
iie?oeea, no?oeoo?a a?enueea, eiioeaioe?y ai?iieo ae?e — aaiethoe?eii
aoee iiaycai? c ai?iiei aeina?aeii ?one-Oe?a?ie, ae?yeuei?noth
i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo a?iaeiee?a oa aeina?aeii ?aiiueiai eicaoeueeiai
i?eei?aeiiiy ia?oi? iieiaeie XVI no.

2.Ca?iaeaeaiiy, noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie oeioo Cai?icueei? N?/? i?aai?/ii
iiaycaiee c i?aai?caoe??th oa ooieoe?iioaaiiyi anueiai eicaoeueeiai
a?enueea. Ai?ioueaa eicae?a ia ii?? iineea i?aaaioeaiee
oia?aaeaeoaaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Oey ai?ioueaa ni?yiiaoaaeany ia
e?ea?aeaoe?th aeieaaee Oo?a//eiith Caii?icueei? N?/? a ae?eao aaeeeeo
??e I?e/i?iiii?y, aaaeeeaeo ai?iieo ? oi?aiaeo oeyo?a a aanaei? *i?iiai
? Acianueeiai ii??a.

3. *a?ac aii??e/i?noue ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae cia/io a?ae??aai?noue ai?iieo
ae?e a?ae iniiaii? oeeiai? aace N?/? eicaee ia ciiaee cae??ieoenue o
caaieiaaieo oi?oaoeyo-ii?oao a iiiecc? Aei?i?a ? ia?aeoe aei
ianooiaeueii? no?aoaa?? caaeey iaieiae?iiy no?aoaa?i/ieie ii?nueeeie ?
nooiiooieie oeyoaie.

4.Ai?aioiai?noue eicaoeueeiai oeioo Caii?icueei? N?/? aoea ??ciith a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ia??iaeo eiai ?icaeoeo oa ??aiy eiai i?aai?caoe??,
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy.

5. Ii?nuee? a?eie eicaoeoaa aoee eiino?oeoeaieie ca nai?th noooth, aiie
caoeuaee oe?a?inueeee oa ?io? neiayinuee? ia?iaee a?ae iiaiiai
aeieuaiiy, aeeiioaaee aecaieueio i?n?th uiaei iiiaaieaieo o?enoeyi.

6.Caaaeyee o/ano? Caii?icueei? N?/? o an?o ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeeo a?eiao
e?ioey OVII oa anueiai XVIII no. ?in?enueea ?iia??y aeai?iea ca
ssnnueeei ie?iei aeiaiai?ii (1791 ?.) i?aai iaoe ai?iiee oeio o *i?iiio
ii??.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo iaoeiaeo i?aOeUe

ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??:

1. Ii?nuee? iioiaee caii?iaeoe?a. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: N?/, 1995. — 221
n. (10,0 ae?. a?e.)

2. Ia?iaeia iai»youe i?i eicaoeoai. — Caii??aeaey: ?ioa?aoe,1991. — 315
n. (15,0 ae?. a?e.) (o ni?aaao.)

3. Iaoe?iiaeueia neiaie?ea Oe?a?ie. — Caii??aeaey: ?ioa?aoe, 1993. —
104 n. (5,0 ae?. a?e.)

4. E eieaeecaoeee eaoiieniiai Ieaouey // Niaaoneay a?oaieiaey. — ? 1,
1980. — N. 64-73.

5. ?noi?eei-a?oaia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iaeieoeueeeo iinaeaiue ia
Ieaeiueiio Aei?i?? // Oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai: aeoiee, aaiethoe?y,
niaaeueia: Iaoa??aee i?aei. iaoe. eiio., i?enay/aii? 500-??//th
oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa. — E., 1991. — Aei.2. — N. 123-131.

6. I?aaeoa/a eicaoeueei? oaa?aeei? ia Caii?iaeae? // Eicaoeuee? N?/?
(ia?ene c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai eicaoeoaa XVI — O?O no.). —
Ee?a-Caii??aeaey, 1998. -N.15-22 (o ni?aaao.)

AIIOAOe??

Nieoeuenueeee A.E. Oeio Caii?icueei? N?/? OVI-XVIII no.: no?oeoo?ia
i?aai?caoe?y, oaoiieia?y oa a?enueeiaa ienoaoeoai. Aeena?oaoe?y ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny aeieeiaiiy, ?icaeoie oa ae??
oeioo Caii?icueei? N?/? o XVI-XVIII no. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?noea
eicaoeueeiai oeioo o ?icaeoeo no?oeoo?e ca?ieieo nee A?enueea
Caii?icueeiai Ieciaiai, oa?aeoa? no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee oe?a?inueeeo
eicae?a o ii?nueeeo a?eiao. Cyniaai? oeyoe aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo
aaiiie?oe/ieo «non?ae?a» o ?icaeoeo ii?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa eicae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Caii?icueea N?/, oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai, oeio,
a?enueeiaa ienoaoeoai, noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy, eicaoeuee? «/aeee»,
?in?enueei-oo?aoeuee? a?eie, ii?nuee? iioiaee.

