Дослідження високотемпературних процесів взаємодії азоту з розплавами і розробка способу легування азотом сталей при дугошлаковому переплаві: Автореф.

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia

IIIA??I TH??e Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 669.187.56.001.5

AeINE?AeAEAIIss AENIEIOAIIA?AOO?IEO I?IOeAN?A ACA?IIAe?? ACIOO C
?ICIEAAAIE ? ?IC?IAEA NIINIAO EAAOAAIIss ACIOII NOAEAE I?E
AeOAIOEAEIAIIO IA?AIEAA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16.07

«Iaoaeo?a?y aeniei/enoeo iaoae?a ? niaoe?aeueieo nieaa?a »

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I.Iaoiia IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, /e.-ei??. IAI Oe?a?ie
A?EAI?AIEI Aai?a?e .Ieoaeeiae/,

?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee
a?aeae?eii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie AeOAeEI Aeaieei
Aiae??eiae/, ?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie,
?aaeiee.

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie IAEAeAE Aieiaeeie?
Eaiio?eiae/, O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a oa nieaa?a IAI
Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?.

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? *AIO?IEE Aiaoie?e .Aeaieeiae/, AAO
Aieiaiee niaoe?ae?ciaaiee eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo,
aee?aeoi?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y, eaoaae?a
aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a??, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «6» 10 1999 a. i 10.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.182.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I.Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252650, Ee?a
– 5, INI, aoe. Aiaeaiea, 11.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
?inoeoooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I.Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «27» 07 1999 a.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe E??a?a E.N.

22

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia?aaoaeiaa i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, ia?ao?ae ia
?eieia? a?aeiineie aeiaaa? ia?ainiauaiiy i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa,
aeiaaaeaiiy oaoi?/iiai ??aiy i?iaeoeoe?? aei na?oiaeo noaiaea?o?a.
I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ? iaa?ae’?iiith oiiaith
i?ia?ano an?o aaeocae oaoi?ee.

Aeiiae aei yeino? iaoaeo iano?eueee aenie?, ui ?i caaeiaieueiy? o?eueee
iaoae, i?aeaeaiee iiaoi?iiio ?ao?ioth/iio ia?aieaao. Aeey oeeo oe?eae
cae/aeii canoiniaothoue aaeooiiiaeoaiaee, aeaeo?ioeaeiaee,
ieaciiaiaeoaiaee, aeaeo?iiiii?iiaiaaee ia?aieaae, aaeooiii?iaeoeoe?eio
ieaaeo oa eiia?iiaai? i?ioeane.

Iniaeeaa ?ieue a i?aeaeuaii? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoaeo, oa
a noai?aii? iiaiai eeano iaoa??ae?a iaeaaeeoue acioo. Aeei?enoaiiy eiai
ye eaaoth/iai aeaiaioo o aenieieaaiaaieo noaeyo ? nieaaao ? iaeiei c
ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yi?a a ??oaii? oe??? aaaeeeai? caaea/?.

Noai?aiiy oa ae?iaieoeoai aenieiacioenoeo noaeae a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y
i?oeii caoaa?aeeeinue ye iaeei c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo
niaoe?aeueii? Aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? a na?o?. ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? aeieaaee
noaeae ?c caaeaiei ai?noii acioo a ??cieo iaoaeo?a?eieo aa?aaaoao, yaey?
niaith aeooaeueio oa ia?niaeoeaio caaea/o. Noae? c acioii aeieaaeythoue
a aeoaiaeo ia/ao, aeei?enoiaoth/e acioiaai? oa?inieaae o?iio, aaiaae?th
oa ia?aaiaoeue, eiee iio??aii io?eiaoe ai?no acioo ia ??ai?, ui ia
ia?aaeuo? noaiaea?oii? ?ic/eiiino?. Aeey io?eiaiiy noaeae ? nieaa?a c
iaae??aiiaaaeiei acioii aeei?enoiaothoue ieaaeeuei? aa?aaaoe, ui
i?aoeththoue i?e i?aeaeuaiiio oeneo acioo. Oea onoaiiaee aeey eeooy c
i?ioeoeneii, oa eaia?i? ia/? AOI, ye? i?aoeththoue i?ae oeneii acioo aei
40aoi oa aeei?enoiaothoue a yeino? aeiaaaee, ui i?noeoue acio i?o?eae
e?aii?th. Aeey oeeo aea oe?eae canoiniaothoue ieaciiaiaeoaiaee ia?aieaa
(IAeI), i?e yeiio iaoae eaaothoue acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai?
oace, a oaeiae eiai ??ciiaeae – ia?aieaa aeo?aoiiai ieaciio?iia (IAI).
Eiaeiee c oeeo niinia?a ia? ye iiceoeai? oae ? iaaaoeai? noi?iie, ye?
iaiaaeothoue ?o canoinoaaiiy a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo. Cie?aia
iaaeie?eii oaoiieia?? eeooy c i?ioeoeneii ? AOIO ? aeei?enoaiiy
oa?inieaa?a, ui i?noyoue acio. Oea ia aeicaiey? a aeinoaoi?e i???
eiio?iethaaoe ai?no acioo a iaoae? oa aa?aiooaaoe iaeii??aei?noue ai?noo
eiai ii aenio? ? ia?aoeio ceeoea. Eaaoaaiiy i?o?eaeii e?aii?th cia/ii
i?aeaeuo? ai?no e?aii?th a iaoae?, ui iaaaaeaii aeey aaaaoueio ia?ie
noaeae. Oe? i?ioeane aeineoue aia?ai?ii?.

