Електрична несталість в металах та гетероструктурах нормальний метал — надпровідник: Автореф. дис… д-ра фіз.-мат. наук / А.М. Кадигробов, НАН Україн

2

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ?. A??e?ia.

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EAAeEA?IAIA Aiaoie?e Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 539.292, 537.312.62

AEAEO?E*IA IANOAE?NOUe A IAOAEAO OA

AAOA?INO?OEOO?AO II?IAEUeIEE IAOAE —

IAAeI?IA?AeIEE

01.04.02 — oai?aoe/ia o?ceea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a O?ceei — oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i.
A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

/e.-ei?. IAIO, aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe,
i?ioani?

Ne?cia A?oae?e Aaeaioeiiae/

(Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoeiaee oeaio?
“Oa?e?anueeee

O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, ia/aeueiee
a?aeae?eo).

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaoeee Aaneeue Aeieo?iae/

(O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo?

?i. A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii).

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe

ssiiieueneee Aaea??e Ieaenaiae?iae/

(?inoeooo ?aae?io?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, o?ce/iee
oaeoeueoao, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 9 “ eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.175.02 i?e
O?ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ? . A??e?ia IAI
Oe?a?ie a i?e-i?uaii? ?inoeoooo ca aae?anith: 310164, Oa?e?a, i?iniaeo
Eai?ia, 47.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? OO?IO

?i. A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie, 310164, Oa?uee?a, i?. Eai?ia 47.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 7 “ aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe
I. N. Eiaaeueia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ssaeua aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiaiii? ? aaoieiee-aaeueii?
ianoaeinoae oe?iei ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii o iai?ai?ia?ae-ieeao
(aeiiaie Aaiia, aaoieieeaaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? no?oio [1]) ?
iaaei?ia?aeieeao (?acenoeai? aeiiaie, aaoieieeaaiiy no?oio, oaiia?aoo?e,
ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo [2]). ?ioa?an aei oeueiai yaeua iiyn-ith?oueny oei,
ui aeaeo?e/ia ianoae?noue, yea aeieea? o c?aceao c a?ae’?iiith
aeeoa?aioe?eiith i?ia?aei?noth, aea? i?inoee ? aoaeoeaiee niin?a
aaia?aoe?? ? i?aeneeaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oieo eieeaaiue (iai?eeeaae,
aeiiaiia ianoae?noue o a?nai?ae? aae?th ? aeayeeo ?ioeo
iai?ai?ia?aeie-eiaeo iaoa??aeao — “aoaeo Aaiia”) aeicaiey? io?eiaoe
/anoioe eiee-aaiue aei 102 Aaoe ? ?iioeueni? iiooaeiino? aei 3,1 eAo ia
/anoio? 1,5 Aaoe i?e eeae 9,5%), noaa?e?caoe?? no?oio aai iai?oae,
noai?thaaiiy aeaiaio?a iai’yo? ? oae aeae?, ? oiio ia? aaeeea i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

O oie aea /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiaiii? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoa-einoae
i?aaenoaaey? aaeeeee ?ioa?an ? c oi/ee ci?o ooiaeaiaioaeueii? o?ceee
oaa?aeiai o?ea. Ni?aaa o oiio, ui iaoai?cie, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue ca
aeieeiaiiy aeiiaiii? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoaeinoae, iia’ycai? c
iniaeeainoyie oaeeo iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaa?aeiai o?ea, ye ca-eii
aeenia?n?? iin??a ca?yaeo, e?iaoe/i? eiao?oe??ioe, ui iaoiiaeai?
i?ioeanaie aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiii? nenoaie c ??cieie caoaeaeoaaiiyie o
oaa?aeiio o?e?, e?eoe/i? oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oie o iaaei?ia?aeieeao ? oae
aeae?.

O iai?ai?ia?aeieeao /a?ac a?aeiinii iaea /enei a?eueieo iin??a ca?yaeo
aonoeie no?oi?a ? iecueeeie, ui aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe o c?ac-eao
iano?eueee aaeee? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (aac noai?th-aaiiy
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c a?aeaiaeii oaiea, yea aeae?ey?oueny), ui
eaac?/anoeiee (aeaeo?iie aai ae??ee) iiaeooue iaae?aoe aaeeeo aia?-a?th
a?ae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, aeinoaoith, iai?eeeaae, aeey ia?aoiaeo o
aia?aaoe/io ciio c a?eueoith aoaeoeaiith ianith. O ?acoeueoao?
?ooee-a?noue eaac?/anoeiie ciaioo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo-?e/iiai iiey, ia aieueo – aiia?i?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? c?acea
c’yaey?oueny ae?eyiea c a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?aioe?eiith i?ia?aei?noth, ?,
ye iane?aeie, o c?aceo aeieea? aeiiai Aaiia.

O iaaei?ia?aeieeo aeaeo?e/ia aeiiaiia ianoae?noue ?nio? caaaeyee ??ce?e
caeaaeiino? iaaei?ia?aeiiai noaio a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio (ii-aeeco
eiai e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy). A?noaa?euei?noue aeieea? i?e no?o-iao, ye?
iaio? e?eoe/iiai, aea aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo aeey ?ic?a??ao c?ac-ea (yeui
a?i aoaea o ii?iaeueiiio noai?) aei oaiia?aoo?e, yea ia?aae-uo? e?eoe/io
oaiia?aoo?o. O ?acoeueoao? oe??? a?noaa?eueiino? o c?aceo iiaea
?icaeiooenue ?acenoeaiee aeiiai (“aa?y/a oi/ea” [2]).

A ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao /enei a?eueieo iin??a ? aaeeeei (aonoeia ca?yaeo
n 1023 cm-3 ), ? oiio ia a?aei?io a?ae iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a iaa?oue
a?aeiinii neaae? aeaeo?e/i? iiey noai?ththoue aeaeo?e/i? no?oie aeni-ei?
aonoeie, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei aeiiaiii?, oio?iai? ? aaoieieeaaeueii?
ianoaeinoyi o iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? caaaeyee neeueiiio
aeaeioea-aiio ?ic?a??ao [3-5]. C ae?oaiai aieo, a iaoae? ?niothoue
“a?aaionuee?” eaaioia? aiiiae??, ye? iia’ycai? c iaai?oiei i?iai?i
[6,7], aaaaoi-eaiaeueiei ?icn?yiiyi aeaeo?ii?a ia iaaeao c?acea ?
ieineeo aeaoae-oao a?ao?a [8-10], a oiiaao yeeo iaoae ?iaeoueny
aiiiaeueii /ooeeaei aei ciai?oi?o aieea?a. O ?acoeueoao? a?aeiinii
neaae? aeaeo?e/i? iiey i?eaiaeyoue aei aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiaiii? ?
aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoaeinoyi [3,10], eio?? iathoue niaoeeo?/i?
iniaeeaino? ? a?aee?eaathoue oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey io?eiaiiy
oi?eaeueieo /anoio ? iiooaeiinoae aaia-?aoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo eieeaaiue.

Ii?iaeueiee i?ia?aeiee, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny o noeeaii? ?c
iaae-i?ia?aeieeii, i?aaenoaaey? niaith ua iaeei nai???aeiee ?
ia?niaeoea-iee ia’?eo aeey io?eiaiiy aaia?aoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo eieeaaiue o
oe?i-eiio ae?aiacii? /anoio ia iniia? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo o?ce/ieo yaeu.
Nooue o oiio, ui o oaeeo aaoa?ino?oeoo?ao iae?ineii?/ia oaciaa
ei-aa?aioi?noue iaaei?ia?aeieea iaa’yco?oueny aeaeo?iii?e nenoai?
ii?-iaeueiiai iaoaeo, ye?nii ci?ithth/e oa?aeoa? eaaioiai?
?ioa?oa?aioe?? o oa??, ui i?eeyaa? aei iaaei?ia?aeieea, ia a?aenoaiyo
ii?yaeeo aeiaaee-ie eiaa?aioiino? (o iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aenia?eiaioao
oey a?aenoaiue ii?yaeeo 110 i?e?ii), ? aaaaoi oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ?
e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o iueiio iiai?noth ia?aaoaeiao?oueny.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?ia-oe/ieo aeanoeainoae aaoa?ino?oeoo? ii?iaeueiee
i?ia?aeiee-iaaei?i-a?aeiee, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo i?aaenoaaeaii a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aeei-ioaaeenue a ?aieao oaiaoe/iiai ieaio OO?IO
c a?aeii/i? oaiaoeee ca oaiith “aeaeo?iii? aca?iiae?? o i?ia?aeieo
nenoaiao” ? aea?ae. pa?no-?aoe?? 0196U002952 oa i?aeia?iaeieo i?ia?ai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ae Iaoe?iiaeueiith Aeaaeai??th Iaoe Oe?a?ie
(O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ?. A??e?ia) oa
Iaoe?iiaeueiith Aeaaeai??th Iaoe Oaaoe??? (Aaoaai?aneee oi?aa?neoao ?
Aaoaai?aneee oaoiieia?/-iee oi?aa?neoao *aeia?na, i. Aaoaai?a, Oaaoe?y),
cie?aia grants by Swedish Royal Acadamy of Science (KVA), Swedish
Natural Science Re-search Council (NFR), Swenska Insitutet, and INTAS
Project 94-3862.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o O?ceei-oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? iecueeeo
oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/e aeine?aeaeaiiy — cai?iiiioaaoe ? aeine?aeeoe iia?
o?ce/i? iaoai?cie a?noaa?eueiino? a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ?
aaoa?i-no?oeoo?ao ii?iaeueiee iaoae – iaaei?ia?aeieo, ? ia ?oiuei?
iniia? ?icaeiooe oai??th aeiiaiii? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? aeaeo?e/ieo
ia-noaeinoae a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ? aaoa?ino?oeoo?ao ii?iaeueiee iaoae
– iaaei?ia?aeiee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iiaecia i?iaaaea-iiai o
aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aei iueiai aeiiai-ia ?
aaoieieeaaeueia aeaeo?e/i? ianoaeino? ia aoee a?aeiieie a ii?-iaeueieo
iaoaeao a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?. A no?oeoo?ao ii?-iaeueiee iaoae –
iaaei?ia?aeiee a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? a?aee?eo? iia? yaeua
aeaaionueeeo inoe?eyoe?e eiiaeaeoaino oa iaaei??iiai iii?o i?e
i?io?eaii? o?ainii?oiiai aeeneiaoeaiiai no?oio /a?ac ieo. E??i oiai, a
aeena?oaoeeei?e ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia ? aeine?aeaeaia iecea iiaeo
o?ce/ieo aoaeo?a, ye? c’yaeeeny iniiaith aeiiaiii? ? aaoi-eieeaaeueii?
aeaeo?e/ieo ianoaeinoae a S-N no?oe?o?ao.

Iniiai? iia? ?acoeueoaoe, ?icaeiooi? a aeena?oaoe?? oai??? aeiiai-ii?,
oio?iai? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoaeino? a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ?
ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao, ye? noeeathoueny c iai?ai?ia?aeieeaie, iieyaa-thoue
o oaeiio:

I. A?aee?eoi ? aea/aii iae?i?eia yaeua a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao – ?icaeoie
ianoaeino? iaeii??aeiiai ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? niii-oaiii?
aaia?aoe?? aeiiai?a aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, ye? ?ooathoueny, iaoiia-eaiee
aiiiaeueiith /ooeea?noth e?iaoeee iaoae?a aei neaaeeo ciai?o-i?o aieea?a
a oiiaao aaaaoieaiaeueiiai ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a i?e 1) iaai?oiiio
i?iai?, 2) ?icn?yii? ia eiaa?aioi?e iaae? aea?eieeoaaiiy e?enoaeo, eiee
aeeiai?ea ? e?iaoeea aeaeo?ii?a ia? nooo?ai eaaioiaee ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiee
oa?aeoa?. Oea yaeua a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae naiai iai?a-i?ia?aeieeiaiai
aiaeiaa ia o?eueee aaiacenii AAO N-oeio, aea e oei, ui ?icaeoie
aeaeo?e/ii? ianoaeino? a iaoae? caaaeaee a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e aaeueie
iaeeo iai?oaeaiinoyo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (? no?oiao aeniei? aonoeie) a
oiiaao eieaeueii? aeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiino? c?acea.

II. A?aee?eoi ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/io
aeiiaiio, oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiao oio?iao ? aaoieieeaaeueio ianoa-eino?
a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao, ui aeieeathoue ca ?aooiie aeaeioeaaa ?i-c?a??ao
c?acea a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, a ye?e i?ia?aei?noue iaoa-eo ia?
??ceo oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue. Aea/aii no?oeoo?o niiioaiii aeieeath/eo
oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a, ye? ?ooathoueny, oaiia?aoo?ii –
no?oiiaeo oio??a ? aaoieieeaaiue no?oio ? oaiia?a-oo?e ? ciaeaeaii
caeaaei?noue ?o ia?aiao??a a?ae o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoaeo. Io?eiaii
e?eoa??? noaeino? aeiiai?a, oio??a ? aaoieieeaaiue. Aoei ?icaeiooi
aae?aaaoe/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey? iiai?noth aeine?-aeeoe e?iaoeeo
oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee ? aaoieieeaaiue
oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio i?e aaeeeeo ?iaeoeoeaiinoyo aeaeo?e/iiai eiea.
Cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaii aeaa iiaeo o?ce/ieo iaoai?cia, yee
i?eaiaeyoue aei iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a.

III. Ia?aaeaa/aii ? aea/aii aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o a?a?eaeii? no?oeoo?e
ii?iaeueiee iaoae — iaaei?ia?aeiee – ii?iaeueiee iaoae (N-S-N
no?oeoo?a), i?e yeiio ia?ao?ae iaaei?ia?aeii? /anoeie c?acea a
ii?iaeueiee noai noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi iiaiiai iii?o no?oeoo?e,
ui a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey aeieeiaiiy ??cieo iae?i?eieo
aoaeo?a. Cie?aia, iiaeeco e?eoe/iiai no?oio iaaei?i-a?aeieea aieueo –
aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea N-S-N no?oeoo?e ia? S –iiae?aiee aeae, ? a i?e
niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny aaoieieeaaiiy o?ain-ii?oiiai no?oio, iai?oae ?
ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iaaei?ia?aeieea.