Nieoeueneee A.E. Oeio Caii?iaeneie Na/e XVI-XVIII aa: no?oeoo?iay
i?aaiecaoeey, oaoiieiaey e aieineia enneonoai. Aeena?oaoeey ia
nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01. — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Einoeooo enoi?ee Oe?aeiu
IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa ?anniao?eaaaony aicieeiiaaiea, ?acaeoea e
aeaenoaea oeioa Caii?iaeneie Na/e a XVI-XVIII aa. Enneaaeothony ianoi
eaca/aneiai oeioa a ?acaeoee no?oeoo?u aii?oaeaiiuo nee Aienea
Caii?iaeneiai Ieciaiai, oa?aeoa? no?aoaaee e oaeoeee oe?aeineeo eacaeia
a ii?neeo aieiao. Ii?aaeaeaiu iooe eniieueciaaiey iiuoa aaiiieeoe/aneeo
«ninaaeae» a ?acaeoee ii?neiai ii?aieaaaiey eacaeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Caii?iaeneay Na/ue, oe?aeineia eaca/anoai, oeio,
aieineia enneonoai, noaeiino?ieoaeuenoai, eacaoeeea «/aeee»,
?onnei-oo?aoeeea aieiu, ii?neea iioiaeu.

Sokulskiy A.L. The Naval Fleet of the Zaporozhya Sich (16 th — 18 th
centuries): The Structure, Arrangement, Technology and the War Art.
Thesis for a Candidate of Sdience Degree by speciality 07.00.01 —
History of Ukraine. — The Institute of History of Ukraine in the
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

This dissertation investigates the history of the rise and the
development of the Zaporizhya Cossacks naval fleet in the 16th-18th
centuries. An attempt is made to prove that the evolution of the
Cossack’s naval fleet takes place in the period of the Cossacks’
self-arrangement into a single war and state formation, which in the
process of development was implemented in the form of the first ever
built fortresses-siches, namely those were the Tomakivska Sich
altogether.

The Cossacks’ naval efficiency reached its peak in the period of the
Bazavluk Sich domination (1593-1638). The Zaporozhya Sich territory
served as a sife for ship building in the same way as it was a tradition
with the Don Cossacks who built vessels in the middle part of the Don
River basin. The political situation in the neighbouring territories
largely influenced the economic state and the trade links of the
Zaporozhya itself. The other influencing factor was the state of the
ethnic processes that were going on inside Ukraine and beyond it.

The scope of the sea and river navigation was also significant for the
trading and commercial links established with other countries, situated
in the near Danube river banks territories, in the Black Sea coastal
areas. This number of the countries engaged in the trading and other
links also included the Western European states, the near-Baltic area
states and also the sea-ports such as Gdansk, Konigsberg and Riga. In
the time of peace between the Sich and the Ottoman Turkish Empire,
alongside with its vassal — the Crimean Khanate, the trade was
particularly booming. The Turkish goods were delivered on vessels that
sailed along the Dnieper all the way to the site of the Sich itself, and
the Turkish merchants were serviced with the river-pilots, if necessary,
at that. This gave the Zaporozhyens the needed freight, the customs tax
and other income payments. This practice was actually inherited due to
the experience gained in the past by the Kyiv Rus mariners, and in the
later epochs it was further developed by the Cossack seamen into a
full-scale sea trade business and naval eperiences.

The Cossacks’ naval missions were, in fact, of a constructive nature as
they protected Ukraine and the neighbouring populations of Poland and
Moscovy from exterminating them by the fanatic Islam. The target was to
break the siege in which the Zaporozhya territories appegred when the
Sich was blocked by the Turkish armed forces and the naval fleet in the
estuaries of the largest rivers in the Black Sea coastal area. However
the long distances that emerged between the naval (activity cossacks
rear bases, prevented the Zaporozhyens from establishing permanent
footholds at the conquered sea ports, and thus the intention to secure a
further naval advance was actually hampered in this process.

It was due to the effective naval attacks attempted by the Zaporizhya
Cossacks’ Navy in the epoch of the Russia-Turkish wars (18 century) that
the Russian Empire was able to annex the territories of the Black Sea
coastal area and gain the right to form a naval fleet according to the
1791 Peace Treaty signed in Yassi.

The Key-words: the Sich, the Zaporozhya Sich, the naval cossack fleet
(the Navy), the «chaika»-ship.

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