I?ioean ieaciiaiaeoaiaiai ia?aieaao oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith ieoiiith
aeo?aoith aeaeo?iaia?a?? ? cae?enith?oueny ia neeaaeiiio iaeaaeiaii?,
ui aei?iai eiooo?. A?aenooi?noue iaae?eieo ieaciio?ii?a, caeaoieo
i?aoethaaoe o?eaaeee /an a aoiinoa?? acioo i?e i?aeaeuaiiio oeneo
?iaeoue canoinoaaiiy IAeI aaaeeei. E??i oiai, aeei?enoaoe oaoiieia?th
IAeI ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie iiee ia iiaeeeai, a ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth
ieaciiaiaeoaiaeo ia/ae, caeaoieo aeieaaeyoe noae?, ui i?noyoue acio.

Ia?aieaa aeo?aoiiai ieaciio?iia iicaaaeaiee aeacaieo iaaeie?e?a. Iaeiae,
iayai?noue ei?iie ia ceeoeao oa iaiao?aei?noue iaia’yceiai iaoe
ii?iaeieno? aeaeo?iaee a na?e /an iaiaaeeee canoinoaaiiy oeueiai
aeaeyaeo ia?aieaao.

Aaeueie ia?niaeoeaiei aeey io?eiaiiy noaeae ?c caaeaiei ai?noii acioo ?
aeoaioeaeiaee ia?aieaa, yeee aoa ?ic?iaeaiee a ?AC a?ey 20 ?ie?a oiio.
O iueiio aaeaei ii?aeiothoueny ia?aaaae ieaciiaiaeoaiaiai oa
aeaeo?ioeaeiaiai ia?aieaa?a, ui aeicaiey? ia?aieaaeyoe caaioiaee ??cii?
eiio?ao?aoe?? oa io?eioaaoe ceeoee ??ciiai ia?aoeio, ui i?noyoue acio
i?e a?aeiinii iaaaeeeeo aia?aiaeo?aoao.

Iaoa ?iaioa ?icaeaaeany a aeaio iai?yieao: oa?iiaeeiai?/iiio oa
e?iaoe/iiio. Oa?iiaeeiai?/i? aeai? aoee iaiao?aei? aeey oiai, uia
neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i e?ioeaaee ai?no acioo a ??cieo iaoaeao oa nieaaao,
a?aeiia?aei? ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? ai?noo acioo a ?icieaaao a?ae
ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo eiai a aacia?e oac?, oaiia?aoo?e oa neeaaeo noaeae,
ui ia?aieaaeythoueny. Oa?iiaeeiai?/i? aeai? aeacoaaee iai iaoo, aei
yei? iio??aii i?aaiooe, eaaoth/e iaoae acioii c aaciai? oace a i?ioean?
ia?aieaao. Aeai? c e?iaoeee i?ioeano aca?iiae?? acioo c iaoaeii
aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ia ye?e noaae?? ia?aieaao eaea i?ioean
aciooaaiiy, oa yea noaae?y, c oi/ee ci?o e?iaoeee, iineoue i?aeeaaeee
oa?aeoa?. E?iaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee iai aecia/eoe, c oi/ee
ci?o aciooaaiiy, iaea?eueo iia?eueio noaae?th a i?ioean? ia?aieaao oa
aeacaoe ia iiaeeea? oeyoe ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oeueiai i?ioeano. Oaeei /eiii,
yeui oa?iiaeeiai?ea iniiaieo ?aaeoe?e i?e aeoaiaiio ia?aieaa? a
aoiinoa?? acioo aeaco? iiaeeeaino? i?ioeano, oi e?iaoe/i? /eiieee
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c iiaiioith i?io?eaiiy ?aaeoe?e oa
i?iaeoeoeai?noth ia?aieaao.