IV. Oai?aoe/ii a?aee?eoi ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii yaeua a?-aaionueeeo
inoeeeyoe?e eiiaeaeoaina ii?iaeueiiai iaoaeo iacineii?/-ieo ?ici???a,
yeee ciaoiaeeoueny o noeeaii? c aeaiia aai a?eueoa iaae-i?ia?aeieeaie.
Oea yaeua, c iaeiiai aieo, a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? iiaeee-aino? aeey
niaeo?ineii?? Aiae???anueeeo ??aiae, a c ae?oaiai – i?eaiaeeoue aei
iao?ea?aeueii? aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee iacineii?/ieo nenoai, oiio ui
aeeneiaoeaiee no?oi, yeee oa/a /a?ac c?acie, aeyaey?oueny aiiiaeueii
/ooeeaei aei ??cieoe? oac i?ae iaaei?ia?aeieeaie, o oie /an ye naia
??cieoey oac iaaecae/aeii /ooeeaa aei aeaniiai iaai?oiiai iiey
aeeneiaoeaiiai no?oio. Cie?aia, aieueo – aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea c?acea
noa? nooo?ai iae?i?eiith c ae?eyieaie c a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?aioe?e-iith
i?ia?aei?noth, ?, ye iane?aeie, a c?aceo niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny
ca’ycai? aaoieieeaaiiy iai?oae, o?ainii?oiiai no?oio ? no?oio
Aeaeicaoniia. I?e oeueiio iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa /anoioa aaoiei-eeaaiue
ciaoiaeeoueny o aaaeei aeinyaei?e ?ioeie iaoiaeaie iaeano? /anoio 0max
1012nae-1 .

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a. Oai??y aei-iaiii?,
oio?iai? ? aaoieieeaaeueii? ianoaeinoae, yeo iiaoaeiaaii o aeena?oaoe??,
a oaeiae iia? o?ce/i? aoaeoe, ui eaaeaoue o ?oiuei? iniia?, a?ae?a?aee
nooo?ao ?ieue o aeine?aeaeaii? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ? iae?-i?eieo yaeu
a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ? a?a?eaeieo no?oeoo?ao, o?aeoo-aaii?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? iinoaiiaoe? iiaeo aenia?eiaio?a.
Ia?aaeaa/ai? aoaeoe aoee aeyaeai? aenia?eiaioaeueii. I?e oeueiio
a?aei?oeii, ui 6 ?ia?o c 22, ye? aa?eoee a aeena?oaoe?th, aoee aeeiiai?
? iioae?eiaai? ?acii c aenia?eiaioaoi?aie, a oaeiae io?eiaii iaoaio
“Superconducting transistor”, ca?aano?iaaiee a Oaaoe?? ([22] a nieneo
i?ea?iaeueieo ?iaio). ?aea?, ye? noi?ioeueiaai? o aeena?oaoe??,
iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy o ?ioeo aaeocyo o?ceee, iai?eeeaae, o
o?ceoe? ?acenoeaiiai noaio iaaei?ia?aeiee?a ? o?ceoe? ooo/ii
noai?thaaieo ia-??iaee/ieo no?oeoo?, yea inoaii?i /anii ao?oeeai
?icaeaa?oueny.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? a?aee?eaathoue oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey
io-?eiaiiy iiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeaeo?iii? aeanoeaino? iaoae?a ?
aeya-eaiiy aoaeo?a iiaiai oeio, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue ye naiino?eiee
?ioa-?an, oae ? aaaeeeaeo c i?eeeaaeii? oi/ee ci?o aeey noai?thaaiiy
aaia?a-oi??a aeaeo?e/ieo eieeaaiue o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? /anoio ?
iiooaeii-noae, noaa?e?caoi??a iai?oae ? noaa?e?caoi??a no?oio, a oaeiae
i?aoee-c?eieo i?eeaae?a. O inoaiiueiio a?aeiioaii? ? iniaeeai
ia?niaeoea-iei ia?aaeaa/aiee ? aea/aiee o aeena?oaoe?? aoaeo
a?aaionueeeo inoeeey-oe?e eiiaeaeoaina, a oiiaao yeiai ci?ia iaai?oiiai
iioieo /a?ac iaae-i?ia?aeia e?eueoea c ii?iaeueiei naaiaioii ia iaeo
/anoeo eaaioa ii-oieo aeeeeea? ci?io o?ainii?oiiai no?oio ia aeae?eueea
ii?yaee?a.

Aea/aiiy aeaeo?e/ii? ianoaeino? ? iiaeo aoaeo?a, ui eaaeaoue o ??
iniia? ? i?iiiiothoueny o aeena?oaoe??, ca?ac aeoeaii i?iaeiaaeo?oueny
ye oai?aoe/ii, oae ? aenia?eiaioaeueii. Na?aae onoaiia, a yeeo aei
oeuei-ai /ano io?eiai? nooo?a? ?acoeueoaoe, ui ? aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaie-ie c a?aee?eoeie o aeena?oaoe?? yaeuaie, iiaeooue aooe
iacaaieie OO?IO AI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
?inoeooo aenieeo aia?a?e AI ?in??, ?inoeooo i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee AI ?in??,
Eiiaeiinueeee oi?aa?neoao, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
*aeia?na ? Aaoaai?cueeee oi?aa?neoao, Aaoaai?a, Oaaoe?y.

Iecea oai?aoe/ieo aeniiae?a ? ia?aaeaa/aiue, c?iaeaieo o
aeena?oaoe??, ca iaoiai /ano io?eiaea aenia?eiaioaeueia
i?aeoaa?-aeaeaiiy. Aei ia? a?aeiinyoueny:

1) yaeua oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ii? aeiiaiii? ianoaeino?, yea
i?eaiaeeoue aei niiioaiiiai aeieeiaiiy aeiiai?a oaiia?aoo?e ?
aeaeo-?e/iiai iiey a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao a iaeano? aae??aeo oaiia?aoo?
(aenia?eiaioe A. Aieea ? ?io. [11] – Noooinueeee o?ceei – oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo, ?in?y; TH.I. Oecyia ? ?.?. Eiaa?iiaa [12] – OO?IO IAIO,
Oa?e?a, Oe?a?ia; E.I. O?oa?a ? ?io. [13] – Iineaa, ?in?y).

2) aaoieieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e, no?oio ? iai?oae a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao i?e
aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a? ?o o iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? (aenia?eiaioe
TH.I. Oecyia ? ?.?. Eiaa?iiaa [14-16] – OO?IO AI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a,
Oe?a?ia).

3) oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiaa oio?iaa ianoae?noue, yea i?eai-aeeoue aei
naiiaeia?eueiiai aeieeiaiiy o ieanoeiao eiiiainiaaiiai ii?iaeueiiai
iaoaeo oio??a oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio i?e aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a? a
neeueiiio iaai?oiiio iie? a iaeano? aae??aeo oaiia?aoo? (aenia?eiaioe
A.I. Ii?aoia ? ?io. [5,17] – Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ,
Oa?e?a, Oe?a?ia).

4) aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o a a?a?eaeieo no?oeoo?ao ii?iaeue-iee
i?ia?aeiee — iaaei?ia?aeiee — ii?iaeueiee i?ia?aeiee (N-S-N no?oeoo?a) –
ciaioaiiy iiaiiai iii?o c?acea i?e ia?aoiae? iaaei?i-a?aeieea o
ii?iaeueiee noai (aenia?eiaioe TH.I. Oecyia ? I.A. Oaa/aiei [18,19] –
OO?IO AI Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a, Oe?a?ia; A. Kleinsasser, A. Kastalsky [20]
— University of New York, USA

5) aaoieieeaaiiy no?oio, iai?oae ? ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iaae-i?ia?aeieea
o a?a?eaeieo N-S-N no?oeoo?ao(aenia?eiaioe TH.I. Oecyia ? I.A. Oaa/aiei
[21] — OO?IO AIO, Oa?e?a).

6) a?aaionuee? inoeeeyoe?? eiiaeaeoaina c? ci?iith ??cieoe? oac i?ae
iaaei?ia?aeieeaie o S-N-S no?oeoo?ao (aenia?eiaioe V.T. Petrashov, P.
Delsing and T. Claeson [22] – Chalmers University of Technology and
Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden, University of London, U.K.; E.
Toyoda and H. Takayanagi [23] – NTT Basic Research Laboratories,
Kanagawa, Japan).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A noaoo? [1] (aeea. nienie i?e-a?iaeueieo
?iaio) aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaii aeeiai?/iee iaoai?ci N-iiae?aiie AAO ?
ioe?iea eiai ia?aiao??a, yee i?eaiaeyoue aei aeiee-iaiiy aeiiai?a
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey; a noaooyo [2,14] aeena?oaioo iaea-aeeoue o/anoue o
iinoaiiaoe? i?iaeaie oa oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao; a noaoo? [3] —
iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie oa o/anoue a oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooi-eao; a noaoo? [4]
— o/anoue a iinoaiiaoe? caaea/e oa aeeiiaiiy oai?aoe/-ieo ?ic?aooie?a; a
noaooyo [5,15-17,20] — iinoaiiaea caaea/e oa aeei-iaiiy oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?aooie?a; a noaooyo [6-8,10-12], yee aeeiiai? o ni?ai?aoe? c
aenia?eiaioaoi?aie — iinoaiiaea ? ?ica’ycaiiy oai?aoe/-ieo i?iaeai;
o/anoue a ii??aiyii? oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeue-ieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?-oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia oaeeo eiioa?aioe?yo, ia?aaeao ? neiiic?oiao
Ananithci? ia?aaee c o?ceee iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? (I?inuee, 1976; Iine-aa,
1979; Oa?e?a, 1980; Eeoei?a, 1982; Oaee?ii, 1984), Neiiic?oi “Aeaeo?iii?
aeanoeaino? iaoae?a” (Eino?iia, 1977), Neiiic?oi “Ae-a?ai? ieoaiiy
oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee” (Iaeana, 1986), I?aeia?iaeia eii-oa?aioe?y LT-19
Satellite Conference (Cambridge, England, 1990), 15-a Iaea??anueea
ia?aaea c oai??? iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a (Euea?a, 1992), General Conference
of Condensed Matter Division of the Europian Physical Society (March
1993), XVI Conference of the Condensed Matter of Brazilian Physical
Society (May, 1993), 20th International Conference on Low Temperature
Physics (Eugene, Oregon, USA, August, 1993), 2nd International
Conference on Point — Contact Spectroscopy, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
(July,1995), NATO Advanced Study Institute on Quantum Transport in
Semi-conductor Submicron Structures, Bad Lauterberg, Germany (August,
1995), NATO Advanced Study Institute «Mesoscopic Electron Transport»,
Curacao (June 25-July 5, 1996).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii o 22 ae?oeiaaieo
i?aoeyo, c ieo 20 noaoae a ?aoa?iaaieo aeo?iaeao [1-9], [11-21], 1 oaca
i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? [10] oa 1 iaoaio [22].

Ia’?i ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea-aony c
anooio, 8 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (81
ia?iaioaaiue). Ci?no aeeeaaeaii ia 250 noi??ieao, 25 ?enoieao.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iienaii ?noi??y ieoaiiy, ?ice?eoi nooi?noue ? noai
iaoeiai? i?iaeaie aeaeo?e/ii? aeiiaiii? ianoaeino? oa iaa?oi-ooaaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ?icae?e? 1 i?iaaaeaii iaeyae ?ia?o, ui noinothoueny ieoaiue
aeaeo?e/ii? ianoaeino? a iai?a- oa iaaei?ia?aeieeao, aaaaeaii iniiai?
iiiyooy, noi?ioeueiaaii iinoaiiaee caaea/, ye? aoee ae??oai? o
aeena?oaoe??, ? ye?nii iienaii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe.

A ?icae?e? 2 – Oaiia?aoo?ii — aeaeo?e/i? aeiiaie a
?cio?ii-ieo iaoaeao i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao – ia?aaeaa/aii ?nioaaiiy ?
aeieeaaeii aea/aii aeeiai?eo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a, ye?
?ooathoueny ? niiioaiii aeieeathoue i?e aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a?
ii?-iaeueiiai iaoaeo a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, aea aieueo – aiia?ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea (AAO) iaoae?/iiai c?acea ia? N –iiae?aiee aeae.

A ii?iaeueiiio iaoae? N –iiae?aia AAO aeieea? i?e ?ic?a??a? c?acea
aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii aei oaiia?aoo?, i?e yeeo ii?? iaoaeo aieiaiei /eiii
aecia/a?oueny aeaeo?ii – oiiiiiith aca?iiae??th ? oiio, iath/e ??ceo
oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue, c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi aeaeo?e/iiai iiey E.
“Oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ia” ianoae?noue, yea aeieea? i?e oeueiio, aaea
aeyaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueii a [11-13] ? ? i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy ?icae?eo
2. ?icaeyaea?oueny no?oeoo?a ? aeeiai?ea oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo
aeiiai?a (OAAe) a c?aceao, oiaueia yeeo oae iaea, ui iaiaeii??aei?noth
?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e ii ?oiueiio ia?a??co iiaeeeai ciaoooaaoe.

