Фізичні основи поверхневого зміцнення матеріалів за рахунок формування нерівноважних структурних станів: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / М.О. Є

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI IAOA??AEICIAANOAA

?i. ?. I. O?aioeaae/a

?O?IIA IEEIEA IEAENAIAe?IAE*

OAeE: 621.785.5: 620.18

O?CE*I? INIIAE IIAA?OIAAIAI CI?OeIAIIss IAOA??AE?A CA ?AOOIIE
OI?IOAAIIss IA??AIIAAAEIEO NO?OEOO?IEO NOAI?A

01.04.13 — o?ceea iaoae?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei — iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?. I.
O?aioeaae/a Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

i?ioani? I?eueiai THe?e Aeeoi?iae/

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

i?ioani? Can?i/oe Ieaia Ai?e?aia,

?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie

caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe

i?ioani? Ayeiaa Ieaenaiae?a A?eoi?iaia

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Ee?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee Oi?aa?neoao

?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

eaoaae?a o?ceee iaoae?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ”12”n?/iy ?. i 14 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.207.01 a ?inoeooo?
i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa

?i. ?. I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie (252142 Ee?a-142, aoe.
E?aeeaeai?anueeiai, 3)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?. I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie (252142 Ee?a-142,
aoe. E?aeeaeai?anueeiai, 3)

Aoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 3 a?oaeiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee _________________ Iaaea?ii TH.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie A oaia??oi?e /an oe?iea canoinoaaiiy ciaoiaeyoue
iia? niiniae ia?iaee iaoa??ae?a, ui caniiaothoueny ia aeei?enoaii?
aeniei-eiioeaio?iaaieo aeaea?ae aia?a?? — aeaeo?e/iiai ?ic?yaeo, ieacie,
aeaeo?iiiiai ? eaca?iiai aei?ii?iaiue oa ?i. Iacaaaeath/e ia
a?aei?ii?noue o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ui eaaeaoue a iniia? oiai /e ?ioiai
niiniao oaeaee?niiai iaa??ao, an?i ?i i?eoaiaiia ni?eueia iniaeea?noue:
oacia? oa no?oeoo?i? ia?aoai?aiiy cae?eniththoueny a oiiaao, aeaeaeeo
a?ae ??aiiaaaeieo, ui iienothoueny oaciaeie ae?aa?aiaie noaio. A ?aieao
i?aaenoaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy
i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o noaeae aei?ii?iaiiyi eaca?a oa
ieaciiai-aeaoiiaoe?eiith ia?iaeith (IAeI), a oaeiae iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a c iiai?noth aai /anoeiai aii?o?ciaaiith
no?oeoo?ith, io?eiaieo iaoiaeaie aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy (AOI) ia
i?aeeeaaeeo c aoaeaoeaai? noae?. Eaca?i?e ia?iaoe? iaoa??ae?a i?enay/aia
cia/ia e?euee?noue ?ia?o, a yeeo, ye i?aaeei, ?icaeyiooi aieea eaca?iiai
aei?ii?iaiiy c ?iioeuenaie i?e?naeoiaeii? o?eaaeino?. A?aei?iiith ?enith
oe??? ?iaioe ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aei?ii?iaiiy
iaaeei?ioei?iioeueniiai eaca?o iaiinaeoiaeii? o?eaaeino? ia ??ci? oeie
noaeae. Ia?aiao?e ?iioeueniiai ieaciiaiai iioieo oa eiai oaoiieia?/i?
iiaeeeaino? ii??aiyeuei? c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie i?iiaith iiooaeiiai eaca?a,
iaeiae a?eueo aenieee eiao?oe??io ei?enii? ae?? oa i?inoioa onoaoeoaaiiy
coiiaeththoue iiaeeea?noue oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy IAeI. A ca’yceo c oeei,
aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae IAeI a ii?aeiaii? c? no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie a
i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? i?aaenoaaey? aaeeeee ?ioa?an. Iaeaaaeeea?oith
ia?aaaaith iaoiae?a AOI i?e io?eiaii? iaoa??ae?a c ia??aiiaaaeiith
no?oeoo?ith ? iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy iiai?noth aai /anoeiai
aii?o?ciaaieo oa??a oiaueiith aei aeae?eueeio i?e?iao??a. Oea a?aee?eaa?
ia?niaeoeae io?eiaiiy iiaiai eeano iie?eoo?a aeey caoenoo o?aaeeoe?eieo
iaoaeaaeo iaoa??ae?a a?ae ciai?oiueiai aieeao oa oi?ioaaiiy oa??a c?
niaoe?aeueieie aeanoeainoyie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee ia??aiiaaaeieo
nenoai, ui ooai?ththoueny i?e aenieiio oaii? aaaaeaiiy aia?a?? a
aoaeue-yea o?ce/ia na?aaeiaeua, a?aeiineoueny aei /enea iaea?eueo
neeaaeieo ? aeooaeueieo i?iaeai o?ceee iaoae?a.

Iaoa e caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? anoaiiaeaiiy o?ce/ieo
caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oa iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae a
i?ioean? ?iioeueniiai aenieiaia?aaoe/iiai aieeao ia aoaeaoeaa? oa
ia?aeaa?th/? noae?, ye? oe?iei aeei?enoathoueny a i?iieneiaino?.

A?aeiia?aeii c iaoith ?iaioe aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaea/?:

1. Aea?aoe eiiieaen o?ce/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui iaea?eueo
i?aeoiaeyoue aeey aea/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o.
Aaeineiiaeeoe oe? iaoiaee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiei? iiaeeo?eiaaii?
iaeano?.

2. Aea/eoe iniaeeaino? aieeao ii?ii?iaiiy eaca?ii c iaaeei?ioeei
?iioeuenii iaiinaeoiaeii? o?eaaeino? ia no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia? a
i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? ia?aeaa?th/eo oa aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae a ii??aiyii? c
ii?ii?iaiiyi i?e?naeoiaeiei eaca?ii.

3. Anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ci?oeiaiiai oa?o i?ae aieeaii
eiioeaio?iaaieo ieaciiaeo iioie?a ia i?eeeaae? aoaeaoeaaeo ? eaaiaaieo
noaeae, i?aeaeaieo IAeI.

4. Aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? aii?o?caoe?? ii?ioeiaeo iie?eoo?a, ui
iaiinyoueny caniaaie AOI, a oaeiae caeaaei?noue i?e?ioaa?aeino?
aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a a?ae ?o no?oeoo?iiai noaio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Cae?eniaia a ?iaio? eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?eiiaa?oiaaeo iaeanoae ??ciiiai?oieo iaoa??ae?a aeicaieeei aeyaeoe
o?ce/io i?e?iaeo ooai?aiiy iiaeo ia??aiiaaaeieo no?oeoo?ieo noai?a, ui
aeieee? ye ?acoeueoao aieeao eiioeaio?iaaieo ?iioeuenieo aia?aaoe/ieo
iioie?a. Aia?oa aeyaeaii, ui a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? aonoai?oieo noaeae
i?ae aieeaii iaaeei?ioei?iioeueniiai iaiinaeoiaeiiai eaca?a oi?io?oueny
iaeanoue, a ye?e aiaeii/an niinoa??aathoueny aeaa AOeE — oaa?aeeo
?ic/eio cae?ca, ui a?ae??ciythoueny aaee/eiith ia?aiao?o e?enoae?/ii?
?ao?oee. Oaeee no?oeoo?iee noai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith aonoeiith
aeeneieaoe?e, ui oi?iothoue eii??/anoo aeeneieaoe?eio no?oeoo?o. Iiyaa
iiaiai ia??aiiaaaeiiai oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio c? ca?eueoaiei ia?aiao?ii
?ao?oee ca’yco?oueny c ooai?aiiyi eiiieaen?a “aeii?oea-iaaeaoceiaee
aoii”, ui naa?aaothoue ia aeeneieaoe?eieo noaa?aieoeyo ? noaa?e?cothoue
aeeneieaoe?eio noano?oeoo?o. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui ia?aiao? e?enoae?/ii?
?ao?oee aonoai?oo, ui ooai?eany i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii
iiaa?oi? aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae, a?eueoa, i?ae i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy
i?e?naeoiaeiei eaca?ii. Iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?a i?eiiaa?oiaaiai
ci?oeiaiiai oa?o noaeae 40O, Noaeue 45 oa O8, i?aeaeaieo IAeI,
oi?io?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ?icieaaeaiiy c ianooiiei iaaeoaeaeeei
caaa?ooaaiiyi c ??aeeiai noaio ? aeaoi?iaoe?eiei ci?oeiaiiyi. I?e/eiith
ci?oeiaiiy ? ooai?aiiy ae??aii?aieue/aoi? ia?oaineoii-aonoai?oii?
no?oeoo?e c aenieei nooiaiai oaciaiai iaeeaio, a oaeiae eaaoaaiiy
iaoa??aeii aeaeo?iaeo. Iieacaii, ui ia??aiiaaaeia no?oeoo?a iie?eoo?a,
io?eiaieo iaoiaeaie AOI, neeueii a?ae??ciy?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae
neeaaeo ? niiniao io?eiaiiy. sse i?aaeei, iie?eooy oiaueiith aei 0,5 ii
aii?o?ciaai? /anoeiai. Iieacaii, ui iie?eooy neeaae?a Fe-Mo-Cr-Ni-B-Si
oa Fe-Ni-B-Si, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iei nooiaiai aii?o?caoe??,
caeaoi? caa??aaoe oaa?ae?noue ia ??ai? 5 AIa aei oaiia?aoo? 600 — 7000N.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A?eueo?noue ia’?eo?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ?icaeyioo? a ?iaio?, aeioneathoueny i?iieneiai ?
ciaoiaeyoue iaeoe?oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia ae?iaieoeoa?, oiio i?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeiaith iniiaith aeey iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ia?iaee
iiaa?oi? iaoaeaaeo ae?ia?a, a oaeiae io?eiaiiy iie?eoo?a, ui
aii?o?cothoueny caniaaie AOI. A oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy ni?eueii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe ?II ?i. ?. I. O?aioeaae/a oa ??C ?i. ?. I.
Iaoi-ia IAI Oe?a?ie aoee io?eiai? iia? ?acoeueoaoe, ca’ycai? c?
noai?aiiyi iie?eoo?a c aii?o?ciaaiith no?oeoo?ith ? iiaeaeueoei
?icaeoeii oaoiieia?e IAeI. Oe? aeai? aoee aeei?enoai? i?e canai?ii?
oaoiieia?? IAeI ia *a?aiiaaoeueeiio noaeai?ieaoiiio caaiae? oa ?ic?iaoe?
iiaeo ii?ioe?a ? ii?ioeiaeo ae?io?a na??? “AIIOAE”. ?acoeueoaoe,
io?eiai? a oiae? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe, ni?eythoue a?eueo aeeaieiio
?icoi?iith i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o i?ae
aieeaii aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo iioie?a ? noai?ththoue ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
iniiae aeey iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae ooai?aiiy ia??aiiaaaeieo no?oeoo?ieo
noai?a a oiieeo i?eiiaa?oiaaeo iaeanoyo.