?yae oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c aca?iiae??th aac?a c ?icieaaaie,
aoa a?aeia?aaeaiee a eieaao Eaeiinueeiai A.?., A?eai?aiea A.I., ??io?ia
A.A., Noiiao?ia A.ss., A?eai?yia A.A., Eaoeia A.?., a ?yae oaoiieia?/ieo
ieoaiue — a ?iaioao Iaaeiaa?a A.?., Eeth?aa I.?., Eaoaoa TH.A. oa ?ioeo
a/aieo, i?aoethth/eo a oe?e iaeano?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiaiith iaoith ?iaioe ?
aenieioaiia?aoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?ee oa e?iaoeee aca?iiae??
acioo c ??aeeeie iaoaeaie ? nieaaaie a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?,
oene?a oa eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a ? ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? ?
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao noaeae oa nieaa?a, ii?aeiaiiai
c eaaoaaiiyi acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace.

A?aeiia?aeii aei aeacaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??ooaaeeny ianooii? caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe oa?iiaeeiai?eo ? e?iaoeeo iiaeeiaiiy acioo ??aeeeie iaoaeaie
? nieaaaie a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?, oene?a ? eiioeaio?aoe?e
eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

2. ?ic?aooaaoe oa?iiaeeiai?/i? oa e?iaoe/i? eiinoaioe, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?ioean ?ic/eiaiiy acioo. Io?eiaoe /eneia? cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino? ? ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? acioo ? ?o oaiia?aoo?i?
caeaaeiino?.

3. Ooi/ieoe eiao?oe??ioe a aiae?oe/iiio ??aiyii? aeey ?ic?aooieo
?ic/eiiino? acioo a aoaeue-yeiio aaaaoieiiiiiaioiiio nieaa? ia iniia?
cae?ca.

4. Aeine?aeeoe aieea neeaae?a oeaeo, aaciai? aoiinoa?e ? ?ioeo
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a AeOI ia i?ioean iiaeeiaiiy acioo ?icieaaaie.

5. ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue iiaeeiaiiy acioo ??aeeei iaoaeii a
i?ioean? ia?aieaao oa aei?iaoaaoe ?? a ?aaeueieo oiiaao ieaaee.

6. ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao noaeae oa nieaa?a,
eaaiaaieo acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?ic?aoiaai? aieiai? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? eiinoaioe, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?ioean ?ic/eiaiiy acioo, io?eiai? ocaaaeueithth/?
caeaaeiino? oaieioe ci?ooaaiiy oa eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino? acioo a?ae
ai?noo oa aeaeo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae /enaeuei? cia/aiiy
ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? acioo ia?oiai, ae?oaiai oa o?aoueiai ii?yaee?a ?
?o oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue.

Oia?oa oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaii cia/aiiy aaee/eie ia?oe?aeueii?
noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? acioo. Oea aeicaieeei ioe?ieoe aeinoia??i?noue
oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo eiinoaio ?ic/eiiino? acioo.

Io?eiai? iia? aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aieea
neeaaeo oeaeo oa aaciai? aoiinoa?e ia e?iaoeeo i?ioeano iiaeeiaiiy acioo
?icieaaaie i?e ?iaeoeoe?eiiio oa aeoaiaiio ieaaeaii?.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, ui iieno? e?iaoeeo iiaeeiaiiy acioo
?icieaaii ia ??cieo noaae?yo ia?aieaao a caeaaeiino? a?ae iniiaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a AeOI.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. Ia iniia? nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic/eiiino?
acioo oa cai?iiiiiaai?e iaoaiaoe/i?e iiaeae? iiaeeiaiiy acioo ?ic?iaeaia
oaoiieia?y aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao noaeae ? nieaa?a, c iaeii/aniei
eaaoaaiiyi ?o acioii, aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?eyee aaeineiiaeaiith ieaaeeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, oa noai?aiith iiaeo
aeoaioeaeiaeo ia/ae, ui aeicaieythoue aeieaaeyoe ceeoee ??ciiai ia?aoeio
i?ae i?aeaeuaiei oeneii acioo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

· oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic/eiiino? acioo a
??aeeeo iaoaeao ? nieaaao a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?, oene?a ?
eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee ? aiae?oe/ia
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y anoaiiaeaii? caeaaeiino?;

· oai?aoe/iee ?ic?aooiie ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? acioo oa
ii??aiyiiy ?? c io?eiaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie cia/aiiyie;

· oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao neeaae?a oeae?a,
aaciai? aoiinoa?e ? ?ioeo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a AeOI ia i?ioean
iiaeeiaiiy acioo ?icieaaii. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee, iaeaaeiaiiy ? aiae?oe/ia
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae;

· ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? iiaeeiaiiy acioo a i?ioean? ia?aieaao ?
?? aei?iaoaaiiy a ?aaeueieo oiiaao ieaaee;

· ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? aeieaaee noaeae, ui i?noyoue acio, ?
eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue aeoaioeaeiaeo ia/ae, caniiaaieo ia
?ioaineo?eaoe?? aaciiai?iieo i?ioean?a.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue eyaee a iniiao ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia??
aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao noaeae ? nieaa?a, c iaeii/aniei eaaoaaiiyi ?o
acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace, ui aeicaiey? ia?aieaaeyoe
caaio?aee ??cii? eiio?ao?aoe?? ? io?eioaaoe ceeoee ??ciiai ia?aoeio i?e
a?aeiinii iecueeeo aia?aiaeo?aoao aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey oeeo oe?eae ia/?
AOI oa AAeI , ui ? a iayaiino?. Cae?eniaia aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa
ia?aa??ea niiniao AeOI ia eiie?aoieo ia?eao aenieiacioenoeo noaeae a
oiiaao aeine?aeiiai caaiaeo niaoe?aeueii? aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? ?AC, caaiaeo
«Aei?i?iniaoenoaeue» ? ia iaoaeo?a?eiiio caaiae? «Fortech Division
Airforge», i. Iaiuea, O?aioe?y. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y aeicaiey?
iiai?noth aeeeth/eoe oa?inieaae, ui i?noyoue acio, ye? aei?iai
eiooothoue, a oaeiae ieo?eae e?aii?th i?e ae?iaieoeoa? noaeae, ui
ai?uothoue acio.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ocaaaeueiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii, aai
a?oiith ni?a?ia?oiee?a i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii. O inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo
aaoi? oi?ioaaa caaea/o ? iinoaiiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?coaaa ?
ocaaaeueithaaa io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe. A?i a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a
eaai?aoi?ieo ? i?iieneiaeo ieaaeao aenieiacioenoeo noaeae iaoiaeii AeOI.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoee
aeieeaaeai? ? iaaiai?ai?:

— ia ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii iaoiaeao aecia/aiiy ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aac?a a iaoaeao (Iineaa 1971, 1973, 1988);

— ia i?aeia?iaeieo neiiic?oiao ii niaoe?aeuei?e aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? (Ee?a
1972, 1977);

— ia ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii o?ceei-o?i?/iei iniiaai iaoaeo?a?eieo
i?ioean?a (Iineaa 1971, 1991);

— ia ?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo ii i?aeaeuaiith yeino? eaaiaaieo
noaeae ? nieaa?a (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1985, 1986, 1987);

— ia eiioa?aioe?yo ii ieaciia?e iaoaeo?a?? (Iieueua 1987), ii
caa?thaaiith ? niaoe?aeuei?e aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? (Ee?a 1984) ? ieaciiaei
i?ioeanai (O?aioe?y 1995);

— ia ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo c aenieiacioenoeo noaeae (Ee?a 1990,
1992);

— ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii ??aeeei oeaeai ? oethnai (ssiii?y
1992) ? /eno?e noae? (Oai?ueia 1992);

— ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo c aenieiacioenoeo noaeae (Aieaa??y
1989, I?ia//eia 1990, Oe?a?ia 1993, ssiii?y 1995, O?ieyiae?y-Oaaoe?y
1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a 3
iiiia?ao?yo, 62 noaooyo, caoeuai? 11 aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie ? 6
ca?oa?aeieie iaoaioaie.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, e?oa?aoo?e (239 aeaea?ae) ?
aeiaeaoeo. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 382 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
aeeth/ath/e 63 oaaeeoe?, 102 iaethiee ? aeiaeaoeo (22 noi?.).