I?e iaeii??aeiiio ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e acaeiaae c?acea caeaaei?noue
oaiia?aoo?e T a?ae E aecia/a?oueny c oiiae aaeaino oaiea:

j E=d-1q(T), j= (T) E,
(1)

aea j – aonoeia no?oio acaeiaae c?acea, (T) aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue i?e
caaeai?e oaiia?aoo??, q(T) — iio?e oaiea c iaeeieoe? ieiu? iiaa?oi?
c?acea, d — aaiiao?e/iee oaeoi?, yeee ? ??aiei a?aeiioaiith ieiu?
ia?a??co c?acea aei ia?eiao?a. C (1) a?ae?aco aeoiaeeoue, ui
aeeoa?aioe?eia i?ia?aei?noue dj/dE a?ae’?iia, yeui c?acie
?ic?a??aa?oueny aei oaiia?aoo?, i?e yeeo

d(q)/dT<0. (2) Oaeei /eiii, iniiai? aeanoeaino? o?ce/ii? nenoaie, yea ?icaey-aea?oueny, aecia/athoueny iiaaae?ieith ooieoe?? (T)=(T) q(T). Aian-e?aeie aino?i? oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? i?ia?aeiino? iaoaeo a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? aiia, ye i?aaeei, ia? N–iiae?aiee aeae. I?e/iio oi/ea iaeneioio oe??? ooieoe?? TA caaaeaee ciaoiaeeoueny a iecueeioai-ia?aoo?i?e iaeano?, aea aeaeo?ii – aeii?oeiaa timp ? aeaeo?ii – oiiii-ia teph T-5 /ane ?aeaenaoe?? iathoue iaeiaeiaee ii?yaeie aaee/eie. *a?ac iia?eueia ia?inoaiiy oaieia?aeaiaeo q(T) ?c ca?eueoaiiyi O ae?oaa a?oea ooieoe??, yea ?inoa, (T) ?icoaoiaaia a iaeano? oaiia?a-oo?, aea i?ia?aei?noue (T) aeoiaeeoue ia e?i?eio aneiioioeeo ii T-1 , oiaoi oaiia?aoo?a i?i?ioio TB ooieoe?? (T) ii?yaeeo oaiia?aoo?e Aeaaay i?ia?aeieea TD. Aeey iaoaeo c a?aeiioaiiyi iii??a R4.2/R273 < 10-2 cia/aiiy TA 10 30 K. A?aeiia?aeiee oeei TA oaieia?aea?ae q 0.1 1 Ao/ni2, a iai?oaeai?noue aeaeo?e/iiai iiey E 10-5 10-6 CGSE, ui ii e?aei?e i??? ia o?noue ii?yaee?a iaioa oa?aeoa?ieo iai?oaeaiin-oae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao [1]. Oae? iae? cia/aiiy E iiaeia noai?thaaoe ye a o?aaeeoe?ei?e iinoaiiaoe? aenia?eiaioo (c?a-cie aeeth/aii a caieiooa aeaeo?e/ia eiei c caaeaiei aeaea?aeii A?N), oae ? niaoeeo?/iei aeey iaoae?a aacnoeeiaei niiniaii: aeaeo?e/ia iiea caoaeaeo?oueny a caieiooiio c?aceo iia?eueiith ci?iith iioieo iaai?oiiai iiey. sse iieacaii a aeaiiio ?icae?e? aacnoeeiaa iinoa-iiaea aenia?eiaioo noai?th? ieceo iiaeo o?ce/ieo neooaoe?e, ye? ia ?aae?cothoueny a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao. ?icaeyae a ?icae?e? 2 a?aeiineoueny aei ?aaeeio caaeaii? iai?oae (a ?aaeei? caaeaiiai no?oio OAAe ianoaeee), oiaoi ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui o aacnoeeiaiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia ciaoooaaoe ?iaeoeoe?eiei aieeaii c?ac-ea ia aeaea?aei ci?iiiai iaai?oiiai iiey, a o aeiaaeeo c?acea, oa?ie-iooiai a ciai?oi? eiei, - eiai iii?ii o ii??aiyii? c iii?ii c?acea. O aacnoeeiaiio aeiaaeeo nenoaio ??aiyiue, yea iieno? oaiia?a-oo?ii-aeaeo?e/io ianoae?noue, o?aaa aeiiiaieoe oiiaith ia??iaee/iino? T(x+L,t)=T(x,t) (L - aeiaaeeia c?acea). sseui ae c?acie ? oa?ieiooei o ciai?oi? eiei, oi a?aie/iith oiiaith ? aeiiaa iaia?a?aiino? iioieo oaiea ia iaio e?ioeyo c?acea. I?e oeueiio, o aeiaaeeo aeinoaoiuei aaee-eeo L, OAAe iathoue iaeiaeiao no?oeoo?o iacaeaaeii a?ae niiniao noai-?thaaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a c?aceo. C ae?oaiai aieo, i?e ii??aiyii ei?ioeeo c?aceao iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaey? iiaa - aacnoeeiaa iinoaiiaea aenia?eiaioo. C oe??? ae i?e/eie aanue ?icaeyae a ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aeey aeiaaeeo aacnoeeiai? iinoaiiaee aenia?eiaioa. A i?ae?icae?e? 2.2 aeieeaaeii aea/aii no?oeoo?o niiioaiii aeie-eath/eo OAAe, ui ?ooathoueny, ? ciaeaeaia caeaaei?noue ?o ia?aiao??a a?ae o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoaeo. Ooo aea aeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y iiaeeeaeo oei?a aieueo - aiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoaeo o aeiaaeeo "oeeee?/ieo" aeiiai?a, ye? aeieeathoue o e?eue/anoeo c?aceao i?e ?iaeoeoe?eiiio caoae-aeaii? a ieo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. ?icaeyiooa neooaoe?y iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi oaieii?ia?aeiino? c aeaea?aeaie (aeae?eaiiy aeaeioeaaa oaiea a ia’?io ? a?aea?ae oaiea a oa?iinoao c iiaa?oi? c?acea), yea aeiiiaiaia oiiaith iino?eiino? i?eeeaaeaii? aei c?acea iai?oae V. Iaeii??aeiee ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo?e ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aeyaey-?oueny noaeei o?eueee aeey L, iaioeo yei?nue e?eoe/ii? aeiaaeeie Lcr(T)=2(- d/ ') 1/2 (3) ( (T) - eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino?). I?e L>Lcr iaeii??aeiee ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo?e aoaeoue noae?noue
a?aeiinii iaiaeii??aeieo oeoeooaoe?e.

A iaeano? ia?aiao??a L>Lcr iiaea aeyaeoenue noaeei «oeeee?/iee» OAAe,
yeee ?ooa?oueny c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth s.

No?oeoo?a ? aeeiai?ea TAAe aeyaey?oueny ye?nii ??ciith a caeaae-iino?
a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeiaaeeiith c?acea L ? e?eoe/iith aeia-aeeiith
Lcr, yea i?aaenoaaey? niaith i?inoi?iaee ianooaa ?icaeoeo ianoaeino?. A
i?ae?icae?e? 2.2 aoei aea/aii iiaeeea? aeaee aieueo-aiia?-ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee c?acea c OAAe (aeeiai?/ieo AAO) ? iieacaii, ui a
caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo aeeiai?/ia AAO iiaea iaoe aeae?eueea iacaeaaeieo
a?oie c naiiia?aoeiii, oaeiae aeacai? e?eoa??? ?oiuei? noaeino?.

Aeieeaaeii aea/aii oaeiae aeeiai?/i? AAO o a?aie/ieo aeiaae-eao: a)
oeeee?/ieo aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee, ye? aeieeathoue i?e (L-Lcr(j)/L << 1; a) o?aiaoe??aeaeieo aeiiai?a, ye? aeieeathoue o a?aieoe?, eiee oa?aeoa?ia e?eoe/ia aeiaaeeia L0<>Lcr OAAe neeaaea?oueny c aeaio
ieineeo ae?eyiie c oaiia?aoo?aie Tmin 4.2 K ? Tmax TD >> Tmin, ye?
??cei a?ae??ciythoueny, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a aeia??e caiae? c
aenia?eiai-oaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie ?ia?o [11-13].

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 aoei io?eiaii e?eoa??? noaeino? OAAe ? ciaeaea-ii
iaae? iaeanoae noaeino? ia ieiuei? ia?aiao??a «aeiaaeeia c?acea, a?n».
Aiae?c noaeino? OAAe iieaco?, ui oi/a ae iaeia c a?oie aeeiai?/-ii? AAO,
ye? ceeaathoueny a oi/oe? c aa?oeeaeueiith aeioe/iith, iaia’yc-eiai ?
ianoaeith. Aeno?aiaeuei? ae oi/ee aeeiai?/ii? AAO a aniaeo? noaeino?
i?/ei ia ? aeae?eaieie.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 iieacaii, ui «oeeee?/i?» OAAe c e?eueeiia
iae-neioiaie oaiia?aoo?e ia aeiaaeei? ?acea caaaeaee ? ianoaeeie i?e
aoaeue ye?e iae?e iaiaeii??aeiino? c?acea aai oaieia?aeaiaeo.

O aeiaaeeo aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee iiaeeeai ia o?eueee oeacaoe
e?eoa??e noaeino? OAAe a iaeiio, aea ? aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th OAAe i?e
aoaeue — yeeo ii/aoeiaeo oiiaao, a yeeo oa?aeoa?ia aa??aoe?y
oaiia?a-oo?e ? ii??aiyiith c aiie?ooaeith aeiiaio.

A i?ae?icae?e? 2.4 ?icaeiooi aae?aaaoe/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey?
iiai?noth aeine?aeeoe e?iaoeeo OAAe iaei? aiie?ooaee, oiaoi i?inoaaee-oe
ca?iaeaeaiiy ?c aeia?eueiiai (aea ia iaaeoi aaeeeiai ii aiie?ooae?)
?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e a c?aceo oaiia?aoo?ii — aeaeo?e/iiai
«oeee-e?/iiai» aeiiaio iaei? aiie?ooaee ? aaiethoe?th eiai ca /anii. A
i?ae?ic-ae?e? 2.4 ?icaeiooi oaeiae aae?aaaoe/iee iaoiae, yeee aeicaiey?
aea/eoe aeeiai?eo OAAe aeia?eueii? aiie?ooaee ca iayaiino?
iaiaeii??aeiinoae c?acea aai oaieia?aeaiaeo. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo oeei
iaoiaeii ??a-iyiue aeaaaeaii e?eoa??? i?i?iao aeiiaio ia
iaiaeii??aeiinoyo. O aeiaae-eo ae aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee ia?aaeaa/aii
?nioaaiiy aaoieieeaaeue-iiai ?aaeeio, a yeiio aeiiai eieeaa?oueny a
ieie? iaiaeii??aeiino?, ia-??iaee/ii ci?ithth/e aiie?ooaeo ? iieiaeaiiy
a?aeiinii iaiaeii??aeiino?.

A ?icae?e? 3 – Iae?i?ei? eieeaaiiy no?oio, iai?oae ? oaiia-?aoo?e a
ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ia?aaeaa/aii ?nioaaiiy ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii
?aeaenaoe?ei? aaoieieeaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e, no?oio ? ia-i?oae ia c?aceo
iaoaeo, ia?aaaaeaiiai o noai c a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?ai-oe?eiith
i?ia?aei?noth no?oiii, yeee oa/a o eie? c ?iaeoeoeai?noth . A?aie/iith
oiiaith aei ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? c aeaea?aeaie, neoaeeoue oiiaa
ia??iaee/iino? T(x+L,t) = T(x,t), eio?a ? i?eaeaoiith ye aeey caieiooeo
a e?eueoea c?ace?a, oae ? i?e ?icaeyae? iacaieiooeo c?ace?a aeinoaoiuei?
aeiaaeeie (i?e aaeeeeo aeiaaeeiao L oa?aeoa? aaoieieeaaiue aeyaey?oueny
iacaeaaeiei a?ae oiia ia e?ioeyo c?acea).

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieaco?, ui oiiae caoaeaeaiiy ? no?oeoo?a
aaoieieeaaiue o nenoai?, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny, ?noioii caeaaeaoue a?ae
aa-ee/eie ?iaeoeoeaiino? ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae L ? Lcr. I?e L>> Lcr
iaeii??aeiee noai c?acea ? ianoaeei i?e aoaeueyeeo cia/aiiyo , eiee <0. O?aiaoe??aeaeiee aeiiai aoaeoue noae?noue i?e >cr1, aea

cr1=( L/S)< ( T(x,jd))>0-1(jd); 0 T-1exp(-L/Lcr ) (4)

Ed(j) j<(T(x,j))> — ooieoe?y, yea ? iaa?iaiith AAO c?acea c aeiiaiii ( =
—1; aeoaeee <…> icia/athoue ona?aaeiaiiy ca aeiaaeeiith c?acea), jd =
jd (E0) — no?oi a c?aceo c o?aiaoe??aeaeiei aeiiaiii i?e caaeai?e
iai?oc? E0 (“no?oi noaa?e?caoe??”), /an ?icaeoeo oaieiai? ianoaeino? T
= TCVd/q i?e T=T0(E0). Ca oaeeo oiia ?icaeoie aoaeue-yei? iaei?
oeoeooaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny oae, ui /a?ac /an t >> T aeiiai a?aeiiaeth?
naith o?aiaoe??aeaeio oi?io, a ca /anii iia?eueii ci?ith?oueny o?eueee
eiai «aeiaaeeia» L2(j) (L1(j) + L2(j) =L, aea L1(j) ? L2(j) — aeiaaeeie
“oi-eiaeii?” ? ”aa?y/i?” ae?eyiie OAAe). Oey ianoaaeia aeicaiey?
i?iaanoe «nei?i/aiiy» iieno ? io?eiaoe i?inoa ??aiyiiy, yea iieno?
iae?i?e-io aeeiai?eo o?aiaoe??aeaeiiai OAAe. Aiae?c oeueiai ??aiyiiy
iieaco?, ui a iaeano? cia/aiue ?iaeoeoeaiino? > cr aeiiai ? aaniethoii
ia-noaeei: eiai aeiaaeeia inoeeeth? c aiie?ooaeith, yea ?inoa ca /anii,
(e?eaa 3 ia ?en.1). A oie iiiaio, eiee aai «oieiaeia, aai «aa?y/a»
ae?eyiea aeiiaio (a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii/aoeiaeo oiia) caiiaith? onth
aeiaaeeio c?acea, aeiiai cieea?, c?acie ia?aoiaeeoue o iaeii??aeiee
noai, ? a c?aceo ?icaeaathoueny iaeii??aei? a i?inoi?? aaoieieeaaiiy
oaiia-?aoo?e, no?oio ? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey E = j(T) aaeeei? aiie?ooaee.
A?aie/iee oeeee (AOe), yeee a?aeiia?aea? aaoieieeaaiiyi, aeyaey?oueny
aaniethoii noaeei. Iaeanoue aea cia/aiue cr1 > >> cr2 (L/S)(T*(
E0))T(T*(E0) (cr1 >> cr2) ? iaeanoth aei?noeiai ?aaeeio caoaeaeaiiy
aaoieieeaaiue: a oe?e iaeano? ni?a?niothoue noaeee OAAe, ianoaeee AOe ?
noaeee AOe.

Noaeee a?aie/iee oeeee ? eiai ia?aiao?e iiaeia ciaeoe aiae?-oe/ii i?e
j(TD) >>T(TD) (j — /an ?icaeoeo ianoaeino? no?oio), oiio ui ? a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo nenoaia ??aiyiue oaeiae i?eionea? «nei?i-/aiiy» iieno.
Aiae?c iieaco?, ui a ?aaeei? aaoieieeaaiue i?e j (TD) >> T(TD)
oaiia?aoo?a ci?ith?oueny a?ae 4.2 K aei oaiia?aoo?e Aeaaay.

sseui aeiaaeeia c?acea L > Lcr, oi aeieeiaiiy aaoieieeaaiue oa-eiae
i?io?ea? a aei?noeiio ?aaeei?. I?e L < Lcr OAAe a c?aceo ? a?aenoo-i?i, ? aeieeiaiiy aaoieieeaaiue a?aeaoaa?oueny a i’yeiio ?aaeei? –ai-ie?ooaea aaoieieeaaiue iiaea aooe c?iaeaiith ye caaaiaeii iaeith a?ae-iia?aeiei aeai?ii cia/aiue ?iaeoeoeaiino?. A iaio aeiaaeeao i?e ?iaeoeoeaiinoyo >> cr1,2 ? >>cr0 aaoieieeaaiiy iaae?athoue aeuaiienaiee oa?aeoa?.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 i?iaaaeaii aeieeaaeia ii??aiyiiy oai??? c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie TH. I. Oecyia ? ?. I. Eiaa?iiaa ii
niinoa?aaeaiith aaoieieeaaiue.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 iieacaii, ui a i?ioean? aaoieieeaaeueiiai oeee-eo
c?acie aei?iao? ?ic?a??a, aeecueeee aei iaeii??aeiiai, (aeiiaiiee noai
ia anoeaa? ca?iaeaeoaaoenue), ? oiio ca ia?aiao?aie aaoieieeaaiue
iiaeeeai c aenieei nooiaiai oi/iino? aecia/aoe oaiei?ii?noue CV iaoaeo
iaei? iane (a 103 104 ?ac?a iaioith, i?ae i?e eaei?eiao?e/-ieo
aei??thaaiiyo) a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?ae aae??aeo aei oaiia?a-oo?
ii?yaeeo oaiia?aoo?e Aeaaay. Oaea aecia/aiiy oaiei?iiino? ae-eiiaii a
i?ae?icae?e? 3, ? ia ?en.2 i?eaaaeaii oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue
oaiei?iiino? ?iae?y, yea ?ic?aoiaaia ca aeiiiiiaith aeaaaeaiiai a
?ic-ae?e? 3 ae?aco i?e aeei?enoaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo TH. I.
Oecyia ? I. ?. Eiaa?iiaa [15] ii niinoa?aaeaiith aaoieieeaaiue.
Io-?eiaia caeaaei?noue i?ae?anii iiaiaeaeo?oueny c e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaieie.