Iniaenoee aeeaae aeena?oaioa. Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo, i?iaaaeaiiy
eiiieaeno aenia?eiaio?a ii aei??thaaiith iiaa?oiaaiai ci?oeiaiiy
iaoa??ae?a, ui aeieea? ye ?acoeueoao aieeao aenieieiioeaio?iaaieo
iioie?a aia?a??, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai
aiae?co aeena?oaio aeeiiaa naiino?eii. A iinoaiiaoe? caaea/? ? iioi/iiio
iaaiai?aii? ?acoeueoao?a i?eeiaee o/anoue ea??aiee aeena?oaoe??
/eai-ei?. IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? TH. A. I?eueiai oa ae.o.-i.i. Ae. A.
Eioeei.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? ia
i?aeaea?aeaaieo nai?ia?ao “No?oeoo?ii-ii?oieia?/i? iniiae iiaeeo?eaoe??
iaoa??ae?a caniaaie iao?aaeeoe?eieo oaoiieia?e”, Iai?inuee (?in?y),
1993, 1995, 1997 ??., 8-e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iiaa?oiaa?
iiaeeo?eaoe?ei? oaoiieia??”, I?oeoea (O?aioe?y), 1994 ?., oa ia
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iia?oi? i?ioeane ? iaoa??aee a ii?ioeia?e
iaoaeo?a??”, Ee?a, 1997 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii iaoa??aeai aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 6 noaoae
oa 5 oac aeiiia?aeae, nienie yeeo iaaaaeaii a e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, 4-o ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui
aeeth/a? 100 iaeiaioaaiue. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 144 noi??iee, 50
iaethie?a, 14 oaaeeoeue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iieacaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?iaioe oa aecia/ai? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaaaaeaia no?oeoo?a ?iaioe, a?aecia/aia iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/ei?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, i?eaiaeyoueny iieiaeaiiy, aeianai?
ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iienai? iaoa??aee ? iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaaaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee c?ace?a, ui aoee aeei?enoai?.
Aieea eaca?iiai aei?ii?iaiiy aea/aee ia noaeyo c ??cieie oeiaie
e?enoae?/ieo ?ao?oie: AOeE — O18I10O ? 13O20 oa IOeE — Noaeue 45 ? O8.
Aeei?enoiaoaaee ?oa?iiaee eaca?, c ianooiieie oaoi?/ieie ia?aiao?aie:
aia?a?y ?iioeueno A ~ 1Aeae, na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue ?iioeueno = 20-30
in, ieoiia iiooaei?noue ?iioeueno w = (3-5) 108 Ao/ni2 oa iaiaeeiiaee
eaca? ia aethii?o???aiio a?aiao? YAG Nd3+, c ianooiieie oaoi?/ieie
ia?aiao?aie: A ~ 30 Aeae, = 3 in, w = 2105 Ao/ni2. IAeI cae?enithaaee a
ieaciio?ii? eiaen?aeueiiai oeio OI-138I. Aeei?enoaiiy aeaeo?iaeo, ui
aeo?a/a?oueny aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe aeiaeaoeiaa eaaoaaiiy
i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o. Aieea IAeI aoa aeine?aeaeaiee ia eaaiaai?e noae?
40O oa aoaeaoeaaeo noaeyo O8 oa Coaeue 45. Aeey io?eiaiiy iie?eoo?a
(oaae. 1) o ?iaio? aoei aeei?enoaii ianooiia onoaoeoaaiiy: OIO-8
(a?aiii-ieaciiaa iaieeaiiy), Ee?a-3 (aaciiia?o?yia ieaciiaa iaieeaiiy c
iaaecaoeiaith oaeaee?noth /anoie), Ee?a-7 (iia?o?yii-ieaciiaa iaieeaiiy)
oa Ciber-jet (aaciiieoiaiaaa iaieeaiiy). I?aeeeaaeeith a on?o aeiaaeeao
aoea iecueeiaoaeaoeaaa noaeue No3.

Oaaeeoey 1

O?i?/iee neeaae ii?ioe?a ui aoee aeei?enoai? aeey io?eiaiiy iie?eoo?a
(ian.%)

MoCrNiBSiMnCFeIA-AE124,47,87,63,40,5—53,3IA-I3—494,54,5—42Fe-Cr-B-19-
4,8—76,2Fe-Mn-Ni-C-Si-B—93353,576,5Fe-Mn-C-Si-1—-2,80,63,792,9Fe-Mn
-C-Si-2—-4,61,13,590,8

Ci?oeiaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o oa?aeoa?ecoaaee i?e?ioaa?ae?noth, yeo
aei??thaaee ia iiia?a/ieo oe?oao ia i?e?ioaa?aeii??? IIO-3.
I?e?ioaa?ae?noue i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao aei??thaaee o aaeooi? a
i?eeaae? A?I-1. Aeey aei???a aeei?enoiaoaaee ?iaeaioi?e A?ea?na oa
Eioia. Nooeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee niiniaaie Iaea-aeaeo?iiii?
niaeo?ineii?? (Iaea-niaeo?iiao? JAMP-10S), ?ano?iai? aeaeo?iiii?
i?e?ineii?? (i?e?ineii O-20), i?ina?/oaaeueii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??
(i?e?ineii JEM-100CX) oa ?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co (?aioaai?anueeee
aeeo?aeoiiao? Ae?II-3I, Fe E — aei?ii?ithaaiiy).

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aea/aiith iniaeeainoae aieeao ii?ii?iaiiy
iaaeei?ioei?iioeueniiai iaiinaeoiaeiiai eaca?a ia no?oeoo?o ?
aeanoeaino? ia?aeaa?th/eo oa aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae a ii??aiyii? c
ii?ii?iaiiyi eaca?ii c i?e?naeoiaeiith o?eaae?noth ?iioeueno. Ci?io
no?oeoo?e i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o i?ney aieeao i?iiaith eaca?a c
?iioeuenaie i?e?naeoiaeii? o?eaaeino? cae/aeii ca’ycothoue c oa?i?/iei
aieeaii, a ?acoeueoao? /iai iathoue i?noea i?ioeane caaa?ooaaiiy oa
a?aeioneo. Iaaaaeai? o ?icae?e? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui ae?y
iaaeei?ioei?iioeueniiai eaca?o c o?eaae?noth ?iioeueno ii?yaeeo 20 in
coiiaeaia ia o?eueee oa?i?/iei aieeaii, aea ? oaea?iith oaeeath (ia
o?iio? yei? ?icaeaa?oueny oene a?ey 1 AIa i?e aia?a?? ?iioeueno ii?yaeeo
1 Aeae), caeaoii? oyaoe ca niaith oi/eia? aeaoaeoe. A?aeiii, ui
aenieiaia?aaoe/iee ?iioeueniee aieea c iaiinaeoiaeiith aeiaaeeiith
?iioeueno iiaea noeioethaaoe a nieaaao oae? oacia? oa no?oeoo?i?
ia?aoai?aiiy, ye? ia iathoue i?noey i?e o?aaeeoe?eieo ia?iaeao. Oae, A.
N. Oiaeaanueeith i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy ia?aeaa?th/i? noae? ?iiaie Ar+ ? Ni+,
oa Aeae. *aiaii i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy nieaao Ni3Al i?ioiiaie,
niinoa??aaeinue yaeua ooai?aiiy a nenoai? aeaio oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a c
aeo?aeiei ? i?aeaeuaiei ia?aiao?ii e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee. Oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy oaeeo yaeu a oaia??oi?e /an ciaoiaeeoueny a noaae??
?ic?iaee.

?aioaaiia?aie, io?eiai? a oiae? ?iaioe c iiaa?oi? noaeae O18I10O oa
13O20, i?aeaeaieo ii?ii?iaiith iaaeei?ioei?iioeueniiai iaiinaeoiaeiiai
eaca?a oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?icuaieaiiyi on?o e?i?e -Fe. Ii?yae c e?i?yie,
eooiaa iieiaeaiiy yeeo i?aeoe/ii ni?aiaaea? c iieiaeaiiyi, oa?aeoa?iei
aeey aeo?aeiiai noaio, niinoa??aa?oueny iiyaa ?ioeo, aeoaea oe?ieeo
e?i?e i?e iaioiio eoo? a?aeaeaaiiy (?en. 1), ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
ia?aiao?o e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee AOeE-oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio, ca?eueoaiiio o
ii??aiyii? c ia?aiao?ai iniiaii? ?ao?oee. Aoaeo ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiao?o
neeaaea? a?ey 1,5%.

O aeiaaeeo noae? 13O20 e?i?y (111) -Fe ia? a?eueo neeaaeio oi?io, ui
neoaeeoue na?ae/aiiyi ooai?aiiy iiaeo aeaio aai o?ueio oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a
-Fe (iii?/aieo ye 1, 2, (110)(3)) c ia?aiao?aie e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee, ui
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ia?aiao?o iao?e/ii? ?ao?oee ia aaee/eio aei 4,6%.
Iiaeeeai, ooai?aiiy a?eueoiai /enea iiaeo oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a o ii??aiyii?
c? noaeeth O18I10O ca’ycaia c a?eueoith e?euee?noth eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a
a noae? 13O20 (ie??i o?iio oa i?eaeth, a i?e ? ? ia?aaiaoeue). I?e,
iicia/aiee ye (110)(3) — Fe, a??ia?aeii ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe ye ?aoeaen a?ae
IOeE aai AOeE oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cae?ca ia aaea?oueny. I?ney ii?ii?iaiiy
iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii a?aenoaiue i?ae e?i?yie (111) ? (200) -Fe
ca?eueoo?oueny i?eaeecii ia 1,4%, iaeiae iaeaea? e?i?? cnoaathoueny a
noi?iio iaioeo eoo?a, ui iiaea aooe aeeeeeaia i???ioiaaieie
iai?oaeaiiyie, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aei??ii i?e?ioaa?aeino?
i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o, yea neeaaea? a?ey 3,3 AIa, i?e oiauei? ci?oeiaiiai
oa?o a?ey 10 iei. Aonoeia aeeneieaoe?e a noae? O18I10O o aeo?aeiiio
noai? (?en. 2 a) neeaaea? aaee/eio 109 ni-2. I?ney ii?ii?iaiiy
iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii o i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? oi?io?oueny eii??/anoa
aeeneieaoe?eia no?oeoo?a c ?ici??ii eii??ee 0,3 — 0,5 iei (?en. 2 a).
Aenie? iai?oae, ui aeieeathoue a ii?ii?iai?e iaeano?, ni?eythoue
noyaoaaiith aeeneieaoe?e.

Aeai? i?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co (oaae. 2) iieacothoue
a?aenooi?noue a?aei?iiino? eiioeaio?aoe?? iniiaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a:
o?iio, i?eaeth ? oeoaio a o?e? eii??ee oa ?? a?aieoe?. I?ney ii?ii?iaiiy
aea/aieo noaeae aonoai?oiiai eeano eaca?ii c ?iioeuenaie i?e?naeoiaeii?
o?eaaeino? iciaee ?icuaieaiiy ?aioaai?anueeeo e?i?e ia
niinoa??aathoueny, ?o ?icoe?aiiy i?aeoe/ii oaea ae, ye ? iniiaiiai
oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii, oiaoi
ii??aiyii iacia/ia. A no?oeoo?? i?eiiaa?oiaaiai iiaeeo?eiaaiiai oa?o
aeeneieaoe?ei? eii??ee ia ooai?ththoueny, niinoa??aa?oueny noaae?y
oi?ioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?eieo nieao?iue ia oe? oaioe/ii ?iciiae?eaieo
aeeneieaoe?e.

Oaaeeoey 2

?acoeueoaoe niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co ae?eyiie oiieeo oieuea noae? O18I10O

Ae?eyieaCi?no a ian.% FeCrNiTiO?ei eii??ee69,420,09,20,5A?aieoey
eii??ee70,118,09,50,8

ssaeua ooai?aiiy aeaio oa a?eueoa oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy
eaca?ii aonoai?oieo noaeae aeyaeaii iaie aia?oa. Ine?eueee niaeo?aeueiee
aiae?c ae?eueieoeue oiieeo oieuea noae? O18I10O, i?aeaeaieo ii?ii?iaiith
iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii, iieacaa a?aenooi?noue a?aei?iiino?
eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a a o?e? eii??ee oa ?? a?aieoe?,
i?eiouaiiy i?i eiioeaio?aoe?eio iaiaeii??aei?noue ye i?i i?e/eio
ooai?aiiy aeaio?ic/eiii? nenoaie ia i?aeoaa?aeeeiny. C?inoaiiy ia?aiao?o
?ao?oee aonoai?oo iiaei a aooe aeeeeeaia oaeiae eiioeaio?aoe?eiith
iaiaeii??aei?noth aoaeaoeth, ai?no yeiai a aea/aieo aonoai?oieo noaeyo
ia ia?aaeuo? 0,12%. I?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aoaeaoeth a 10 ?ac
i?eaaei a aei ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiao?o ?ao?oee ia 1%. Oaeee ia?a?iciiae?e
aoaeaoeth aeeeeeaa ae ??cieoeth a ni?aa?aeiioaii? ?ioaa?aeueieo
?ioaineaiinoae aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e oa 1 oaae a 10 ?ac, ui ia
niinoa??aa?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueii (?en. 1). Oyaey?oueny, ui yaeua
ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiao?a e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee, yea ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ci?iith eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, iiaea aooe ca’ycaia eeoa c
i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? i?aeaoceiaeo aoii?a. A?aeiii, ui i?e
oaea?ii-oaeeueiaiio aieea? a iaoa??ae? ooai?th?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue
oi/eiaeo aeaoaeo?a (ye aaeain?e, oae ? i?aeaoceiaeo aoii?a). I?e aeoaea
e?ooiio o?iio? oaea?ii? oaee?, noa? iiaeeeaei caoiieaiiy i?aeaoceiaeo
aoii?a oa ?o aacaeeooc?eiee ?oo ii e?enoae?/i?e ?ao?ooe?. Ii?iaiaa
iai?oaa caoiieaiiy aoiio oaea?iith oaeeath cia/ii cieaeo?oueny i?e
iayaiino? a e?enoae? ?ooiieo aeeneieaoe?e. Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui
i?aeaoceia? aoiie a?oiothoueny a no?ieao eii??ie, ui caoaeiaai?
aeeneieaoe?yie. I?e oeueiio aaeeea eiioeaio?aoe?y ai?iaaaeaeaieo aoii?a
ia aeeneieaoe?yo aaeueio? ?o ia?aaoaeiao a aocuee? noaa?aieoe? (yea
iia’ycaia c i?ioeanaie iiia?a/iiai eiacaiiy, iie?aii?caoe?? oa
ai?a?eyoe?? aeeneieaoe?e). Oaeee iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
ia??aiiaaaeii? 1-oace i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oei, ui a?aeiioaiiy ia’?io
o?ea eii??ee aei ia’?io, ui caeiathoue noaa?aieoe? i?eaeecii aei??aith?
a?aeiioaiith ?ioaa?aeueieo ?ioaineaiinoae ?aioaai?anueeeo aeeo?aeoe?eieo
e?i?e oa 1 (1).
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 (1)

Oo?eiaiith i?aeaoceiaeo aoii?a a iiaeo iieiaeaiiyo i?ney i?ioiaeaeaiiy
o?iioo oaea?ii? oaee? ni?ey? ooai?aiiy eiiieaen?a “aeii?oea —
i?aeaoceiaee aoii”, oi?ioaaiiy yeeo iiaeeeai a oaa?aeeo eiioeaio?iaaieo
?ic/eiao.