A i?ae?icae?e? 3.4 aea/aii iacaaanath/? ?aeaenaoe?ei? aaoieiee-aaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e, no?oio ? iai?oae a iaoaeaaeo caieiooeo e?eue/an-oeo
c?aceao, a yeeo a?ae’?iia aeeoa?aioe?aeueia i?ia?aei?noue aeinyaa?oueny
oeyoii ci?ie iioieo iaai?oiiai iiey /a?ac c?acie. A oae?e neooaoe??
c?acie ? ?iaeoeoe?eii ca’ycaiei c aeaeo?e/iei eieii ci?iiiai no?oio, ui
?noioii ci?ith? oiiae caoaeaeaiiy aaoieieeaaiue o ii??aiyii? c
?icaeyiooeie o iiia?aaei?o ?icae?eao, oiio ui a) aaoieieeaaiiy
a?ae-aoaathoueny a ianoaoe?iia?ieo oiiaao, a) ?c-ca ?iaeoeoe?eiiai
ca’yceo ei-eeaaiiy no?oio a c?aceo aieeaathoue ia oiiae i?io?eaiiy
no?oio ia-ea/oaaiiy a ciai?oiueiio eie?. Naia oae? oiiae aoei
?aae?ciaaii a aenia?eiaio? TH. I. Oecyia ? I. ?. Eiaa?iiaa [16], ?
aeieeaaeia ii??a-iyiiy, yea aoei i?iaaaeaii a i?ae?icae?e? 4, iieaco?
aeia?a ye?nia ? e?eue-e?nia iiaiaeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?en.1 Aenia?eiaioaeueiee aaoi- ?en.2 A?ao?e oaiei?iiino? In.

eieeaaeueiee oeeee; 3 — ca?iaeaeai- Aacia?a?aia e?i?y —
oai??y,

iy aaoieieeaaiue — eieeaaiiy aeia- e?aiee — aenia?eiaio

aeeie OAAe c? c?inoath/ae aiie?-

ooaeith i?e L >> Lcr..

?icae?e 4. Oaiia?aoo?ii — aeaeo?e/ia ianoae?noue a ai?cio?iiieo
i?ia?aeieeao. Iaaeoaeaeeee ?oo oaiia?aoo?ieo aeiiai?a. O an?o
aenia?eiaioao, ye? aoei i?iaaaeaii aei iaoiai /ano, ia aoei ae-yaeaii
OAAe, ye? ?ooathoueny. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui aeioaia? aea/aeenue o?eueee
c?acee c ?cio?iiiith oaieii?ia?aei?noth ? aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth, a yeeo
OAAe iiaea ?ooaoenue o?eueee ca ?aooiie oa?iiaeaeo?e/iiai aoaeoo (aeea.
i?ae?icae?e 2.1). Ine?eueee eiao?oe??io oa?iia?n iaoaeo ? i?iii?oe?eiei
kBT/F << 1, (F - aia?a?y Oa?i?), oaeaee?noue OAAe s aeyaey?oueny oaeith iaeith (s 10-1 ni/n), ui aaea neaae? iaiaeii??aeiino? i?eaiaeyoue aei i?i?iao OAAe. Iia? aeeiai?/i? ?aaeeie, ye? i?iiiiothoueny, ye iieacaii a ?icae?e? 4, iiaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao oa ?acenoeaieo aeiiai?a a iaaei?ia?aeieeao ?, ye ?acoeueoao, aei aaia?aoe?? aeaeo?e/ieo eieeaaiue aaeeei? aiie?ooaee ? /anoioe. sseui oaici? oaieii?ia?aeiino? iaoaeo i,k (i,k = x,y,z) ia? eiiiiiaioe ,,x 0 (x - eii?aeeiaoa acaeiaae c?acea, = y,z), oi aiie aca?iii o?ainoi?iothoue iicaeiaaei? ? iiia?a/i? iioiee oaiea a c?aceo, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?ooo OAAe ?c oaeaee?noth [24] s (T)qs(T2)/cV (T2) T2 (5) Oaeei /eiii, a ai?cio?iii?e neooaoe?? oaeaee?noue OAAe ia i?noeoue iaeeo iiiaeiee?a oeio kBT/F << 1. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.4 aeaaaeaii aoaeoeaia ??aiyiiy iaeiii??ii? oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeey oaiia?aoo?e, yea ona?aaeiaia ii iiia?a/iiio ia?a??co T(x), ca i?eiouaiiyi iaeecie iiia?a/iiai ?ici??o c?acea d o ii??aiyii? c oa?aeoa?iei i?inoi?iaei ianooaaii oaiia?aoo?ii - aeaeo?e/ii? ianoaeino? Lcr. Oea ??aiyiiy, yea iieno? aeeiai?eo OAAe a oiieeo ai?cio?iiieo c?aceao, io?eiaii ona?aaeiaiiyi o?eaei??iiai ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? ii iiia?a/iiio ia?a??co c?acea ? ?iceeaaeaiiyi ona?aaeiaieo ooieoe?iiae?a a?ae oaiia?aoo?e T a ?yae ii ia?aiao?o d/ Lcr << 1, iaiaaeoth/enue eaaae?aoe/iei iaaeeaeaiiyi ii d/ Lcr. Ia iniia? oeueiai ??aiyiiy io?eiaii aiae?oe/iee ae?ac aeey oaeaeeino? ?ooo OAAe o c?aceo c aeia?eueieie ye oi?iith iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co c?acea, oae ? ?iciiae?eii iaiaeii??aeiiai oaieia?aeaiaeo c iiaa?oi?. ?c ae?aco (5) aeoiaeeoue, ui oaeaee?noue aeiiaio ca?eueoo?oueny c iie?auaiiyi oaieia?aeaiaeo, i?e/iio aiia iiaea aeinyaiooe cia/aiue ii?yaeeo oaeaeeino? (eaac?)/anoeiie, ye? ia?aiinyoue oaiei o ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu?, yea a?aeaiaeeoue oaiei. Oiio aeey io?eiaiiy iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a a ?icae?e? 4 cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaii niaoe?aeueio noaio aenia?eiaioo, a eio??e oaieia?aea?ae cae?enith?oueny /a?ac ii?iaeueiee iaoae o neeueiiio iaai?oiiio iie?. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.2 ?icaeyiooi iaaeoaeaeeee ?oo oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaeo?e/ieo ? ?acenoeaieo aeiiai?a, yeee ? iaoiiaeaiei aeo?iaeie no?oiaie a a?e?enoaeao [25]. I?e/eiith ?nioaaiiy aeeiai?/iiai ?aaeeio, yeee i?iiiio?oueny a i?ae?icae?e? 4.2, ? aeo?ia? no?oie a iaoaeao c ai?cio?iiiei iii?ii ik(T), (i,k=x,y,z), ui aeieeathoue a ia?ao?aeieo iaeanoyo OAAe a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ? ?acenoeaieo aeiiaiao (?Ae) a iaaei?ia?aeieeao (eii?aeeiaoia a?nue x ? ni?yiiaaiith acaeiaae no?oio) ?c-ca iaiaeii??aeiiai ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e T(x) a ieo (a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ii??, aoaeo/e ooieoe??th oaiia?aoo?e, oaeiae ? iaiaeii??aeiei). Oiio ui aeo?ia? no?oie j(1), ye? iia’ycai? c ia?ao?aeieie iaeanoyie (e?ieaie) OAAe ? ?Ae, iathoue cieeaoe i?e iaeii??aeiiio ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e a c?aceo, oi aiie ? i?iii?oe?eieie T(x)/ x, oiaoi a e?aiio ? i?aaiio e?ieao (a yeeo T(x)/x iathoue i?ioeeaaei? ciaee) aeo?ia? no?oie oa/ooue a i?ioeeaaei? noi?iie. C ae?oaiai aieo, iai?yi iniiaiiai no?oio j(0) ? o?eniaaiei, ?, ioaea, aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeioe?a ?ic?a??a iaeanoae e?ie?a aeo?iaeie no?oiaie (jE ) T(x) /x, a i?eioeei?, iiaea ca?eueooaaoe oaieiaeae?eaiiy a iaeiiio e?ie? ? ciaiooaaoe eiai a ae?oaiio. A oaeiio aeiaaeeo iaeei e?iaoeue OAAe aai ?Ae aeiaeaoeiai aoaeoeaii ?ic?a??aa?oueny, a ae?oaee aeiaeaoeiai aoaeoeaii ioieiaeaeo?oueny aeo?iaeie no?oiaie, ? oaiia?aoo?iee ?iciiae?e T(x) cnoaa?oueny a noi?iio iaeano?, yea a?eueoa ?ic?a??aa?oueny, oiaoi OAAe (aai ?Ae) ?ooa?oueny ?acii c aeo?iaeie no?oiaie, iia’ycaieie c e?ieaie. Iaeiae, a c?aceao c iaeii??aeiei ii iiia?a/iiio ia?a??co iii?ii aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeioe?a ?ic?a??a, ona?aaeiaiee ii iiia?a/iiio ia?aoeio (jE), aei??aith? ioeth (a ia?oiio ? ianooiieo iaia?ieo ii?yaeeao ii ia?aiao?o d/ Lcr <<1, ?, ioaea, aeo?ia? no?oie ia aieeaathoue ia ?oo aeiiaio. Neooaoe?y ye?nii ci?ith?oueny, yeui c?acie i?aaenoaaey? niaith a?e?enoae aai naiaea?/ ?c aeaio ??cieo ai?cio?iiieo iaoae?a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeioe?a ?ic?a??a aeo?iaeie no?oiaie aa?oiueiai ? ieaeiueiai oa??a ? ??ciei ?, ioaea, aeiaeaoeiaee ?ic?a??a, ona?aaeiaiee ii iiia?a/iiio ia?a??co, ia aei??aith? ioeth. I?e oeueiio ciaee oaieiaeae?eaiue a e?aiio ? i?aaiio e?ieao ? i?ioeeaaeieie (aoaeo/e i?iii?oe?eieie T(x) /x), ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?ooo aeiiaio c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth. A i?ae?icae?e? 4.2 i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiie aeiaeaoeiaiai aeaeioeaaa ?ic?a??ao aeo?iaeie no?oiaie a aeiaaiio (aeiaaeeie L) naiaea?/o (a?e?enoae?) c OAAe aai ?Ae a iueiio. Naiaea?/ neeaaea?oueny c aeaio ai?cio?iiieo iaoae?a, iaaea i?ae eio?eie ?icoaoiaaia acaeiaae c?acea. I?eionea?oueny aeeiiaiith ia??ai?noue d/ Lcr << 1. A oaeiio iaaeeaeaii? aeaaaeaii aoaeoeaia ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeeyT(x) ? io?eiaii ae?ac aeey oaeaeeino? ?ooo aeiiaio ca ?aooiie aeiaeaoeiaiai aeaeioeaaiai ?ic?a??ao aeo?iaeie no?oiaie. Ia cae?i/aiiy i?ae?icae?eo 4.2 ?icaeyiooi oiiae ? i?iaaaeaii ioe?iee ia?aiao??a aeey io?eiaiiy iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo OAAe a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao ? ?Ae a iaaei?ia?aeieeao. A ?icae?e? 5 - Oaiia?aoo?ii - no?oiiaa oio?iaa ianoae?noue a iaoaeao - ?icaeyaea?oueny oaiia?aoo?ii - no?oiiaa oio?iaa ia-noae?noue, yea ?icaeaa?oueny o aeinoaoiuei oe?ieeo ieanoeiao eii-iainiaaieo iaoae?a i?e aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a? o neeueiiio iaa-i?oiiio iie?. Oey ianoae?noue aoea ia?aaeaa/aia a ?iaio? [4] ? aen-ia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaia a ?iaio? [5]; ?? aeieeaaeia oai?aoe/ia ? aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eaaaeaii a ?iaioao [5,17,26]. A neeueiiio iaai?oiiio iie? H >> 0 (H —
oeeeeio?iiia /anoioa, 0 — oa?aeoa?ia /anoioa i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy
aeaeo?ii?a) ii?? iaoaeo ciaioo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e, ?
aeaeioe?a ?ic?a??a iaoaeo i?eaiaeeoue aei S-ia?acii? AAO; yeui
i?eeeaaeaiee iiaiee no?oi /a?ac c?acie a?aeiia?aea? ae?eyioe? AAO c
a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?aioe?eiith i?ia?aei?noth, oi a aeinoaoiuei oe?ie?e
ieanoei? niiioaiii aeieea? oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiaee oio? (ONO). A
?icae?e? 5 iiaoaeiaaii oai??th oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiai? oio?iai?
ianoaeino? a ieanoei? ai?cio?iiiiai iaoaeo ne?i/aiii? oiaueie.

Aoei aeacaii oiiae, ca yeeo ai?cio?ii?y aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? ?
oaieii?ia?aeiino? iaoaeo ye?nii iiaeeo?eo? aeeiai?eo oio??a, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai ca?eueoaiiy ?oiuei? oaeaeeino?. Ia?aaeaa/aii
?nioaaiiy aeo?iaeo no?oi?a o ia?ao?aeieo iaeanoyo ONO, ui oaeiae iiaea
i?eaiaeeoe aei iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo ONO.