A aoaeaoeaaeo noaeyo O8 oa Noaeue 45 i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy eaca?aie iaio
aeae?a ia ?aioaaiia?aiao c’yaeeeny e?i?? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo, aeaui
a?eueo ?ioaineai? o aeiaaeeo i?e?naeoiaeiiai eaca?a, iaeiae iiyaa iiaiai
IOeE oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio c? ca?eueoaiei ia?aiao?ii e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee
cao?eniaaia ia aoea. Oe?eaai a?aecia/eoe, ui a iaio noaeyo ia?aiao?
e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee aonoai?oo i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii
aeyaeany i?eaeecii ia 0,7 — 0,8 % a?eueoa, i?ae i?ney i?e?naeoiaeiiai
eaca?o, a ?aioaai?anuee? aeeo?aeoe?ei? e?i?? -Fe i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy
iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii ia ianooue iciae aneiao???, ye? a na?ae/eee i?i
ia?oaineoia ia?aoai?aiiy. O oie aea /an i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy i?e?naeoiaeiei
eaca?ii, ?aioaaiia?ao?/ii ?a?no?o?oueny cia/ia ?icoe?aiiy e?i?e -Fe c
aneiao???th, yea na?ae/eoue i?i ?icaeoie ia?oaineoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy.
Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeo?aeia no?oeoo?a
noae? ia?ee Noaeue 45 yaeyea niaith noi?o ca?ai iaaeeeoeiaiai oa?eoo ?
ieanoei/aoiai ia?e?oo. I?ney ii?ii?iaiiy iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii a
no?oeoo?? i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o oaeiae aeyaeaii i?enooi?noue ea?a?aeieo
ieanoei, oe?eia yeeo i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ieeanue ii??aiyii c aeo?aeiei
noaiii. I?ney ii?ii?iaiiy iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii o noae? O8, aeo?aeia
no?oeoo?a yei? neeaaeaeanue ?c ca?ienoiai ia?e?oo, aea oeaiaioeo iaa
oi?io aeecueeo aei aeiaoey?ii?, i?aeoe/ii ia a?aeaoaaeiny ?ic/eiaiiy
/anoie oeaiaioeoo, a o oa?eo? ooai?eeanue ae??aia eii??eiaa no?oeoo?a c
?ici??ii eii??ie 0,4 iei. I?ney ii?ii?iaiiy aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae
i?e?naeoiaeiei eaca?ii ia? i?noea caaa?ooaaiiy oiieiai i?eiiaa?oiaaiai
oa?o, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny noai?aiiyi ia?oaineoo, caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo
oa oa?eoi-ea?a?aeii? noi?o? a aeiaaoaeoi?aei?e noae? ia?ee Noaeue 45 oa
ia?oaineoo ? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo a aaoaeoi?aei?e noae? O8.
A?aenooi?noue ci?ie oi?ie ?aioaai?anueeeo aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e -Fe oa
iiyaa e?i?e ia??aiiaaaeiiai caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo ia ?aioaaiia?aiao
i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii iiaeia iiynieoe, aeoiaey/e c
i?eiouaiiy, ui ca aeoaea ei?ioeee /an iaa??ao ia anoeaa? a?aeaooeny
?ic/eiaiiy aoaeaoeth a aonoai?o? ia?aae ia?oaineoiei ia?aoai?aiiyi, a
ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiao?o e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee aonoai?oo iia’ycaii c
i?aeaeuaiith eiioeaio?aoe??th o iueiio ai?iaaaeaeaieo aoii?a, ye oea
niinoa??aaeinue o noaeyo aonoai?oiiai eeano. Caa?aaeaiith aonoai?oo a
no?oeoo?? ii?ii?iaii? ciie ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaia aeaoaeoi?noue
e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae, ea?a?aei? ieanoeie o aeiaaeeo Noae? 45 oa
ooai?aiiy ae??aii? eii??/anoi? no?oeoo?e a O8.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iienaii aieea IAeI ia aeanoeaino? oa no?oeoo?i?
ia?aoai?aiiy a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? eiino?oeoe?eieo oa ?ino?oiaioaeueieo
noaeae. Iiaeeo?eoaaiiy iiaa?oi? iaoae?a oa nieaa?a ca aeiiiiiaith
?iioeuenii? ieaciiai? ia?iaee a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie oa?i?/iiai
aieeao ieaciiaeo ?iioeuen?a, ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?iaiiy ieacie,
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai iiey, oeneo oaea?ii? oaee?, aenieioaeaee?niiai iioieo
aeaeo?ii?a oa ?ii?a, ui noeioeth? iane/aiiy i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o
aeaiaioaie, ui neeaaeathoue ieacio. Iaaaaeaiee e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae
na?ae/eoue, ui o oaia??oi?e /an ci?oeiaiith iiaa?oiaai? iaeano? iaoae?a
oa nieaa?a ca aeiiiiiaith aieeao ieaciiaeo ?iioeuen?a a e?oa?aoo??
i?eae?eaia cia/ii iaioa oaaae, i?ae ci?oeiaiith i?iiaiai eaca?a.

I?iaaaeai? a ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ??aaiue
i?e?ioaa?aeino? i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o noae? 40O, i?aeaeaii? IAeI,
aei??aith? 7 — 7,5 AIa. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y IAeI ca?eueoo?, aieiaiei /eiii,
o?eueee aeeaeio ci?oeiaiiai oa?o. O?eueee a c?aceao, ia?iaeaieo a
iaea?eueo ?ioaineaieo ?aaeeiao, aaee/eia i?e?ioaa?aeino? i?aei?iaeany
aei ??aiy 10 — 11 AIa i?e iaeneiaeuei?e aeeaei? ci?oeiaiiai oa?o 50 iei.
IAeI noae? ia?ee Noaeue 45 c aeei?enoaiiyi oeoaiiaiai aeaeo?iaeo
ni?e/eiy? cia/ii iaioa ci?oeiaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o a ii??aiyii? c?
noaeeth 40O. A c?aceao noae? O8 aeeaeia ci?oeiaiiai oa?o a?ae iaoa??aeo
aeaeo?iaeo i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue, aea ?noioii ?ic??ciy?oueny aaee/eia
ci?oeiaiiy (?en. 4 a, a). Iaea-niaeo?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oi?
c?ace?a, i?aeaeaieo IAeI, iieaco? i?enooi?noue cae?ca, aoaeaoeth, eenith
oa acioo, ui ? iane?aeeii ae?? ieaciiaiai iioieo, ui i?noeoue ?iie oa
aoiie oeeo aeaiaio?a. A niaeo?ao a?ae eaiaeue, ye? niinoa??aathoueny ia
ia?iaeai?e iiaa?oi?, ie??i i?e?a aoaeaoeth, eenith oa cae?ca, i?enooi?
iii?oi? i?ee a?ae aeaiaio?a iaoa??aeo aeaeo?iaeo. I?enooi?noue
iie?aaeaio ?a?no?o?oueny ? iica iaeanoth eaiaeue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiia?a/ieo oe?o?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo? caaaa/oaaiiy aoaeaoeai iiaeeo?eiaaiiai
i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o. A c?aceao, ia?iaeaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi
aieueo?aiiaiai aeaeo?iaeo, e?aiaeue ia iiaa?oi? ia aeyaeaii. Iaaii, a
i?ioean? IAeI oaiia?aoo?a iaa??ao aeaeo?iaeo ia aeinyaaea oaiia?aoo?e
ieaaeaiiy aieueo?aio. Oea a?aeiia?aea? ??ci?e ?ioaineaiino? aeo?a/aiiy
iaoa??aeo aeaeo?iaeo a i?ioean? ia?iaee: iia?euei?oa ca an?o
ni?aoeueiaoaaany aeaeo?iae c aieueo?aio, iaeoaeaeoa — c? noae? O18I9.

Cia?aaeaiiy ceaio c?acea noae? O8, i?aeaeaiiai IAeI (?en. 5), ui aoa
iaea?aeaiee a eieii? Iaea-niaeo?iiao?a, aeaiiino?o? iaaecae/aeii neeueia
?icae??aeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a a iiaeeo?eiaaiiio oa??. Oiaueia oa?o
c ?icae?iaeaiith no?oeoo?ith neeaaea? a?ey 10 iei, ui aeaui iaioa, i?ae
aeeaeia ci?oeiaii? iaeano? (?en. 4 a).

?aioaaiia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oi? ia?ia-eaieo c?ace?a na?ae/eoue,
ui c iineeaiiyi ?aaeeio IAeI ia? i?noea ciaioaiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo
?ioaineaiinoae aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e -Fe ? c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae e?i?e
-Fe. I?e ii??aiyeueieo ?aaeeiao IAeI cia/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueii?
?ioaineaiino? e?i?e caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo c?inoathoue aeaui neeuei?oa o
aeei?enoaiiy aeaeo?iae?a c iie?aaeaio oa aieueo?aio, i?ae o aeiaaeeo
aeaeo?iaeo c? noaee O18I9 oa oeoaiiaiai aeaeo?iaeo. Ia ?aioaaiia?aiao
i?enooi? neaae? e?i?? ieneae?a cae?ca oa oeaiaioeoo o aeiaaeeo noae? O8.
Aeeo?aeoe?ei? e?i?? -Fe a?ae c?ace?a ia?iaeaii? noae? O8 iicia/ai?
iii?oiith aneiao???th, oa?aeoa?iith aeey ?ao?oee ia?oaineoo, ?o aeaeyae
cia/ii caeaaeeoue ye a?ae iaoa??aeo aeaeo?iaeo ieaciio?iia, oae ? a?ae
e?eueeino? ?iioeuen?a. I?ney ia?iaee o?ueiia ?iioeuenaie eiiiiiaioe
aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e cae?ca a?ae oa?eoii? neeaaeiai? cia/ii ?ioaineai?oa
eiiiiiaio?a a?ae ia?oaineoo, oiaoi ia oeyoo ?aioaai?anueeeo i?ii?i?a
(oiaueia 75% ineaaeaiiy aeey e?i?? (211) -Fe neeaaea? 10,2 iei) ? ye
ia?oaineo, oae ? oa?eo. Oaeei /eiii, oiaueia oa?o, aea a?aeaoeiny
caaa?ooaaiiy, ui ni?e/eieei iiyao a no?oeoo?? ia?oaineoo oa caeeoeiaiai
aonoai?oo, iaioa oiaueie ci?oeiaiiai oa?o. I?ney IAeI iiaa?oi? noae? O8
a?nueiiia ?iioeuenaie aianie oa?eoo ?a?no?o?oueny o?eueee i?ney IAeI c
canoinoaaiiyi aeaeo?iaeo c noae? O18I9. O an?o c?aceao i?aeaeaieo IAeI
iaei i?noea oi?ioaaiiy e?enoaeia?ao?/ii? oaenoo?e c ia?aaaaeiith
i???ioaoe??th iai?yieo <100> ii ii?iae? aei ieiueie c?acea ye o
oa?eoi?e, oae ? a aonoai?oi?e no?oeoo?i?e neeaaeia?e ui ? iane?aeeii
ia?aaaaeii? i???ioaoe?? iaaieo e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iai?yie?a acaeiaae
a?aae??ioo oaiia?aoo? oa iai?oa i?e e?enoae?caoe?? oa ?ae?enoae?caoe??
iaoa??aeo a oiiaao oaeaeeiai ioieiaeaeoaaiiy. oaea yaeua ?iaeoue ioe?ieo
e?eueeino? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo Va ii cae/aeiiio ni?aa?aeiioaiith (2)
iaei?aeoiith.

Va =3I111/(3 I111+ 5I110) 100% (2)

Aiane?aeie iaeiaeiaiai oa?aeoa?o oaenoo?e a?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaiei ?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo ?ioaineaiinoae e?i?e (200) ? (200).
Aeoiaey/e c oaeiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia’?iio, /anoeo caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo
iiaeia ioe?ieoe ca?aeii oi?ioee:

Va= 3I200 /(3I200+5I200) ) 100% (3)

Ioe?iea, ui aoea c?iaeaia o aeiaaeeo IAeI noae? 40O c canoinoaaiiyi
iie?aaeaiiaiai aeaeo?iaeo, aeiaiaeeoue, ui ai?no caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo a
i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? i?ney IAeI aeinyaa? 50%, ui ?noioii aeua, i?ae
i?ney o?aaeeoe?eiiai caaa?ooaaiiy. Ioe?iea ae ai?noo aoaeaoeth a
ia?oaineo? i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o noae? O8 i?ney IAeI, i?iaaaeaia ii
?icuaieaiith e?i?? (211)-Fe o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoiaeeeith,
cai?iiiiiaaiith A.A.Eo?aethiiaei, aeiaiaeeoue iaiiaia ?ic/eiaiiy
aoaeaoeth i?e IAeI 3 ?iioeuenaie, a a aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy aeaeo?iaeo c
ia?aeaa?th/i? noae? ? i?e 8 ?iioeuenao. IAeI an?o noaeae, ui
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, aeeeeea? iii?oia ?icoe?aiiy ?aioaai?anueeeo
aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e ye -, oae ? — Fe. ?icoe?aiiy i?iii?oe?eii oaiaaino
eooa a?aeaeaaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue, ui iniiaieie /eiieeaie ?icoe?aiiy ?
iaiaeii??aei? aee?eaeaiiy e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee ae?oaiai ?iaeo, a naia:
aeniea aonoeia aeaoaeo?a e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae, oaciaee iaeeai ?
iaiaeii??aeiee ai?no aoaeaoeth a ia?oaineo?. Aeoiaey/e c aaee/eie
o?ce/iiai ?icoe?aiiy ?aioaai?anueeeo aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e, ca
iaoiaeeeith, cai?iiiiiaaiith I.A.E?eaiaeacii ? E.I.?yaioaieith, a -oac?
noae? O8 i?aeaeai?e IAeI a?nueiiia ?iioeuenaie c canoinoaaiiyi
iie?aaeaiiaiai aeaeo?iaeo, aoea ?ic?aoiaaia aonoeia aeeneieaoe?e.
Ioe?iaia aonoeia aeeneieaoe?e neeaea 8,11011ni-2. Ine?eueee o?ce/ia
?icoe?aiiy ?aioaai?anueeeo aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo a
on?o noaeyo, i?aeaeaieo IAeI, i?eaeecii iaeiiai ??aiy, iaaaaeaia ieae/a
ioe?iea aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e ni?aaaaeeeaa ? a ?ioeo ?icaeyiooeo
aeiaaeeao. I/aaeaeii, oea aa?oiy iaaea u?eueiino? aeeneieaoe?e, oiio ui
ia aeeeth/aiee aianie a ?icoe?aiiy aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?eii? iaiaeii??aeiino? aonoai?oo.

Oaeei /eiii, i?ae aieeaii IAeI iaei i?noea caaa?ooaaiiy oiieiai
i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o. A aeiaaeeo iieaaeaiiy ? caaa?ooaaiiy c ??aeeiai
noaio niinoa??aaeiny ??cea ?icae??aithaaiiy oaciaeo neeaaeiaei a
i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa??, ui ? iii?oiei /eiieeii ci?oeiaiiy. Niaae
ci?oeiaiiy ca iaaeaie ciie ?icieaaeaiiy iiaeia iiynieoe iinooiiaei
ciaioaiiyi /anoee ?ic/eiaiiai oeaiaioeoo, aioo??oi?ie iai?oaeaiiyie oa
ooai?aiiyi iaio iaeii??aeiiai ii neeaaeo ? a?eueo e?oiiie?enoae?/iiai
ia?oaineoo. Ci?oeiaiiy oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio eaaoth/eie aeaiaioaie
aecia/a?oueny iaa?aeiia?aei?noth ?ici???a aoii?a ? ci?iith iiaeoeae
i?oaeiino? i?e eaaoaaii?. I?aeaeuaiiy e?eueeino? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo a
i??o c?inoaiiy aoiiiiai iiia?a aeaiaioa aeaeo?iaeo ciooo? i?eionoeoe, ui
ca?eueooaaeany oaiia?aoo?a iaa??ao i?e IAeI. Oie oaeo, ui ci?oeiaiiy
i?e IAeI o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy aieueo?aiiaiai oa iie?aaeaiiaiai
aeaeo?iae?a iaeiaeiaa, iiaeia ca’ycaoe c iaioith e?euee?noth aoii?a
aieueo?aio, ye? aoee iiaeeioo? iiaa?oiaaei oa?ii, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
a?aei?ii?noth oaeaeeino? aeaeaoeo aeaeo?iae?a. A noae? O8 ca?eueoaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e iaa??ao i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o i?e aeei?enoaii? iie?aaeaiiaiai
oa aieueo?aiiaiai aeaeo?iae?a o ii??aiyii? c aeaeo?iaeii c
o?iii-i?eaeaai? noae? O18I9 i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ? a?eueoei nooiaiai
oao?aaiiaeueiino? ia?oaineoo. Ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? caeeoeiaiai
aonoai?oo a on?o noaeyo, i?aeaeaieo IAeI c iineeaiiyi ?aaeeio ia?iaee,
ia aeeeeeaei ciai?oeiaiiy aiane?aeie aenieiai nooiaiy iaeeaio aonoai?oo.
Ioe?iea aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e a iaeeaiai?e -oac? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
i?eiouaiiy i?i aenieee nooi?iue aeaoaeoiino? caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo.
Ia?oaineo i?eiiaa?oiaaiai ci?oeiaiiai oa?o oaeiae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aenieei nooiaiai aeaoaeoiino?. Na?aeioeoaii oeueiio neoaeeoue ?icoe?aiiy
e?i?? -Fe, ui iii?oii c?inoa? i?e aeei?enoaii? iie?aaeaiiaiai ?
aieueo?aiiaiai aeaeo?iae?a. ?, ia?aoo?, i?oei?noue noae? c?inoa?, yeui
eaaoth/ee aeaiaio ca?eueoo? neeo ca’yceo aeeneieaoe?e c aoaeaoeai.
A?aeiii, ui eaaoaaiiy iie?aaeaiii ca?eueoo? aia?a?th ca’yceo aoaeaoeth c
aeeneieaoe?yie a oa?eo? a?ae 0,8 yA aei 1,6 aA, a eaaoaaiiy i?eaeai
cieaeo? oeth aia?a?th aei 0,2 aA. ?ioaineaia ci?oeiaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaaiai
oa?o eiino?oeoe?eieo oa ?ino?oiaioaeueieo noaeae i?ney IAeI ? iane?aeeii
noeoiiiai aieeao an?o cacia/aieo aeua /eiiee?a oa ?oiueiai ieoiiiai
aieeao a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooee no?oeoo?iee noai oa caaaeuei?
caeiiii??iino? aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a io?eiaieo caniaaie AOI, a oaeiae
caeaaei?noue ?o i?e?ioaa?aeino? i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao a?ae
nooiaiy aii?o?caoe??. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a iniia? iaoiaeeee AOI iieyaa?
iaaeoaeaeea caaa?ooaaiiy c ?icieaao, eiee iie?eooy oi?iothoueny oeyoii
oaa?ae?iiy oa aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icieaaeaieo /anoie. Nooi?iue ?icaeoeo
aii?o?caoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo, oiaueie oa niiniao io?eiaiiy
iie?eoo?a.

I?iaaaeai? a ?iaio? ?aioaaiino?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui
/anoeiaa aii?o?caoe?y niinoa??aaeany a iie?eooyo, neeaaeo
Fe-Mo-Cr-Ni-B-Si (IA-AE1) oa Fe-Ni-B-Si (IA-I3), ui aoee io?eiai?
a?aiiiieaciiaei iaieeaiiyi oa iaaecaoeiaei aaciiia?o?yiei ieaciiaei
iaieeaiiyi. Ii?yae c aaei, ui na?ae/eoue i?i i?enooi?noue
?aioaaiiaii?oii? no?oeoo?e, ia ?aioaaiia?aiao niinoa??aathoueny e?i?? —
oa -Fe, a oaeiae e?i?? Fe2A. Iie?eooy oeio IA-AE5 oiaueiith 0,3 ii, ui
ia? a?eueo i?inoee neeaae i?ae ?icaeyioo? aeua aii?o?coaaoe ia aaeaeiny.
Niiniaii iia?o?yii-ieaciiaiai iaieeaiiy, ye c ioieiaeaeaiiyi, oae ? aac
ioieiaeaeaiiy ia aaeaeiny aii?o?coaaoe ii?ioeia? iie?eooy, neeaaeo
Fe-Mn-C-Si, ui ia i?noyoue ai?o oiaueia yeeo aa??thaaeany a?ae 0,3 aei
0,6 ii. Iaieeaiiy ae ii?ioeo Fe-Mn-Ni-C-Si-B o oe?e onoaiiaoe? aeeeeeaei
/anoeiao aii?o?caoe?th iie?eooy oiaueiith 0,6 ii. Ia ?aioaaiia?ai? a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo ii?yae c aaei a?ae aii?oii? neeaaeiai? iie?eooy
niinoa??aathoueny o?eueee e?i?? — oa — Fe.