A i?ae?icae?e? 5.2 aeaaaeaii aoaeoeaia ??aiyiiy oaieii?ia?ae-iino? a
oiie?e ieanoei? iaoaeo c ai?cio?iiieie oaici?aie oaiei- ?
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? a oiiaao d/L << 1, d/L0 << 1, H >>0 , aea d ? L —
oiaueia ? oe?eia ieanoeie, a?aeiia?aeii, L0 — oa?aeoa?ia i?inoi?iaa
aeiaaeeia ?icaeoeo ianoaeino?. Ia iniia? oeueiai ??aiyiiy aea/aii
noae?noue iaeii??aeiiai ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio, ? aeine?aeaeaii
no?oeoo?o ? aeeiai?eo ONO a ieanoei?.

A oiiaao ioieiaeaeaiiy c?acea aaciiiae?aiei aae??i ooieoe?y
oaieia?aeaiaeo q(T) ?inoa, a ii?? xx eiiiainiaaiiai iaoaeo o neeueiiio
iaai?oiiio iie? H >> 0 ciaioo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e.
Cae/aeii a iaoaeao oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue oeeo aaee/ei ? oaeith, ui a
iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?nio? oaiia-?aoo?iee ?ioa?aae, a yeiio
(xx-1q)’< 0, ?, ioaea, AAO ia? S-iiae?aiee aeae [17,26]. sseui c?acie ioieiaeaeo?oueny eeiey/ith ??aeeiith, oi oai-ia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue q(T) ? N – iiae?aiith. A iaoaeaaeo ae?ioao ca a?aenooiino? iaai?oiiai iiey oea i?eaiaeeoue aei N–S - iiae?aii? AAO [27]. O ?icaeyaeoaaiieo aeiaaeeo AAO eiiiainiaaiiai iaoaeo o neeueiiio iaai?oiiio iie? H >> 0 ia? S-N – iiae?aiee aeae, i?eaaaeaiee ia ?en.3.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaeino? iaeii-

??aeiiai
?iciiae?eo oaiia?a-

oo?e ?
no?oio (a ?aaeei? ca-

aeaii?
iai?oae) ia iniia?

aoaeoeaieo ??aiyiiy oaiei-

i?i?ia?aeiino? ? ??aiyiiy aeey

aecia/aiiy i?inoi?iaiai ?

/aniaiai
?iciiae?eo aonoeie

no?oio
iieaco?, ui i?e L >

Lcr
iaeii??aeiee ?iciiae?e ao-

aeoue
noae?noue a?aeiinii oeo-

eooaoe?e, iaiaeii??aeieo iiia-

?ae
ieanoeie (? aeinoaoiuei

aeiaaioaeeueiaeo acaeiaae iea-

noeie).
A ?acoeueoao?, a aein-

?en.3 S-N iiae?aia AAO oaoiuei oe?ie?e ieanoei?
L > Lcr i?e aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a? no?oiii j ?c ?ioa?aaeo j1 < j < j3 aai j2 < j < j4 niiioaiii aeieea? noaeee oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiaee oio?, yeee ?ooa?oueny c iino?eiith oaeaee?noth s. Caeaaeiino?, ye? aoee i?eaaaeaieie a i?ae?icae?e? 5.2, ciaoi-aeyoueny o aeia??e caiae? c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie [5,17]. A i?ae?icae?e? 5.3 ciaeaeaii ae?ace aeey aeo?iaeo no?oi?a, ye? aeieeathoue a c?aceo aiane?aeie iaiaeii??aeiiai ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e a ONO. Oe? aeo?ia? no?oie iiaeooue aooe aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaieie a aei??ao iai?oae Oieea. Oae naii, ye ? a aeiaaeeo OAAe (aeea. ?icae?e 4) aeo?ia? no?oie, ye? aeieeathoue o ia?ao?aeieo iaeanoyo ONO, iiaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei iiaiai iaoai?cio iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo ONO. Oeae iaoai?ci i?iaiae?ciaaii o i?ae?icae?e? 5.4. ?icae?e 6. Aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o: ca’ycai? aaoieiee-aaiiy no?oio, iai?oae ? iaaei?ia?aeii? aia?aaoe/i? u?ee-ie a N-S-N no?oeoo?ao. Aca?iiee aieea oaciai? eiaa?aioiino?, aeanoeai? iaaei?ia?aeieeo, ? ?ioa?oa?aioe?eieo yaeu ia iacineii?/ieo aeiaaeeiao a ii?iaeueiiio iaoae? i?eaiaeeoue aei iiaeo aoaeo?a ye a iacineii?/ieo, oae ? a iae?ineii?/ieo c?aceao (aeea., iai?eeeaae, ia-eyae [28]). Iaeiei c oaeeo aoaeo?a ? aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o a aaoa?i-no?oeoo?ao ii?iaeueiee i?ia?aeiee – iaaei?ia?aeiee – ii?iaeueiee i?ia?aeiee (N-S-N no?oeoo?a), eiee iiaiee ii?? c?acea ciaioo?oueny i?ney ia?aoiaeo iaaei?ia?aeii? /anoeie o ii?iaeueiee noai i?ae aieeaii e?eoe/iiai no?oio aai e?eoe/iiai iaai?oiiai iiey (oeae aoaeo aoei ia?aaeaa/aii ? oai?aoe/ii aea/aii a ?iaioao [29-32]; aenia?eiai-oaeueia aeyaeaiiy ? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoo iaaei??iiai iii?o i?aaenoaa-eaii a ?iaioao [19-21]). A oeueiio aeiaaeeo aieueo – aiia?ia oa?aeoa-?enoeea ia? S-iiae?aiee aeae, ? iiaeeco e?eoe/iiai no?oio iaaei?i-a?aeieea a c?aceo niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny aaoieieeaaiiy no?oio, aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iaaei?ia?aeieea (ia?aaeaa/ai-iy – a ?iaio? [29], aenia?eiaioaeueia aeyaeaiiy – a ?iaio? [21]). A ?icae?e? 6 ?icaeyaea?oueny neooaoe?y a?aeiinii /enoeo eiiiiceoieo c?ac-e?a o aeiaaeeo ye neaaeiai, oae ? neeueiiai ii?iaeueiiai ?icn?yiiy ia iaae? aeaio i?ia?aeiee?a. ?nio? aeae?eueea iaoai?ci?a, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei iiaaae?iee iii?o aeuaaeacaiiai oeio. O?ce/iee iien oeeo iaoai?ci?a ? aea/aiiy aoaeoo iaaei??iiai iii?o a iae?ineii?/ieo c?aceao aeaii a i?ae?icae?e? 6.2, i?e/iio ?ic?aooiie aoaeoo aeey an?o o?ueio iaoai?c-i?a a?oioo?oueny ia ??oaii? ??aiyiiy Aieueoeiaia o caaaeueieo oa?i?iao ?iia??iinoae Aiae???anueeiai ? ii?iaeueiiai a?aeia?aaeaiue a?ae N-S iaae?. I?ae?icae?e 6.2 – “Aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o a N-S-N no?oeoo-?ao”. a) Noee iai?aiaoaeo aai iai?ai?ia?aeieea c aa?’??ii Oioee, yeei iaooo?ii. Aeaeo?iie, ye? iaaeathoue ?c ii?iaeueiiai i?ia?aeieea ia N-S ia-aeo i?ae iaeeie eooaie (“eiaci?” aeaeo?iie), a?aeaeaathoueny a?ae ia? ia “aiae???anueee”, a aeca?eaeueii, ye a?ae cae/aeiiai iioaioe?aeueiiai aa?’-??o (aeea., iai?eeeaae, [33]). Oae? aeaeo?iie ia i?iieeathoue /a?ac N-S iaaeo, ui aea?aaeaioii iaaei??iiio iii?o N-S iaae?. A?aeiinia e?eue-e?noue aeca?eaeueii a?aeaeoeo aeaeo?ii?a (kT/F)1/2 (F - aia?a?y Oa?i? ii?iaeueiiai i?ia?aeieea). Aeey aeia?eo iaoae?a (c aaeeeith e?euee?noth aeaeo?ii?a) oeae ia?aiao? iaaeoi iaeee aeey aoaeue-yeiai iii?oiiai aieeao ia oae? e?iaoe/i? aeanoeaino? ye aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, a ye?e eiaci? aeaeo?iie i?/ei ia ? aeae?eaieie. Neooaoe?y ye?nii ci?ith?oueny o aeaio aeiaaeeao: a) yeui iniiaiee aianie a aoaeo aiinyoue eiaci? aeaeo?iie, ye o aeiaaeeo iiaeeiaiiy caoeo o i?ii?aeiiio noai? iaae-i?ia?aeieea [34], a) yeui o noeeo c iaaei?ia?aeieeii ciaoiaeeoueny ia-i?aiaoae aai iai?ai?ia?aeiee. O inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo oeae ia?aiao? ca?eueoo?oueny ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a, oiio ui a?i i?noeoue aia?a?th Oa?-i? ii?iaeueiiai i?ia?aeieea, ? e?iaoeea oaeeo nenoai ?noioii ci?ith-?oueny. A nenoai? iai?aiaoae (iai?ai?ia?aeiee) – iaaei?ia?aeiee – iai?aiaoae (iai?ai?ia?aeiee) iaaei??iee ii?? N-S iaae ca ?aooiie eiacieo aeaeo?ii?a aeyaey?oueny aeinoaoiuei aaeeeei aeey oiai, uia i?e ia?aoiae? iaaei?ia?aeieea o ii?iaeueiee noai iiaiee ii?? nenoaie ciaioeany [29]. Aenia?eiaioaeueii oeae oai?aoe/ii i?iiiiiaaiee aoaeo aoei aeyaeaii a ?iaioao [18,20]. a) Ii?iaeueiee iaoae c aea?eieeiaith iaaeath aai iaaeath ca?ia iiaeeco iaaei?ia?aeieea ca oiia, eiee l < T < l0, aea l - a?aenoaiue i?ae iaaeaie N-N ? N-S, T = h vF/kT - aeiaaeeia eiaa?aioiino? a ii?iaeue-iiio iaoae?, l0 - aeiaaeeia a?eueiiai i?ia?ao aeaeo?ii?a. Aeaeo?ii, yeee iaaea? c iaoaeo N1 ia N-N iaaeo, ca a?aenooiino? iaaei?ia?aeieea aei?iao? ii?iaeueia a?aeaeooy c ?iia??i?noth 2. Ca i?enooiino? iaaei?ia?aeieea oaeee aeaeo?ii aei?iao? aaaaoi?acia? ii?iaeuei? a?aeaeooy ia N-N iaae? ? Aiae???anuee? a?aeaeooy ia N-S iaae?. A ?acoeueoao? oaeeo aaaaoi?aciaeo eiaa?aioieo a?aeaeoo?a iiaia ?ii-a??i?noue aeaeo?iio a?ae iaae N - N ? N-S ia? ?aciiainiee aeae (iiaee-o?eiaaia oi?ioea A?aeoa – A?aia?a). I?e oeueiio iniiaia, ieaaia /anoeia iii?o i?e (T) << 0 ((T) - aia?aaoe/ia u?eeia a iaae-i?ia?aeieeo, 0 (T=0) aecia/a?oueny ?iia??i?noth a?aeaeooy aeae-o?iio a?ae N- N + N-S iaae, ona?aaeiaii? ii eooao iaae?iiy aeaeo?ii?a = 22/(1+2), ? a?aeiiniee iaaei??iee ii?? i?e T — 2 > 0, a Rs ? RL ?
iii?aie S- /an-oeie c?acea (eiee aiia ciaoiaeeoueny o ii?iaeueiiio
noai?) ? iiaiee ii?? N-iaoaeo aeiaaeeie L, a?aeiia?aeii.

c) Ii?iaeueiee iaoae c aeii?oeaie i?e o noeeo c iaaei?ia?aeieeii. sse
aoei iieacaii a ?iaio? [35] ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a i?ia?aeiino?
ii?-iaeueiiai iaoaeo ia aeii?ooe? ci?ith?oueny ye?nii, yeui aeii?oea
cia-oiaeeoueny a ieie? iaae? ii?iaeueiee iaoae – iaaei?ia?aeiee. A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo eiia?iiaaia ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?iio ia aeii?ooe? ? N-S
iaae? i?aaenoaaey? niaith aaaaoi?aciaa eiaa?aioia ?icn?yiiy. Ca?aeii c
?i-aioith [31] ia?a??c ?icn?yiiy iacaae i?e ?icn?yii? aeaeo?iio ia
aei-i?ooe?, ?icoaoiaai?e a oa?o ii?iaeueiiai iaoaeo oiaueie T , yeee
ciaoiaeeoueny o noeeaii? c iaaei?ia?aeieeii, i?ney ona?aaeiaiiy ii
a?ae-noai? i?ae aeii?oeith ? N-S iaaeath aei??aith? = 20 (0 — ia?a??c
?ic-n?yiiy ia aeii?ooe? ca a?aenooiino? iaaei?ia?aeieea). Ca?aene
aeoiaeeoue, ui oa? ii?iaeueiiai iaoaeo oiaueie T, iiaeeco
iaaei?ia?aeieea, ye oe?ea aeiaeaoeiai ?icn?th? aeaeo?ii iacaae c
?iia??i?noth

(T)

r(eff) = (- f/ )r d ,
(6)

aea = h/vF, rE = ci 0 /l0 ? ?iia??i?noue aeiaeaoeiaiai ?icn?yiiy
iacaae oa?ii iaoaea oiaueie = hvF / , aea ci — eiioeaio?aoe?y
aeii?oae, — aia?a?y aeaeo?iia, yea aei??yia a?ae aia?a?? Oa?i?. r(eff)
iiaea ?icaeyaeaoenue ye aoaeoeaia ?iia??i?noue ii?iaeueiiai a?aeaeooy
aeaeo?iio a?ae N-S iaae?. A i?ae?icae?e? 6.2 iaaei??iee ii?? R
?ic-?aoiaaii ia iniia? ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy Aieueoeiaia oa ae?aco (6);
ii??aiyiiy io?eiaiiai R c aenia?eiaioii [36] iieacaii ia ?en.4.
Iaaei??iee ii?? iiaea aooe aeiaeaoeiaei o aaaaoueio o?ce/ieo neooaoe?yo,
?, ioaea, a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia?ao?ae iaaei?ia?aeii? /anoeie iii?o
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi caaaeueiiai iii?o c?acea (iien
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aiiai aoaeoo iaaei??iiai
iii?o a i?eaaaeaiei a ?iaioao [18-21]).

A i?ae?icae?e? 6.3 ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaeo?e/i? aaoieieeaaiiy,
ye? ? iaoiiaeaieie aoaeoii iaaei??iiai iii?o.