Oaaeeoey 3

Oa?aeoa?enoeee c?ace?a c iie?eooyie, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeeny

? c?aceaIaoa??ae iie?eooyOnoaiiaeaOiaueia iie?eooy t, iiOiaueia
i?aeeeaaeee h, ii*anoea aii?oii? oace,%1.1

1.2IA-AE1

IA-I3OIO-8

OIO-80,5

0,71,0

1,0<20 <162.1 2.2 2.3IA-AE1 IA-I3 IA-AE5 (Fe80B20)Ee?a-3 Ee?a-3 Ee?a-30,5 0,3 0,31,0 1,0 1,0<12 <12 03.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5Fe-Mn-Ni-C-Si-B Fe-Mn-C-Si Fe-Mn-C-Si Fe-Mn-C-Si Fe-Mn-Ni-C-SiEe?a-7 c ioie. Ee?a-7 c ioie. Ee?a-7 Ee?a-7 c ioie. Ee?a-70,6 0,4 0,6 0,4 0,32,2 2,2 2,2 2,2 2,215 0 0 0 04.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6Fe83B17 Fe83B17 Fe-Cr-B Fe83B17 Fe83B17 Fe83B17Ciber-jet c oio?o Ciber-jet c iaieiiee Ciber-jet c ae?ioo Ciber-jet c oio?o Ciber-jet c oio?o Ciber-jet c oio?o0,5 0,5 0,3 2,0 0,5 0,072,2 2,2 2,2 7,0 7,0 7,022 7 9 0 19 100 Ia i?eeeaae? iie?eoo?a neeaaeo Fe83B17 aea/aee iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e i?e aaciiieoi'yiiio iaieeaii? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiaueie iie?eooy oa niiniao iiaea/? iaoa??aeo. Iie?eooy oiaueiith 0,07 ii aii?o?ciaaia i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth. I?e oiauei? iie?eooy 0,5 ii ia oe? aeeoociiai aaei a?ae aii?oii? neeaaeiai? c'yaey?oueny ?icoe?aia e?i?y -Fe, a iie?eoo? ae oiaueiith 2 ii aeeoociiai iaeneioio a?ae aii?o?ciaaii? neeaaeiai? ia niinoa??aa?oueny acaaae?. Ii??aiyiiy nooiaiy aii?o?caoe?? iie?eoo?a Fe83B17, oiaueiith 0,5 ii, iaianaieo ia i?aeeeaaeee ??cii? oiaueie, iieaco?, ui i?e oiauei? i?aeeeaaeee 2,2 ii aii?o?caoe?y ?icaeaaeany aeaui neaaoa, i?ae a aeiaaeeo 7,0 ii (oaae. 3). Oea iiynith?oueny a?eueo aeoeaiei oaieia?aeaiaeii o a?eueo ianeai?e i?aeeeaaeoe?. Iaeneiaeueii? /anoee aii?oii? oace a iie?eoo? aaeaeiny aeiaeoeny i?e iiaea/? ii?ioeo c oio?a. Ia aioo??oi?e noi?ii? iie?eooy, ui eiioaeoo? c i?aeeeaaeeith, ?aioaai?anuee? e?i?? -Fe a?eueo aocuee?, i?ae a?ae ciai?oiuei? noi?iie. Oaeei /eiii, a i?ioean? iaieeaiiy ianooiieo oa??a a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeiae ?ai?o iaieeaieo oa??a. Niiniaaie ?aioaaiia?ao?/iiai oa Iaea-niaeo?ineii?/iiai aiae?c?a i?aeoaa?aeaeaii i?enooi?noue ai?o ia iaio eiioaeooth/eo iiaa?oiyo i?ney a?aeae?eaiiy iie?eooy a?ae i?aeeeaaeee. Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?eooy IA-AE1, ui aoei iaianaia a?aiiiai-ieaciiaei iaieeaiiyi iieacaei iayai?noue aeoaea ae??aieo aeae?eaiue ?ici??ii 20-60 ii. (?en. 6a). C ??cieo ae?eueiie oieueae cao?eniaaii aeaa oeia i?e?iaeaeo?iiia?ai: ?icieoa aaei aii?oii? oace a noeoiiino? c ?aoeaenaie (Fe2B) oa ?aoeaene a?ae ae??aii? iie?e?enoae?/ii? oace (-Fe oa Fe2B) (?en. 6 a, a). *anoeiai aii?o?ciaai? iie?eooy neeaaeo Fe-Mo-Cr-Ni-B-Si (IA-AE1) oa Fe-Ni-B-Si (IA-I3) (/anoea aii?oii? oace aeinyaaea 20 %), ye? aoee io?eiai? niiniaii a?aiii-ieaciiaiai iaieeaiiy, caa??aathoue ??aaiue i?e?ioaa?aeino? cao?eniaaiee i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? i?e iaa??a? aei 7000N (?en. 7 a). Iaaecaoeiaa aaciiia?o?yia ieaciiaa iaieeaiiy oeeo ii?ioe?a (/anoea aii?oii? oace a iaio iie?eooyo neeaea a?ey 12 %) i?ecaaei aei ?noioii iaioi? oaa?aeino? iie?eooy - a?ey 4 AIa, iiaeeeai, /a?ac a?eueoo ii?eno?noue. Na?aaei?e ??aaiue i?e?ioaa?aeino? oaeiae caa??aaany i?e iaa??aaii? aei 7500N. A iie?eooyo neeaaeo Fa-Mn-C-Si, iaianaieo niiniaii iia?o?yii-ieaciiaiai iaieeaiiy, aea i?enooi?noue aii?oii? oace ?aioaaiia?ao?/ii ia aeyaeaia, oaa?ae?noue ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e cia/ii cieaeo?oueny (?en. 7 a). Iie?eooy ae neeaaeo Fa-Mn-Ni-C-Si-A, iaianaia o oe?e aea onoaiiaoe?, a yeiio a?aeaoeanue /anoeiaa aii?o?caoe?y (ci?no aii?oii? oace a?ey 15%), caa?aaei aenieo aeo?aeio oaa?ae?noue, i?e iaa??a? aei 5000N. A iie?eooyo neeaaeo Fe83B17 oa Fe-Cr-B, io?eiaieo caniaaie aaciiieoiyiiai iaieeaiiy, niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy ??aiy i?e?ioaa?aeino? c 7 - 7,5 AIa i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? aei 3 - 3,5 AIa i?e 650-7000N, oi/ /anoea aii?oii? oace a ieo ia?aaoaa? a iaaeao a?ae 22 aei 7% (oaae. 3). Iiaeeeai, oea iiynith?oueny aeae?eueea a?eueoei ?ici??ii ca?ia (a?ey 2 iei), iaea?aeaiiai o i?ioean? e?enoae?caoe?? oeeo nieaa?a. Iacia/ia ci?ia oaa?aeino? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?ae e?iiaoii? aei oaiia?aoo?e e?enoae?caoe?? oa?aeoa?ia aeey aaaaoueio aii?oieo iaoa??ae?a. A i?ioean? a?aeiaeo i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeae?eueea aeua oaiia?aoo?e e?enoae?caoe?? a nieaa? ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny i?e?ie?enoae?/ia no?oeoo?a, ui iiaea ye cieaeaoe oae ? i?aeaeuoaaoe ??aaiue i?e?ioaa?aeino?. ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiue i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao aeicaieythoue i?eionoeoe, ui a iie?eooyo oeio IA-AE1 oa IA-I3 i?ney iaa??ao aeua oaiia?aoo?e e?enoae?caoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny aeae?eaiiy aenieiaeenia?nieo ai?eae?a, ui iathoue aenieo oaa?ae?noue. Oiio ? na?aaei?e ??aaiue i?e?ioaa?aeino? oeeo iie?eoo?a i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny aei 7000N. A iie?eooyo neeaaeo Fe83B17 ai?eaee a aeinoaoi?e e?eueeino? ia aeae?eythoueny, oiio caaaeueia i?e?ioaa?ae?noue iie?eooy i?ney iaa??ao aeua 2750N ??cei ciaioo?oueny. AENIIAEE 1.Aia?oa aeyaeaii, ui a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao noaeae aonoai?oiiai eeano i?ae aieeaii ii?ii?iaiiy eaca?ii c aeiaaeeiith ?iioeueno 20 - 30 in oi?io?oueny iiaee ia??aiiaaaeiee AOeE-oaa?aeee ?ic/ei cae?ca, ui ia? ca?eueoaiee ia?aiao? e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee, yeee ?nio? iaeii/anii c iniiaiei noaa?eueiei AOeE - oaa?aeei ?ic/eiii c i?aeoe/ii ia ci?iaiei ia?aiao?ii ?ao?oee. I?e oeueiio a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? oi?io?oueny eii??/anoa aeeneieaoe?eia no?oeoo?a, a ye?e ia ?nio? ia?a?iciiae?eo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a i?ae iaeanoyie a?aieoeue oa o?ea eii??ee. Aenoiooi i?eiouaiiy, ui iiaa ia??aiiaaaeia oaca c? ca?eueoaiei ia?aiao?ii e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee ?icoaoiaaia ia a?aieoeyo aeeneieaoe?eieo eii??ie oa i?i ca'ycie iiyae ia??aiiaaaeiiai AOeE - oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio cae?ca c ooai?aiiyi o ?icaeyiooeo eiioeaio?iaaieo oaa?aeeo ?ic/eiao, eiiieaen?a “aeii?oea-i?aeaoceiaee aoii”. 2.Iieacaii, ui o i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae i?ae ae??th ?iioeueniiai iaiinaeoiaeiiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?iaiiy ia ?a?no?o?oueny iiyaa aeae?eueeio IOeE - oaa?aeeo ?ic/ei?a cae?ca, ui a?ae??ciythoueny ia?aiao?ii e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee, iaeiae, ia?aiao? ?ao?oee ia??aiiaaaeiiai aonoai?oo, ui ooai?th?oueny a oeueiio aeiaaeeo, ia 0,5 - 0,9% aeua, i?ae i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy eaca?ii i?e?naeoiaeii? o?eaaeino?. Ooai?aiiy aonoai?oo a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae, i?aeaeaieo ii?ii?iaiith iaiinaeoiaeiiai eaca?a, ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ci?iith oi?ie ?aioaai?anueeeo aeeo?aeoe?eieo e?i?e - Fe, ui oa?aeoa?ia aeey iapoaineoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy. Aenoiooi i?eiouaiiy i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ia?aiao?o e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee aonoai?oo caaaeyee i?aeaeuaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? a iueiio ai?iaaaeaeaieo aoii?a. 3.Iieacaii, ui i?ae ae??th ?iioeuenii? ieaciiai? ia?iaee a eiino?oeoe?eieo oa ?ino?oiaioaeueieo noaeyo oi?io?oueny ci?oeiaiee i?eiiaa?oiaaee oa? c? ci?iaiith ia??aiiaaaeiith no?oeoo?ith. Ci?oeiaiee oa? ia? oiieo ia?oaineoi-aonoai?oio no?oeoo?o. I?enooi?noue caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo ia cieaeo? oaa?aeino? iiaeeo?eiaaiiai oa?o, caaaeath/e ia aenieee nooi?iue eiai oaciaiai iaeeaio. Aieiaiee aeeaae o ci?oeiaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o noaeae 40O, Coaeue 45 oa O8 i?ney ieaciiai-aeaoiiaoe?eii? ia?iaee aiinyoue iiooaeiee oa?i?/iee aieea ?iioeuen?a ieacie, a oaeiae eaaoaaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaai? ciie aeaiaioaie, ui neeaaeathoue ieacio. Iaea?eueoee i?e??no oaa?aeino? a oa??, ui iiaeeo?eoaaany, ia? i?noea i?e aeei?enoaii? iie?aaeaiiaiai oa aieueo?aiiaiai aeaeo?iae?a. Ia??aiiaaaeia no?oeoo?a i?eiiaa?oiaaiai ci?oeiaiiai oa?o oi?io?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ?icieaaeaiiy ? caaa?ooaaiiy c ??aeeiai noaio, a oaeiae aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy. 4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iie?eooy c ii?ioe?a ia iniia? cae?ca oiaueiith 0,3 - 0,5 ii, iaianai? ??cieie niiniaaie aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy iathoue aii?oii-e?enoae?/io no?oeoo?o. Ii?yae c aii?oiith neeaaeiaith a?aecia/aii i?enooi?noue e?enoae?/ieo oac ia iniia? - oa - cae?ca, a oaeiae ?yaeo ai?eae?a. I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iie?eoo?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeoeaiith aeeooc??th ai?o a noaeaao i?aeeeaaeeo. Iieacaii, ui o?eueee o? iie?eooy, ui iathoue o nai?io neeaae? ai? ? a no?oeoo?? yeeo iii?/aia i?enooi?noue aii?oii? neeaaeiai? caa??aathoue aenieo oaa?ae?noue a iaaeao 5-7 AIa a i?ioean? iaa??ao aei 650-7000N. Aeineoue aenieee ??aaiue i?e?ioaa?aeino? iie?eoo?a caa??aa?oueny cia/ii aeua oaiia?aoo?e e?enoae?caoe?? aii?oii? neeaaeiai? caaaeyee aeae?eaiith aenieiaeenia?nieo ai?eae?a. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAII A ?IAIOAO 1. Ieeueiai TH.A., Eioeei Ae.A., Aoeiia I.A., Ei?aeiaa I.I., Oth?ei TH.I. No?oeoo?iia ninoiyiea e oi?i/iaiea noaeae O8 e 40O ieaciaiii-aeaoiiaoeeiiiie ia?aaioeie // Yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey e i?i/iinoue iaoa?eaeia.- Eeaa: EII IAI Oe?aeiu 1998.-N.187-197. 2. Ieeueiai TH.A., Eioeei Ae.A., Aoeiia I.A., Aeaieeaiei I.E., A?eieaae/ E.Y. Aeeyiea iaeo/aiey naa?oei?ioeieiioeueniui eaca?ii ia no?oeoo?o e o?eaioaoie/aneea naienoaa ia?aeaaathueo e oaea?iaeenouo noaeae // Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie.- 1998.- ?11.-N.112-116. 3. Lotsko D.V., Milman Yu.V., Yefimov N.A., Korzhova N.P., Tyurin Yu.N. Physical Nature of Hardening of Steel U8 by Plasma-Detonation Working // OOAE - 1999.- ?6.- N. 764-771. 4. Iiae?acia TH.I., Ieeueiai TH.A., Eioeei Ae.A., Eoaiaie I.E., Aa?aeei Ae.A., Aoeiia I.A. Iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey iaoaie/aneeo naienoa aeaooneieiuo eiiiiceoia noaeueiay iao?eoea-aacioa?ie/aneia iie?uoea ec aii?oeco-ueony ii?ioeia // Ii?ioeiaay iaoaeeo?aey, 1999.- ?5/6.-N.9-14. IIOAE?EIAAI? I?AOe? ssE? AeIAeAOEIAI A?AeIA?AAEATHOUe IAOEIA? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe?? 1. Aoeiia I.A., Ei?aeiaa I.I., Eioeei Ae.A., Oth?ei TH.I. Oi?i/iaiea iiaa?oiinoe noaee 40O ieaciaiii-aeaoiiaoeeiiiie ia?aaioeie // Caueoiua iie?uoey ia iaoaeeao. - Eeaa: Iaoe.aeoiea, 1994, aui.28.- N.14-18. 2. Aoeiia H.A., Eeeei I.TH., Eioeei Ae.A., Oo?uaeia C.A. Aicieeiiaaiea eiioeaio?aoeeiiiie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe i?e oaea?iii aicaeaenoaee // Oacenu aeieeaaeia II naieia?a ?innee e no?ai NIA “No?oeoo?iua iniiau iiaeeoeeaoeee iaoa?eaeia iaoiaeaie iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee”.- Iaieine-1993a.- N. 53-54. 3. Aoeiia H.A., Ei?aeiaa I.I., Eioeei Ae.A., Oth?ei TH.E. No?oeoo?iia ninoiyiea i?eiiaa?oiinoiiai neiy oaea?iaeenouo noaeae, oi?i/iaiiiai ieaciaiii-aeaoiiaoeeiiiie ia?aaioeie // Oacenu aeieeaaeia II naieia?a ?innee e no?ai NIA “No?oeoo?iua iniiau iiaeeoeeaoeee iaoa?eaeia iaoiaeaie iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee”.- Iaieine-1993a.- N. 55. 4. Borisov Yu., Tyurin Yu., Lotsko D.V., Yefimov N.A. Surface modification of iron-carbon alloys by method of plasma-detonation treatment // The 8 International conf. if Surface Modification technologies.-Nice(France).-1994.-P.23. 5. Eioeei Ae.A., Ieeueiai TH.A., Aoeiia H.A., Aeaieeaiei H.E. No?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey a i?eiiaa?oiinoiii neia aonoaieoiuo noaeae iinea iaeo/aiey ei?ioeieiioeueniui eaca?ii // Oacenu aeieeaaeia III Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai naieia?a “No?oeoo?iua iniiau iiaeeoeeaoeee iaoa?eaeia iaoiaeaie iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee”.- Iaieine-1995 a.- N. 86. 6. A?eieaae/ E.Y., Eioeei Ae.A., Aoeiia H.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey eaca?iie ia?aaioee e aeeiaie/aneiai neeiaiai aicaeaenoaey ia oece/aneea e o?eaioaoie/aneea naienoaa noaee O18I10O // I?iaeaie o?eaieia??.-1996. N2.- N.78-86 7. Eioeei Ae.A., Apeieaae/ E.Y., Aoeiia H.A., Aeaieeaiei H.E. Eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u e o?eaioaoie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee iiaa?oiinoiiai neiy oaea?iaeenouo noaeae iiae aeeyieai eceo/aiey naa?oei?ioeieiioeueniiai eaca?a // Oacenu aeieeaaeia IV Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai naieia?a “No?oeoo?iua iniiau iiaeeoeeaoeee iaoa?eaeia iaoiaeaie iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee”.- Iaieine-1997 a.- N. 126-127. AIIOAOe?ss ?o?iia I.I. oaia - O?ce/i? iniiae iiaa?oiaaiai ci?oeiaiiy iaoa??ae?a ca ?aooiie oi?ioaaiiy ia??aiiaaaeieo nooeoo?ieo noai?a. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.13 - o?ceea iaoae?a. ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a, Ee?a - 1999. Aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo i?enay/aii aea/aiith aieeao eaca?a c ?iioeuenaie iaiinaeoiaeii? aeiaaeeie oa ?iioeuenii? ieaciiai? ia?iaee ia iiaa?oith noaeae, a oaeiae iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aii?o?ciaaieo iie?eoo?a, iaianaieo aacioa?i?/iei iaieeaiiyi. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao noaeae aonoai?oiiai eeano i?ae aieeaii ii?ii?iaiiy iaiinaeoiaeiei eaca?ii oi?io?oueny iiaee ia??aiiaaaeiee AOeE-oaa?aeee ?ic/ei cae?ca, ui ia? ca?eueoaiee ia?aiao? e?enoaee/ii? ?ao?oee, yeee ?nio? aiaeii/an c iniiaiei AOeE - oaa?aeei ?ic/eiii ?c i?aeoe/ii ia ci?iaiei ia?aiao?ii ?ao?oee. Oaeee noai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eii??