Eaaei aa/eoe, ui yeui i?e ia?aoiae? /anoeie c?acea o iaae-i?ia?aeiee
noai iiaiee ii?? i?ae aei??thaaeueieie eiioaeoaie ca?eueoo?oueny, oi i?e
i?io?eaii? /a?ac c?acie no?oio, aeecueeiai aei e?eoe/iiai no?oio
iaaei?ia?aeieea, iai?oaa ia aei??thaaeueieo eiioaeoao aoaea
ciaiooaaoenue c? ca?eueoaiiyi aaee/eie no?oio, ?, ioaea, AAO c?acea ia?
S-iiae?aiee aeae. Ca oeeo oiia, ye iieacaii a i?ae?icae?e? 6.3, a c?aceo
? iiaeeeaei niiioaiia aeieeiaiiy aaoieieeaaiue no?oio, iai?oae ?
iaaei?ia?aeii? u?eeie.

Caaeaiee no?oi I0, yeee oa/a /a?ac N-S-N no?oeoo?o, ae?eeoueny
ia aea? /anoeie: 1) no?oi I, yeee ia?aiineoueny /a?ac N-S iaaeo oeie
aeaeo?iiaie, eio?? aei?iaothoue Aiae???anueea a?aeaeooy; 2)

?ii?niee no?oi IC=dq/dt,
iia’ycaiee c

ii?iaeueii a?aeaeoeie
ia N-S iaae?

aeaeo?iiaie (q —
ca?yae, yeee iaeiie-

/o?oueny ia N-S iaae?
ca ?aooiie ii?-

iaeueii a?aeaeoeo ia
i?e aeaeo?ii?a;

ioe?ieo aaee/eie ?iiino?
N-S iaae? aea-

ii a i?ae?icae?e? 6.4).
Ca?aene aeoiaeeoue,

ui i?io?eaiiy no?oio /a?ac
N-S no?oe-

oo?o iiaea aooe iienaiei
ca aeiiiii-

aith aea?aaeaioii?
noaie, a ye?e ?ieue

eiiaeainaoi?a ?iiino? N
a?ae?a?a? N-S —

?en.4 Oaiia?aoo?ia ca- iaaea aai ni?eueii c iath ?io? ?iiino?,

eaaei?noue ii??o. Aacia- ye? ?niothoue a aeaeo?e/iiio eie?. Oiio

?a?aia e?i?y — oai??y, ui i?iaiaee, ye? i?aeaiaeyoue no?oi,
caaae-

e?aiee — aenia?eiaio. aee iathoue ?iaeoeoeai?noue , oi a aea?aa-

eaioio noaio o?aaa aeeth/eoe oaeiae ? ?iaeoeoeai?noue. E??i oiai, S-

iiae?aiee aeae AAO aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth (? a?aenooi?noth)
iaae-i?ia?aeieea, oiio o?ao?i ??aiyiiyi, yea iieno? aaiethoe?th ca
/a-nii iaaei?ia?aeiiai ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo , a aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii
??aiyiiy Ai?ueeiaa – Ae?aoaa?aa, ui ? i?aaeeueiei iiaeeco e?eoe/-ii?
oaiia?aoo?e iaaei?ia?aeieea ? i?e aeinoaoiuei iia?euei?e ci?i? ia?aiao?a
ii?yaeeo ca /anii.

Aaoieieeaaiiy, ye? iaoiiaeaii ii?iaeueiei a?aeaeooyi eiacieo aeaeo?ii?a
a?ae N-S iaae?, niinoa??aaeenue a aenia?eiaio? TH. Oecyia ? I. Oaa/aiea
[21], ? ?oi? aeai? ciaoiaeyoueny o aeia?i? caiae? c oai?aoe/ieie
?acoeueoaoaie ?icae?eo 6.

?icae?e 7 – Aeaeo?e/ia ianoae?noue a iecueeioaiia?a-oo?iie
i?ia?aeiino? ii?iaeueieo iaoae?a, iaoiiaeaia eaaioiaeie
?oa?oa?aioe?eieie yaeuaie. Aeaeo?e/i? ia-noaeino?, ye? aoei ?icaeyiooi
o iiia?aaei?o aeaaao, ? caniiaaieie ia iae?ineii?/ieo yaeuao a
i?ia?aeieeao, ? aaciina?aaeiuei ia ? iia’ycaieie c eaaioiaith
?ioa?oa?aioe??th a aeaeo?iii?e nenoai?. A oie aea /an aeia?a a?aeiii, ui
ca oiia eaaioiai? ?ioa?oa?aioe?? aeeiai?ea aeaeo?ii?a ? iaaecae/aeii
/ooeeaith aei neaaeeo ci?i oac oaeeueiaeo ooieoe?e. Ioaea, iaa?oue
neaae? aeaeo?e/i? iiey, ci?ithth/e ?iioeuene aeaeo?ii?a, oiaoi
aieeaath/e ia oace ?oi?o oaeeueiaeo ooieoe?e, iiaeooue i?eaiaeeoe aei
neeueii iae?i?eieo yaeu a aeaeo?iii?e nenoai? ii?iaeueieo iaoae?a. A
?icae?e? 7 iieacaii ?nioaaiiy a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao aeiiaiii? ?
aaoieieeaaeueii? aeaeo?e/ieo ianoaeinoae, caniiaaieo ia aino??e oacia?e
/ooeeaino? aeeiai?ee aeaeo?ii?a.

A i?ae?icae?e? 7.1 ?icaeyaea?oueny aeeiai?/iee iaoai?ci ae-ieeiaiiy N –
iiae?aieo AAO a ii?iaeueiiio iaoae? ca oiia ei-aa?aioiiai iaai?oiiai
i?iaith. A iniia? oeueiai iaoai?cio eaaeeoue aiiiaeueia iaeecia ia??iaeo
Px (Px — ocaaaeueiaiee ?iioeuen, yeee caa??aa?oueny a iaai?oiiio iie?)
iaai?oii?ia?eiiai aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?a (a iieyo H 104 105 aaee/eia Px
(10-5 10-4)b (b – aaeoi? iaa?iaii? ?ao?oee) ? oe?eia iaai?oieo cii E
hH. . ?c-ca oeueiai aaea a ii??aiyii iaeeo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo E = (E,0,0)
aeieeathoue nai???aei? eaaioia? oeiaethaa/?. Ae?enii, yeui ciaoooaaoe
?icn?yiiyi aeaeo?ii?a, oi ?c caeiio caa?aaeaiiy iiaii? aia?a?? E = e E x
+ En(pz,Px) ? ia??iaee/iino? ii Px caeiio aeenia?n?? En(pz,Px) aeaeo?iio
ca oiia iaai?oiiai i?iaith aeoiaeeoue, ui aeaeo?iie iaai?oii?ia?eiiai
oa?o iathoue aooe eieae?ciaaieie a iaeanoyo ii?yaeeo x = E/eE. Eaaei
aa/eoe, ui ia??iae inoeeeyoe?e o oeeo “oeiaethaa/ao” T 2hH/eEb. Ia
a?aieoe? T << * (* - /an aeeooy aeaeo?iio a noaoe?iia?iiio noai?) ?c-ca eieae?caoe?? aeaeo?ii?a a “oeiaethaa/ao” iaai?oii?ia?eiee oa? aiineoue a no?oi j aianie ii?yaeeo j = (T/*)2 (mb) E, (7) oiaoi no?oi j aeyaey?oueny iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eiei E . I?e ii-aeaeueoiio c?inoaii? E aianie caieiooeo i?a?o ii/eia? ia?aae-uoaaoe aianie a?aee?eoeo iaai?oii?ia?eieo eiio?ao?aoe?e, ? aeeo-a?aioe?eia i?ia?aei?noue j/ E ciia noa? aeiaeaoiith. Oaeei /eiii, eaaioia? oeiaethaa/? i?eaiaeyoue aei AAO N-oeio, yeui E > E = h H/cb*. Cia/aiiy E
10-6 iae. CGSE.

I?ae?icae?e 7.2 — N-iiae?aia AAO a i?ia?aeieo caea?eieeiaaieo
ieanoeiao. Eaaioiaa ?ioa?oa?aioe?y, yea aeieea? i?e aaaa-oieaiaeueiiio
aeca?eaeueiiio a?aeaeoo? aeaeo?ii?a a?ae iaae iaoaeaai? ieanoeie, ye?nii
ci?ith? iae?ineii?/i? yaeua o ii??aiyii? c? cae/aeiei aeiaaeeii
iaeiieaiaeueiiai a?aeaeooy [9] . Aiaeia?/i? yaeua ?niothoue ? a
iaoaeaa?e ieanoei? c aea?eieeii, yeee ia? ei-aa?aioio iaaeo
aea?eieeoaaiiy, oiio ui ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a ca iaaeath aea?eieeoaaiiy
(IAe) ? aeaieaiaeueiei iaa?oue o aeiaaeeo i?inoi? (aea ai?cio?iiii?)
iiaa?oi? Oa?i? aeaeo?ii?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeiaaeeo aaaaoieaiaeueiiai
?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a ia ciai?oi?o iaaeao iaoaeaai? ieanoeie, AAO c?acea
c aea?eieeiaith iaaeath, ye iieacaii o oeueiio ?icae?e?, iiaea iaoe
iaaeath/o ae?eyieo i?e aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo E, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
aeieeiaiiy a ieo aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a ? aaoieieeaaiue.