/anoith aeeneieaoe?eiith no?oeoo?ith, ui ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ia?a?iciiae?eii eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a i?ae iaeanoyie a?aieoeue ? o?ea eai??ie. O aoaeaoeaaeo noaeayo i?ae ae??th iaiinaeoiaeiiai eaca?a ia?aiao? e?enoaee/ii? ?ao?oee ia??aiiaaaeiiai aonoai?oo, ui ooai?th?oueny a oeueiio aeiaaeeo, ia 0,5 - 0,9% aeua, i?ae i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy i?e?naeoiaeiaeiei eaca?ii. Aenoiooi i?eiouaiiy i?i ca'ycie oeueiai yaeua c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? i?aeaoceiaeo aoii?a a AOeE - oaa?aeiio ?ic/ei? cae?ca. A ?iaio? iieacaii, ui i?ae ae??th ?iioeuenii? ieaciiai? ia?iaee o eiino?oeoe?eieo oa ?ino?oiaioaeueieo noaeyo oi?io?oueny ci?oeiaiee i?eiiaa?oiaaee oa? c oiieith ia?oaineoi-aonoai?oiith no?oeoo?ith, yea oi?io?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ?anieaaeaiiy ? caaa?ooaaiiy c ??aeeiai noaio, a oaeiae aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ci?oeiaiiy. Aieiaiee aianie a ci?oeiaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o aiineoue iiooaeiee oa?i?/iee aieea ?iioeuen?a ieacie, a oaeiae eaaoaaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaai? iaeano? aeaiaioaie, ui neeaaeathoue ieacio. Iieacaii, ui o?eueee /anoeiai aii?o?ciaai? iie?eooy iaianai? aacioa?i?/iei iaieeaiiyi, caa??aathoue aenieo oaa?ae?noue a iaaeao 5-7 AIa aae aei 650-7000N. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aenieiaia?aaoe/iee aieea, aeeneieaoe?eia no?oeoo?a, ia??aiiaaaeiee no?oeoo?iee noai, i?e?ioaa?ae?noue, aii?o?caoe?y. SUMMARY Yefimov N.A. The Physical principles of surface strengthening of materials by the formation of metastable structure states - manuscript. Dissertation for the PhD. degree on speciality 01. 04. 07.- physics of metal. Frantsevich Institute for Materials Science Problems Ukrainian National Academy of Science, Kiev-1999. The dissertation work is devoted to the investigation of the influence of the pulse laser radiation with the pulse duration 20-30 ns and the pulse plasma treatment on the surface of steels and to the problems of formation of the coating applied by the gas thermal evaporation method. For the first time it was shown that the new metastable FCC-solid solution was formed in surface layer of the austenitic steels under influence of the ns-laser radiation. This solution has increased lattice parameter and exists simultaneously with base FCC-solid solution, having practically invariable lattice parameter. This state of the irradiation surface layer is defined by the cellular dislocation structure without redistribution of alloyed elements between the boundary regions and all volume. In the carbon steels the metastable austenitic lattice parameter is by 0,5-0,9 % increased after pulse ns-laser radiation then after s-laser one. It is supposed that the appearance of the new solid solution with a elevated lattice parameter is connected with the increasing of the concentration of the interstitial atoms in the FCC-solid solution. It is found that hardened surface layers with fine martensite-austenite structure form in carbon steels under the influence of plasma-detonation working. The hardening of surface layer is explained by strong thermal influence of plasma pulses and alloying of the surface by elements composing plasma. In hardened layer with the fine structure melting and quenching from liquid state and deformation hardening have been occurred. It is shown that only partially amorphous powder coating containing boron has high hardness (about 5-7 GPa) up to 650-7000C. Key words: high energy influence, dislocation structure, metastable state, microhardness, amorphous. AIIIOAOeEss Aoeiia I.A. Oece/aneea iniiau iiaa?oiinoiiai oi?i/iaiey iaoa?eaeia ca n/ao oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aaiiaaniuo no?oeoo?iuo ninoiyiee - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01. 04. 13. - oeceea iaoaeeia. Einoeooo i?iaeai iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiey ei. E. I. O?aioeaae/a, Eeaa - 1999. Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia eco/aieth iniaaiiinoae aicaeaenoaey eaca?iiai eceo/aiey n eiioeuenaie iaiinaeoiaeiie aeeeoaeueiinoe e eiioeueniie ieaciaiiie ia?aaioee ia iiaa?oiinoue noaeae, a oaeaea aii?inai oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?u aii?oeciaaiiuo iie?uoee, iaianaiiuo aacioa?ie/aneei iaiueaieai. Aia?aua iieacaii, /oi a i?eiiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo noaeae aonoaieoiiai eeanna iiae aeeyieai iaeo/aiey eiioeueniiai iaiinaeoiaeiiai eaca?a oi?ie?oaony iiaue ia?aaiiaaniue AOeE-oaa?aeue ?anoai? aeaeaca, eiathuee oaaee/aiiue ia?aiao? e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee, nouanoaothuee iaeiia?aiaiii n iniiaiui AOeE - oaa?aeui ?anoai?ii n i?aeoe/anee ia eciaiaiiui ia?aiao?ii ?aoaoee. Oaeia ninoiyiea iaeo/aiiie iaeanoe oa?aeoa?ecoaony y/aenoie aeeneieaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?ie, ia nii?iaiaeaeathuaeny ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai eaae?othueo yeaiaioia iaaeaeo iaeanoyie a?aieoe e iauaia y/aae. Auaeaeiooi i?aaeiieiaeaiea i nayce iiyaeaiey iiaiai AOeE-oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a aeaeaca n iiauoaieai eiioeaio?aoeee iaaeocaeueiuo aoiiia e ia?aciaaieai eiiieaenia “i?eianue-iaaeocaeueiue aoii”. A oaea?iaeenouo noaeyo iiae aeaenoaeai iaiinaeoiaeiiai eaca?a ia?aiao? e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee aonoaieoa, ia?acothuaainy a yoii neo/aa, ia 0,5-0,9% auoa, /ai iinea iaeo/aiey eaca?ii ieeeenaeoiaeiie aeeeoaeueiinoe. Aeaiiia yaeaiea oaeaea naycuaaaony n iiauoaieai eiioeaio?aoeee iaaeocaeueiuo aoiiia a aonoaieoa i?eiiaa?oiinoiiai neiy. A ?aaioa iieacaii, /oi iiae aeaenoaeai eiioeueniie ieaciaiiie ia?aaioee a eiino?oeoeeiiiuo e eino?oiaioaeueiuo noaeyo oi?ie?oaony oi?i/iaiiue neie, eiathuee aanueia oiieoth ia?oaineoi-aonoaieoioth no?oeoo?o, i?e/ai inoaoi/iue aonoaieo ia nieaeaao oaa?aeinoe iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai neiy aaeaeo aunieie noaiaie aai oaciaiai iaeeaia. No?oeoo?a i?eiiaa?oiinoiiai oi?i/iaiiiai neiy oi?ie?oaony a ?acoeueoaoa ?anieaaeaiey e caeaeee ec aeeaeeiai ninoiyiey, a oaeaea aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai oi?i/iaiey. Iniiaiie aeeaae a oi?i/iaiea i?eiiaa?oiinoiiai neiy aiineo iiuiia oa?ie/aneia aicaeaenoaea eiioeuenia ieaciu, a oaeaea eaae?iaaiea i?eiiaa?oiinoiie iaeanoe noaeae yeaiaioaie, ninoaaeythueie ieacio. Iieacaii, /oi ii?ioeiaua iie?uoey iaianaiiua ?acee/iuie niiniaaie aacioa?ie/aneiai iaiueaiey, oa?aeoa?ecothueany aii?oii-e?enoaee/aneie no?oeoo?ie e eiathuea a naiai ninoaaa ai?, nio?aiytho aunieoth oaa?aeinoue, ii?yaeea 5-7 AIa, i?e iaa?aaa aei 650-7000N. Aeinoaoi/ii aunieee o?iaaiue iee?ioaa?aeinoe iie?uoee nio?aiyaony auoa oaiia?aoo?u e?enoaeeecaoeee aii?oiie ninoaaeythuae aeaaiaea?y auaeaeaieth aunieiaeenia?niuo ai?eaeia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aunieiyia?aaoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea, aeeneieaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a, ia?aaiiaaniia no?oeoo?iia ninoiyiea, iee?ioaa?aeinoue, aii?oecaoeey.

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