A i?ae?icae?e? 7.2 ?icaeyaea?oueny neooaoe?y, a ye?e iaae?
aea?eie-eoaaiiy, ciai?oi? iaae? ieanoeie oiaueiith d ? iaai?oia iiea H ?
ia?aeaeueieie iaeia iaeiiio, a ea?ii?ianueeee ?aae?on R < d << l0. Ca oiia ne?i – aoaeoo (eiiiainiaaiee iaoae – neeueia iaai?oia iiea) ? aeeoocii ?icn?thth/eo ciai?oi?o iaae iniiaiee aianie a i?ia?aei?noue aiinyoue aeaeo?iie, ye? cooiaoothoueny c iaaeath aea?eieeoaaiiy. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o aeaeo?ii?a a ieanoei? c aaaaoieaiaeueiei aeca?eaeueiei a?aeaeooyi ia iaaeao iaoae – aaeooi [9], ??ai? aia?a?? aeaeo?ii?a ca ?icaeyaeoaaieo oiia aeyaeythoueny c aaeeeith oi/i?noth ia??iaee/ieie ii Px c ia??iaeii h/R (i?e oeueiio oaeaee?noue vx = E/ Px vF). ?c ia??iaee/iino? En(Px,pz) ii Px aeoiaeeoue, ui iaa?oue neaae? aeaeo?e/i? iiey E , ye? caaeiaieueiythoue ia??ai?noue eE*>h/R, i?eaiaeyoue aei eieae?caoe?? aeaeo?ii?a acaeiaae iaae?
aea?eieeoaaiiy c oa?aeoa?iei ?ici??ii eieae?caoe?? h vF/e E R. Oiio
no?oi, ca’ycaiee c eieae?ciaaieie aeaeo?iiaie, E(eE*/hvF)-2, aea —
cae/aeia aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue i?e H=0. Oaeei /eiii, ca ?icaeyaeoaaieo
oiia aeieea? N-iiae?aia aieueo – aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ? ye iane?aeie –
aeiiaie aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, ye? ?ooathoueny. I?e oa?ieiaii? c?acea a
aeaeo?e/ia eiei c aeaea?aeii iino?eii? iai?oae iine?aeiaii c
?iaeoeoeai?noth aeieeathoue oaeiae aaoieieeaaiiy aaeeei? aiie?ooaee
no?oio ? iai?oae ia c?aceo c /anoioith eieeaaiue *-1 (*-1 << H); a iaoae? oey /anoioa iiaea aeinyaaoe 1010 n-1. A i?ae?icae?e? 7.3 ?icaeyaeathoueny oiiae aeieeiaiiy aeiiai?a aeaeo?e/iiai iiey i?e aaaaoieaiaeueiiio ?icn?yii? aeaeo?ii?a ia iaae? aea?eieeoaaiiy ? a neooaoe?? iaai?oiiai i?iaith. A iaoaeao, ia a?aei?io a?ae iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, i?inoi?iai iaiaeii??aei? ?iciiae?ee aeaeo?e/iiai iiey E, ye? aeieeathoue ia iaaeath/eo ae?eyieao N–iiae?a-ii? AAO, ?icaeaathoueny ca oiia eieaeueii? aeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiino?, eiee aonoeia no?oio j=j(t) (t – /an) ? iino?eiith acaeiaae anueiai c?acea. I?e oeueiio oa?aeoa?i? /aniaee ? i?inoi?iaee ianooaae aeaeo?e/iiai aeiiaio aei??aiththoue, a?aeiia?aeii, tc (*/T )2* ? Lc (*/T )vF*/ ? / (ia??iae ?ooo aeaeo?iio a “oeiaethaa/?” T = h H /e E vF), a oaeaee?noue ?ooo aeaeo?e/iiai aeiiaio s vF 108 ni/n. A ?icae?e? 8 – Aeaeo?e/ia ianoae?noue a S–N–S no?oe-oo?ao – ia?aaeaa/aii ? aea/aii aoaeo a?aaionueeeo inoeeeyoe?e eii-aeaeoaino i?e ci?i? ??cieoe? oac i?ae iaaei?ia?aeieeaie [22,37,38]. Oeae aoaeo i?eaiaeeoue aei iao?ea?aeueii? aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee iacineii?/ieo nenoai, oiio ui aeeneiaoeaiee no?oi, ui oa/a /a?ac c?acie, aeya-ey?oueny /ooeeaei aei ??cieoe? oac i?ae iaaei?ia?aeieeaie, o oie /an ye naia ??cieoey oac ? iaaecae/aeii /ooeeaith aei aeaniiai iaai?oiiai iiey aeeneiaoeaiiai no?oio. A ?acoeueoao?, ye iieacaii a ?icae?e? 8, aieueo – aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea c?acea noa? ?noioii iae?i?eiith c ae?eyieaie c a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?aioe?eiith i?ia?aei?noth, ?, ye iane?aeie, a c?aceo niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny ca’ycai? aaoieieeaaiiy iai?oae, o?ainii?oiiai no?oio ? no?oio Aeaeicaoniia. A i?ae?icae?e? 8.1 i?eaaaeaii aiae?oe/iee ?ic?aooiie aoaeoo a?aaionueeeo inoeeeyoe?e eiiaeaeoaino G() ye a aae?noe/i?e, oae ? a aeeooci?e neooaoe?yo. ?icaeyaeoaaio eiio?ao?aoe?th iieacaii ia ?en.5. I?ae iaaei?ia?aeieeaie i?aeo?eio?oueny ??cieoey oac ; ii?iaeueia /anoeia ? c’?aeiaiith c aeaiia ?aca?aoa?aie ii?iaeueieo aeaeo?ii?a /a?ac iioaioe?aeuei? aa?’??e iecueei? i?ici?ino? tr << 1. I?ae ?aca?aoa?aie i?aeo?eio?oueny ??cieoey iioaioe?ae?a V, yea caaacia/o? o?ainii?oiee no?oi I=G()V /a?ac ii?iaeueio /anoeio S-N-S no?oeoo?e. A aae?noe/iiio aeiaaeeo ?c-ca iaiaaea- iino? ii?iaeueii? /anoeie no?oeoo?e ?oo eaac?/anoeiie ye a iiia?a/iiio oae ? a iicaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieao aeya- ey?oueny eaaioiaaiei. Caaaeyee Aiae???a- nueeiio a?aeaeooth ia N-S iaaeao i?e iic- aeiaaeiueiio ?on? eaac?/anoeiie aeieea- thoue Aiae???anuee? ??ai? [39], eio?? iiaeooue cnoaaoenue ??cieoeath oac . I?e = (2l+ 1) (l=0, 1, …)N Aiae???anueeeo ??ai?a (ii iaeiiio a eiaei?e iiia?a/i?e iiae?; e?euee?noue iiia?a/ieo iiae aei??aith? N = S/2F, aea S- ieiua N-S noeeo, F - aeiaaeeia oaee? aea-A?ieey) iio?aiey- thoue ia ??aaiue Oa?i?, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?en. 5 Noaiaoe/ia a?aaionueeiai i?eo a eiiaeaeoain? [37]. eiio?ao?aoe?y aenia- Oe?eia i?eo ii?yaeeo iaeiiaeaeo?iii?e ?eiaioo. i?ici?ino? aa?’???a tr, a aiie?ooaea aei-??aith? N 2e2/h o a?aeiia?aeiino? c N - e?aoiei ae?iaeaeaiiyi ??aiy. sse aoei iieacaii a i?ae?icae?e? 8.1 aoaeo a?aaionueeeo inoeeeyoe?e caa??aa?oueny ? a aeeoocieo c?aceao i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, iaioeo i?ae oaiia?aoo?a Oaoeana. Aiae?oe/iee ?ic?aooiie eiiaeaeoaino a oa?i?-iao aiie?ooaee ia?aoiaeo ye noie Oaeiiai?anueeeo eaac?eeane/ieo oeyo?a iieaco?, ui i?e ioeueia?e oaiia?aoo?? ? ca a?aenooiino? ii?iaeueiiai a?aeaeooy ia N-S iaaeao eiiaeaeoain ia? ?aciiainio oi?io ye a aae?noe/ieo, oae ? a aeeoocieo c?aceao [37,38]: G()=N(2e2/h) 2 tr2/(1+cos +2t r2 ) (9) A ?aae?noe/i?e neooaoe?? Aiae???anueea a?aeaeooy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ii?iaeueiei a?aeaeooyi ia N-S iaaeao ?c-ca iioaioe?aeueieo aa?’???a, ye? oai ?, aai ?c-ca ??cieoe? Oa?i??anueeeo oaeaeeinoae a iaoaeao aaoa?ino?oeoo?e. Oaea ?icn?yiiy cae/aeii iiaeaaeth? /ooeea?noue aeaeo?iiiiai niaeo?a aei ??cieoe? oac iaaei?ia?aeiee?a. A i?ae?icae?e? 1 ciaoiaeeoueny eiiaeaeoain S-N-S no?oeoo?e c a?aooaaiiyi ii?iaeueiiai ?icn?yiiy ia N-S iaae? c aiie?ooaeaie ?iia??iinoae rA ? rN / a?aeiia?aeii (rA 2+rN 2=1) ca i?eiouaiiyi rN << 1. O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei oi?ioee Eaaeaoa?a – Eaiaa?oa no?oi ? eiiaeaeoain aecia/athoueny ?iia??i?noth aeey aeaeo?iio ?c ?aca?aoa?a iiaa?iooenue a oie aea ?aca?aoa? ae??eith. Oey ?iia??i?noue iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia ye eaaae?ao iiaeoey eaac?eeane/ieo aiie?ooae aeey an?o iiaeeeaeo eeane/ieo oeyo?a aeaeo?iiiiai (ae??eiaiai) ?ooo ca aeaii? aia?a??, eio?? ii/eiathoueny ? cae?i/othoueny o i?aeaiae? aei ?aca?aoa?a (aeea. [38]). I?e oeueiio a i?ae?icae?e? 8.1 iieacaii, ui caaea/a aecia/aiiy ?iia??iino? aeey aeaeo?iia, yeee aoiaeeoue, iiaa?iooenue iacaae ae??eith caiaeeoueny aei ?aciiainiiai ooiaethaaiiy /a?ac eaaioiaee noai o iaeiii??iiio eaioethaeeo aa?’???a c iecueeith i?ici??noth, iieiaeaiiy yeeo ia oii?yaeeiaaii a i?inoi??. Oae? noaie, ye a?aeiii, ? eieae?ciaaieie, ? a ?icaeyaeoaaiiio aeiaaeeo ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaeythoue o? c ieo, eio?? ? eieae?ciaaieie iaaeiei ae?eyiee ?iaeaeoe??. Aeani? ??ai? oeeo noai?a – Aiae???anuee? ??ai? – noai?ththoue aeene?aoiee niaeo?, ? ?iia??i?noue T(E, ) ?aciiainiiai aeaeo?ii – ae??eiaiai ooiaethaaiiy /a?ac aia?aaoe/iee ??aaiue E iieno?oueny oi?ioeith A?aeoa – A?aia?a. Aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy iiaii? ?iia??iino? aeaeo?ii – ae??eiaiai ia?aoiaeo Teh (E) iaiao?aeii i?inoiiaoaaoe T(E, ) ii an?o ii/aoeiaeo oi/eao eaac?eeane/ieo o?a?eoi??e a ?aca?aoa??. Eeane/i? oeyoe, ye? ?icae?eythoueny a?aenoaiith a?eueoith i?ae F, cono??/athoue ??ci? “aeiaaeeia?” iaai?e aeii?oie, ?, ioaea, ?oi? aeiaaeeie oeyo?a ?iciiae?eai? aeiaaeeiai. Oiio i?aenoiiaoaaiiy ii ii/aoeiaeo oi/eao o?a?eoi??e ? aea?aaeaioiei ona?aaeiaiith ?iia??iino? ia?aoiaeo ii ?aae?caoe?yi aeiaaeei aeeooc?eieo oeyo?a Ln [38]. Aiae?oe/iee ?ic?aooiie iieaco?, ui ca oiia aoaeoo a?aaionueeeo inoeeeyoe?e eiiaeaeoain S-N-S aaoa?ino?oeoo?e ia? aeae yne?aai ae?aaeaiiai ?aciiainiiai i?eo c iaeneioiii i?e cia/aiiyo ??cieoe? oac iaaei?ia?aeiee?a, ??aiei iaia?iei /eneai. Ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo [22] ? aiae?oe/ii ciaeaeaieo caeaaeiinoae eii-aeaeoaino a?ae ??cieoe? oac ? oaiia?aoo?e i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en.6 A i?ae?icae?e? 8.2 – “Iaoeaiiae?a- ia AAO ? aaoieieeaaiiy o?ai- nii?oiiai no?oio ? oace ia?a- iao?a ii?yaeeo a S-N-S no?oe- oo??” – ?icaeyaea?oueny iaaei?i- a?aeia e?eueoea c iacineii?/iei naaiaioii ii?iaeueiiai iaoa- eo (?en.5). Ii?iaeueia /anoeia e?eueoey ? c’?aeiaiith c aeaiia ?a- ca?aoa?aie ii?iaeueieo aeaeo- ?ii?a, aei yeeo i?eeeaaeaia o?e- ?en.6 Caeaaeiino? eiiaeaeoaino niaaia ??cieoey iioaioe?ae?a V, a?ae oace ? aiie?ooaee inoeeeyoe?e ui caaacia/o? i?io?eaiiy a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. E?aiee - o?ainii?oiiai no?oio I1 /a?ac aenia?eiaio. Aania?aai? e?ea?- ii?iaeueiee naaiaio e?eueoey. oai??y. I?ae i?aeaiaeaie aei ?aca?aoa??a ? ii?iaeueiith ae?eyieith e?eueoey ? iioaioe?aeuei? aa?’??e iecueei? i?ici?ino? tr << 1, oae ui ? aeeiiaieie oiiae aeieeiaiiy aoaeoo a?aaionueeeo inoeeeyoe?e eiiaeaeoaino, ?icaeyiooiai o iiia?aaeiueiio ?icae?e?. ??cieoey oac ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo i?ae aeaiia N-S iaaeaie caaea?oueny iioieii iaai?oiiai iiey , yea i?iieco? e?eueoea. I?ae e?eueoeai ? eaioethaii o?ainii?oiiai no?oio (?aca?aoa? – i?aea?ae – ii?iaeueia ae?eyiea e?eueoey – i?aea?ae – ae?oaee ?aca?aoa?) ? ?iaeoeoea-iee ca’ycie. A i?ae?icae?e? 8.2 aeaaaeaii iiaio nenoaio ??aiyiue, yea iieno? ianoaoe?iia?io aeaeo?iaeeiai?eo iaaei?ia?aeiiai e?eueoey c o?ainii?oiei no?oiii /a?ac ii?iaeueiee naaiaio a iueiio. Ia-/eneaio a i?ae?icae?e? 8.2 noaoe/io AAO noaiaoe/ii i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en.7. I/aaeaeii, ui ?nioaaiiy ae?ey- iie AAO c a?ae’?iiei aeeoa- ?aioe?eiei iii?ii iiaea i?e- aiaeeoe aei niiioaiiiai ae- ieeiaiiy aaoieieeaaiue a nen- oai?. A i?ae?icae?e? 8.2 aeine?ae- aeaii eieaeueio noae?noue noa- oe?iia?iiai noaio nenoaie ? ciaeaeaii cia/aiiy ia?aiao- ??a, ca yeeo oeae noai aoaeoue noae?noue ? a nenoai? niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny ia??iaee/i? ca /anii iae?i?ei? ca’ycai? eiee- ?en.7 Iaoeaiiae?aia AAO aaiiy o?ainii?oiiai no?oio, iai?oae ? no?oio Aeaeicaoniia. ?ic?aooiie iieaco?, ui iaene-iaeueii iiaeeeaa /anoioa aaoieieeaaiue aeinyaa?oueny ca oiia aoaeoo a?aaionueeeo inoeeeyoe?e o c?aceao iacineii?/ieo ?ici???a i?e cia/aiiyo ?iaeoeoeaiino? eff 10- 4 ni. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo /anoioa aaoieieeaaiue o?ainii?oiiai no?oio ? ??cieoe? oac ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iaaei?ia?aeieea ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeano? /anoio max 1012 n-1. O Aeniiaeo noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE I. A?aee?eoi ? aea/aii iae?i?eia yaeua a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao – ?icaeoie ianoaeino? iaeii??aeiiai ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? niiioaiii? aaia?aoe?? aeiiai?a aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, ye? ?ooathoueny, iaoiiaeaiee aiiiaeueiith /ooeea?noth e?iaoeee iaoae?a aei neaaeeo ciai?oi?o aieea?a a oiiaao aaaaoieaiaeueiiai ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a 1) i?e iaai?oiiio i?iai? , 2) i?e ?icn?yii? ia eiaa?aioi?e iaae? aea?eieeoaaiiy e?enoaeo, eiee aeeiai?ea ? e?iaoeea aeaeo?ii?a ia? nooo?ai eaaioiaee ?ioa?oa?aioe?eiee oa?aeoa?. Oea yaeua a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae naiai iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai aiaeiaa ia o?eueee aaiacenii AAO N-oeio, aea e oei , ui ?icaeoie aeaeo?e/ii? ianoaeino? a iaoae? caaaeaee a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e aaeueie iaeeo iai?oaeaiinoyo aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (? no?oiao aeniei? aonoeie) a oiiaao eieaeueii? aeaeo?iiaeo?aeueiino? c?acea. ??. A?aee?eoi ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo-?e/io aeiiaiio, oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiao oio?iao ? aaoieiee-aaeueio ianoaeino? a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao, ye? aeieeathoue ca ?aooiie aeaeieoeaaa ?ic?a??ao c?acea a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, a ye?e i?ia?aei?noue iaoaeo ia? ??ceo oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue. Aea/aii no?oeoo?o niiioaiii aeieeath/eo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a, ye? ?ooathoueny, oaiia?aoo?ii – no?oiiaeo oio??a ? aaoieieeaaiue no?oio ? oaiia?aoo?e, ? ciaeaeaii caeaaei?noue ?oi?o ia?aiao??a a?ae o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoaeo. Io?eiaii e?eoa??? noaeino? ciaeaeaieo aeiiai?a, oio??a ? aaoieieeaaiue. ?icaeiooi aae?aaaoe/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey? iiai?noth aeine?aeeoe e?iaoeeo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a iaei? aiie?ooaee ? aaoieieeaaiue oaiia?aoo?e ? no?oio i?e aaeeeeo ?iaeoeoeaiinoyo aeaeo?e/iiai eiea. Cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaii aeaa iiaeo o?ce/ieo iaoai?ci?a, yee i?eaiaeyoue aei iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao oa ?acenoeaieo aeiiai?a a iaaei?ia?aeieeao. ???. Ia?aaeaa/aii ? aea/aii aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o a?a?eaeii? no?oeoo?e ii?iaeueiee iaoae – iaaei?ia?aeiee – ii?iaeueiee iaoae (N-S-N no?oeoo?a), i?e yeiio ia?ao?ae iaaei?ia?aeii? /anoeie c?acea o ii?iaeueiee noai noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi iiaiiai iii?o no?oeoo?e, ui a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey aeieeiaiiy ??cieo iae?i?eieo aoaeo?a. Cie?aia, iiaeeco e?eoe/iiai no?oio iaaei?ia?aeieea aieueo – aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea N-S-N no?oeoo?e ia? S - iiae?aiee aeae, ? a i?e niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny aaoieieeaaiiy o?ainii?oiiai no?oio, iai?oae ? ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iaaei?ia?aeieea. ?V. Oai?aoe/ii a?aee?eoi ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii yaeua a?-aaionueeeo inoeeeyoe?e eiiaeaeoaino ii?iaeueiiai iaoaeo iacinei-i?/ieo ?ici???a, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny o noeeaii? c aeaiia aai a?eueoa iaaei?ia?aeieeaie. Oea yaeua, c iaeiiai aieo, a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey niaeo?ineii?? Aiae???anueeeo ??ai?a, a c ae?oai? – i?eaiaeeoue aei iao?ea?aeueii? aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee iacineii?/ieo nenoai, oiio ui aeeneiaoeaiee no?oi, yeee oa/a /a?ac c?acie, aeyaey?oueny aiiiaeueii /ooeeaei aei ??cieoe? oac i?ae iaaei?ia?aeieeaie, a oie /an ye naia ??cieoey oac ? iaaecae/aeii /ooeeaith aei aeaniiai iaai?oiiai iiey aeeneiaoeaiiai no?oio. Cie?aia, aieueo – aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea c?acea noaiiaeoueny ?noioii iae?i?eiith c ae?eyieaie c a?ae’?iiith aeeoa?aioe?eiith i?ia?aei?noth, ? a c?aceo niiioaiii ?icaeaathoueny ca’ycai? aaoieieeaaiiy iai?oae, o?ainii?oiiai no?oio ? no?oio Aeaeicaoniia. I?e oeueiio iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa /anoioa aaoieieeaaiue aeyaey?oueny a aaaeei aeinyaei?e ?ioeie iaoiaeaie iaeano? /anoio max 1012 n-1. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o ?iaioao: 1. Neooeeei A.A., Eaaeea?iaia A.I. Yeaeo?e/aneea aeiiaiu a iaoaeeao i?e ieceeo oaiia?aoo?ao // Ienueia a AEYOO, 1978, o. 28, ?4, N.219 - 222. 2. Neooeeei A. A., Eaaeea?iaia A. I. Iiaue oei eaaioiauo ?acia?iuo yooaeoia a iaoaeeao i?e ca?eaeueiii io?aaeaiee yeaeo?iiia io a?aieoe ia?acoea // Ienueia a AEYOO, 1980, o. 32, N.363 - 366. 3. Ai?aeee E.TH. e Eaaeea?iaia A.I I oaiia?aoo?iie caae-neiinoe eeiaoe/aneeo eiyooeoeeaioia naa?oi?iaiaeieeia a i?i-iaaeooi/iii ninoiyiee // OIO, 1981, o. 7, N.131 - 134. 4. Eaaeea?iaia A.I., Neooeeei A.A., E?eaioae E. A. Oaiia?a-oo?ii-yeaeo?e/aneea aeiiaiu a iaoaeee/aneeo i?iaiaeieeao // AEYOO, 1984, o. 807, ? 4(10), C.1314-1329. 5. Eaaeea?iaia A. I., Eioeei E. A. Eiaa?aioiua eeiaoeea e oa?iiaeeiaieea a i?iaiaeyueo naeaieieeiaaiiuo ieanoeiao // OIO, 1986, o. 12, ? 4, N.437 - 440. 6. Eaaeea?iaia A. I., Oecyi TH. I., Eiaaeiia E. E. Oaiia?aoo?ii - yeaeo?e/aneea aaoieieaaaiey a iaoaeeao n io?eoeaoaeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie i?iaiaeeiinoueth // OIO, 1986, o. 12, ? 2, N.211-214. 7. Eaaeea?iaia A. I., Oecyi TH. I., Eiaaeiia E. E. Iaeeiaeiua eieaaaiey oiea e oaiia?aoo?u a i?iaiaeieeao n N-ia?aciie AAO // OTT, 1986, o. 28, ? 11, N.3380 - 3388. 8. Oecyi TH. I., Eiaaeiia E. E., Eaaeea?iaia A.I. ?aeaena-oeeiiiua oaiia?aoo?ii-yeaeo?e/aneea aaoieieaaaiey a eiaeoeoeaii ?acia?aaaaiuo i?iaiaeieeao. // OIO, 1986, o. 12, ?12, N.1248 - 1254. 9. Eaaeea?iaia A. I. Nii?ioeaeaiea N - S a?aieoeu, iaon-eiaeaiiia "neieuecyueie" yeaeo?iiaie, e S - ia?aciay aieueo-aiia?iay oa?aeoa?enoeea // OIO, 1988, o. 14, N.427- 430. 10. Obolenskii M. A., Bondarenko A. V., Kadygrobov A. M., Mironov O. A., Chistiakov S. V., Skrylev I. Yu., and Petrusenko Yu. T. Anomalous anisotropic current-voltage characteristics and magnetic resistance of single crystals YBa2 Cu3O7- // Proceeding of the LT 19 Satellite Conference "High Temperature Superconductivity" edited by J. Evetts, 1990, p. S298-S300. 11. Aiiaea?ue A. A., Eaaeea?iaia A. I., Ii?aoi A. I., *aaioaaa I. I. S-ia?aciua aieueo-aiia?iua oa?aeoa?enoeee a -ieiaa a neeueiuo iaaieoiuo iieyo // Iaoaeeioeceea, 1991, o. 13, N.49-53. 12. Ii?aoi A. I., Aiiaea?ue A. A., Eaaeea?iaia A. I., *aaioaaa I. I. Oaiia?aoo?ii - oieiaua oio?u a iaoaeea a neeueiii iaaieoiii iiea. // OOO, 1992, o. 35, N.59 - 64. 13. Eaaeea?iaia A. I. Iiiaie?aoiia ?annayiea yeaeo?iia ia i?eiane e N-S a?aieoea. Io?eoeaoaeueiay aeeooa?aioeeaeueiay i?i-aiaeeiinoue N-S-N nenoaiu // OIO, 1993, o. 19, N.943 - 945 14. Eaaeea?iaia A.M., Neooeeei A. A. Naa?oauno?ua oaiia?a-oo?ii-yeaeo?e/aneea aeiiaiu a iaoaeeao // OIO, 1994, o. 20, N.283 - 285. 15. Kadigrobov A., Zagoskin A., Shekhter R. I., and Jonson M. Giant conductance oscillations controlled by supercurrent flow through a ballistic mesoscopic conductor // Phys. Rev. B, 1995, v. 52, ?12, p. R8662 - 8665. 16. Kadigrobov A., Shekhter R.I., Jonson M. Excess resistance effect in a normal metal contacting a superconductor // Physica B, Condensed Matter, 1996, v. 218, p. 134 - 137. 17. Blom H.A., Kadigrobov A., Zagoskin A.M., Shekhter R.I., and Jonson M. Dissipative electron transport through Andreev interferometers // Phys. Rev. B, 1998, v.57, p. 9995 - 10 016. 18. Kadigrobov A. Superfast motion of resistive domains in ani-sotropic superconductors caused by eddy currents // Journal of Physics: Cond. Matter, 1999, v. 11, p. 2619 - 2624. 19. Kadigrobov A. Temperature - Current Filament Instability in a Plate of Anisotropic Normal Metal // Physica Status Solidi (b), 1998, v. 207, p. 437 - 447. 20. Kadigrobov A., Gorelik L.Y., Shekhter R.I., and Jonson M. Resonant tunneling through Andreev levels. // Superlattices and Microstructures 1999, v. 25, ? 5/6, p. 764-771. 21. Eaaeea?iaia A. I. E aii?ino aicieeiiaaiey naycaiiuo ninoiyiee a yooaeoa Eiiaei // OIO, 1975, o. 1, N420-427. 22. Ivanov Z., Shekhter R., Kadigrobov A., Claeson T., Jonson M. Patent “Superconducting transistor” ? 9804088 registered 27 November 1998. Eaaeea?iaia Aiaoie?e Ieoaeeiae/. Aeaeo?e/ia ianoae?noue a iaoaeao oa aaoa?ino?oeoo?ao ii?iaeueiee iaoae – iaaei?ia?aeiee. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei – iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.02 - oai?aoe/ia o?ceea. O?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ?i. A. ?. A??e?ia IAI Oe?a?ie. Oa?e?a, Oe?a?ia, 1999. A aeena?oaoe?? a?aee?eoi ? aeine?aeaeaii niiioaiio aaia?aoe?th aeiiai?a aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, ye? ?ooathoueny, no?oiiaeo oio??a ? aeaeo?e/ieo aaoieieeaaiue a ii?iaeueieo iaoaeao a oiiaao iaa-i?oiiai i?iaith, i?e ?icn?yii? aeaeo?ii?a ia iaae? aea?eieea ? i?e aeaeioeaaiio ?ic?a??a? a iaeano? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?. Cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaii aeaa o?ce/ieo iaoai?cie, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei iaaeoaeaeeiai ?ooo oaiia?aoo?ii – aeaeo?e/ieo aeiiai?a. Ia?aaeaa/aii ? aeine?aeaeaii aoaeo iaaei??iiai iii?o no?oeoo? ii?iaeueiee iaoae-iaaei?ia?aeiee-ii?iaeueiee iaoae, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo aaoieieeaaiue o?ainii?oiiai no?oio, iai?oae ? ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo iaaei?ia?aeieea. A?aee?eoi ? aeieeaaeii aeine?aeaeaii yaeua a?aaionueeeo inoeeeyoe?e eiiaeaeoaina a no?oeoo?ao iaaei?ia?aeiee-ii?iaeueiee i?ia?aeiee-iaaei?ia?aeiee, yea i?eaiaeeoue aei niiioaiiiai ?icaeoeo aaoieieeaaiiy iai?oae, o?ainii?oiiai ? Aeaeicaonii?anueeiai no?oi?a. Iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa /anoioa aaoieieeaaiue ~ 1012 n-1. Eaaeea?iaia Aiaoieee Ieoaeeiae/. Yeaeo?e/aneay iaonoie-/eainoue a iaoaeeao e aaoa?ino?oeoo?ao ii?iaeueiee iaoaee – naa?oi?iaiaeiee. ?oeiienue. A aeenna?oaoeee ioe?uoa e enneaaeiaaia niiioaiiay aaia?aoeey aeaeaeoueony aeiiaiia yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey, oieiauo oio?ia e yeaeo?e/aneeo aaoieieaaaiee a ii?iaeueiuo iaoaeeao a oneiaeyo iaaieoiiai i?iaiy, i?e ?annayiee yeaeo?iiia ia a?aieoea aeaieieeiaaiey e i?e aeaeioeaaii ?acia?aaa a iaeanoe ieceeo oaiia?aoo?. I?aaeeiaeaiu e enneaaeiaaiu aeaa oece/aneeo iaoaiecia, i?eaiaeyuea e naa?oauno?iio aeaeaeaieth oaia?aoo?ii-yeaeo?e/aneeo aeiiaiia. I?aaeneacai e eco/ai yooaeo ecauoi/iiai nii?ioeaeaiey no?oeoo? ii?iaeueiue iaoaee-naa?oi?iaiaeiee-ii?iaeueiue iaoaee, i?eaiaeyuee e ?acaeoeth aaoieieaaaiee o?ainii?oiiai oiea, iai?yaeaiey e ia?aiao?a ii?yaeea naa?oi?iaiaeieea. Ioe?uoi e enneaaeiaaii yaeaiea aeaaioneeo inoeeeeyoeee eii-aeaeoaina a no?oeoo?ao naa?oi?iaiaeiee-ii?iaeueiue i?iaiaeiee-naa?oi?iaiaeiee, i?eaiaeyuaa e niiioaiiiio ?acaeoeth aaoieiea-aaiey iai?yaeaiey, o?ainii?oiiai e Aeaeicaoniiianeiai oieia. Iaeneiaeueii aciiaeiay /anoioa aaoieieaaaiee 1012 nae-1. Kadigrobov A. M. Electric instability in metals and normal metal-superconductor heterostructures. Manuscript. In the thesis, electric instabilities result in spontaneous generation of moving electric domains, current filaments and dissipative self-oscillations are predicted and investigated in normal metals and normal conductor-superconductor heterostructures. This phenomenon differs from its superconductor analogue not only in the genesis of the non-linear CVC having a negative differential conductivity but in that the instability develops under weak electric fields and large currents. New physical effects that provide the basis for some types of electric instabilities in these materials are suggested and studied. In normal metals two types of physical mechanisms resulting in the CVC with a negative differential conductivity are shown to take place. One of them is of the quantum nature. It is based on the super-high sensitivity of electron kinetics to the effect of relatively weak external fields under conditions of a) the coherent magnetic breakdown and b) the two-channel scattering of electrons at coherent twin boundaries. The second type is of a macroscopic character: N- and S- shaped CVC occur due to Joule heating of the metal up to the temperatures at which the resistivity is mainly determined by the electron-phonon interaction and therefore increases with an increase in the electric field. The structure of the mobile electric domains and current filaments under such conditions is investigated and the dependence of the parameters of physical characteristics of the metal is found. The criteria for TED stability are found. Two new physical mechanisms of superfast motion of TED in anisotropic metals and resistive domains in superconductors are suggested and studied. It is also shown that thermal-electric self-oscillations can be generated in normal metals under the Joule heating. An excess resistance effect in normal metal-superconductor-normal metal heterostructures is predicted and investigated. Under this effect the transition of the superconducting part of the sample into the normal state causes a decrease in the total resistance of the structure. As a result, in the vicinity of the superconductor critical current the CVC of the structure is S-shaped that causes spontaneous arising of self-oscillations of the transport current, voltage, and the superconductor order parameter. A phenomenon of giant conductance oscillations with a change in the phase difference between the superconductors in superconductor - normal conductor - superconductor structures is discovered and investigated. The amplitude of these oscillations exceeds the one of the analogous Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in normal metal rings by several orders of magnitude. This phenomenon opens up fresh opportunities for spectroscopy of Andreev levels and on the other hand, it leads to non-trivial electrodynamics of mesoscopic systems because the dissipative current through the normal part turns out to be extremely sensitive to the superconductor phase difference while the phase difference itself is extremely sensitive to the proper magnetic field of the dissipative current. In particular, the CVC becomes substantially non-linear having loops in its curve. As a result, self-oscillations of the voltage dissipative and Josephson currents spontaneously arise. The frequency of these self-oscillations can be varied in a wide range while in mesoscopic samples the maximal possible frequency occured to be of the order of 1012 sec-1 that is extremely difficult to get by other methods. The following predictions and conclusions made in this thesis have already been confirmed in experiments. 1) The TED instability resulting in arising of domains of the electric field and temperature in normal metals at low temperatures. 1) Dissipative self-oscillations of the current, voltage, and temperature under Joule heating of the normal metal at low temperatures. 3) The temperature-current filament instability. 4) A decrease in the total resistance of a normal conductor-superconductor-normal conductor structures after transition of the superconducting part of that into the normal state. 5) Dissipative self-oscillations of the current, voltage, and the superconductor order parameter in N-S-N structures in the vicinity of the superconductor critical current. 6) The giant amplitude of conductance oscillations with a change in the phase difference between the superconductors in S-N-S structures. This phenomenon was observed for both diffusive and ballistic normal parts of the structure. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical calculations made in the thesis shows a good agreement between the experiment and the theory. A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione A.?. Eiiaeueiae/ I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 29.09.99 Oi?iao 60x90/16. O?c.ae?.a?. 2, iae.aeae.a?. 2. Caiiaeaiiy ? 37-99 Oe?aae 100 i?ei. ?ioai?eio OO?IO IAI Oe?a?ie. 310164, i?. Eai?ia 47

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