Caaaeueiee ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie
io?eiaiiy noaeae, ui i?noyoue acio. Noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ? caaea/?, ye?
iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue, i?eaaaeai? iaoeia? ?
i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Noai ieoaiiy aeieaaee aenieiacioenoeo noaeae. Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee
aiae?co ?nioth/eo niinia?a ae?iaieoeoaa aenieiacioenoeo noaeae ?
nieaa?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao a Oe?a?i?, oa ca
?oaaaeai. Iieacaii, ui aeaeo?ioeaeiaa oaoiieia?y i?ae oeneii a
aoiinoa??, ui i?noeoue acio, aeei?enoiao?oueny a aeae?eueeio aa??aioao ?
iiaea aooe ye iaeiinoaae?eiith, oae ? aeainoaae?eiith. Aieiaia ia?aaaaa
aeaeo?ioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao aeei?enoaiiy ia?aa??oiai aei aeineoue
aenieeo oaiia?aoo? neioaoe/iiai oeaeo, yeee aoaeoeaii caaacia/o?
?ao?ioaaiiy iaoaeo ? io?eiaiiy aacaeaoaeoii?, aeaaeei? iiaa?oi? ceeoea.
Ia?aaaaa AOI aeyaey?oueny oaeiae a i?inoio? iaeaaeiaiiy. Iaaeie?eii
oe??? oaoiieia?? ? a?aenooi?noue iiaeeeaino? aciooaaiiy iaoaeo c aaciai?
oace a i?ioean? ia?aieaao, ine?eueee iiaa?oiy ??aeeiai iaoaeo iiai?noth
cae?eoa oeaeii. Iane/aiiy iaoaeo acioii a oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeeeaa
o?eueee i?e aeei?enoaii? oaa?aeeo e?aaoo?, ui i?noyoue acio, iai?eeeaae,
acioiaai? oa?io?ii ? ia?aaiaoeue, a oaeiae ieo?eae e?aii?th. Ca?aene ?
na?eiciee iaaeie?e oe??? oaoiieia?? — o?i?/ia iaiaeii??aei?noue ceeoea,
ye ii iniiaieo eaaoth/eo eiiiiiaioao, oae ? ii acioo. Aeei?enoaiiy
i?o?eaeo e?aii?th i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo e?aii?th a
iaoae?, ui iaiaaeo? ni?oaiaio noaeae, ui aeieaaeythoueny.

I?e aeei?enoaii? ieaciiaiaeoaiai? oaoiieia?? cia/ii ni?iuo?oueny ?
?ioaineo?eo?oueny i?ioean aciooaaiiy ??aeeiai iaoaeo aaciina?aaeiuei c
aaciai? oace. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aaciiiae?aiee acio aaciina?aaeiuei
eiioaeoo? c ie?aeith ??aeeiai iaoaeo ? e?aieyie ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea, ui
ia?aieaaey?oueny, ? iiaa?oiath iaoaeaai? aaiie. Iayai?noue a aoiinoa??
ia/? acioo, iniaeeai i?e i?aeaeuaiiio oeneo, na?eiciei /eiii aieeaa? ia
iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe ieaciio?ii?a, yea ?noioii iaaea? a ca’yceo c
iecueeith no?ee?noth a oeeo oiiaao ieaciiaeo eaoiae?a.

E??i oiai, i?ioean ieaciiaiaeoaiaiai ia?aieaao oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aenieith ieoiiith aeo?aoith aeaeo?iaia?a?? ? cae?enith?oueny ia
neeaaeiiio ieaaeeueiiio iaeaaeiaii?, ui aei?iai eiooo?. Aeei?enoaoe
oaoiieia?th IAeI a Oe?a?i? iaiiaeeeai, a ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth
ieaciiaiaeoaiaeo ia/ae, caeaoieo aeieaaeyoe noae?, ui i?noyoue acio.
Ia?aieaa aeo?aoiiai ieaciio?iia a a?eueoino? nai?e iicaaaeaiee aeacaieo
iaaeie?e?a. A?i ii?aeio? a nia? iiaeeea?noue aciooaaiiy iaoaeo
aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace ? io?eiaiiy ceeoe?a c aenieith o?i?/iith
? no?oeoo?iith iaeii??aei?noth ia i?inoiio iaeaaeiaii?, ui ? ia
a?o/eciyieo caaiaeao. Aeey oeueiai iio??aia cai?ia ?nioth/iai iaoai?cio
ia?ai?uaiiy aeaeo?iaea ia ia/ao AAeI ia ooie, iniauaiee aacii?iaiaeii
aeey i?aeaaaeaiiy acioo a ?aaeoe?eio ciio ai??iiy aeoae. Aeo?aoa
aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?eaeecii a 1,5 ?ace ieae/a, i?ae i?e AOI ? iaaaaaoi
ieae/a, i?ae i?e IAeI. Iacaaaeath/e ia an? ia?aaaae, IAI ia? na?eiciee
iaaeie?e. O i?ioean? ia?aieaao ia no?ieao e?enoae?caoi?a ooai?th?oueny
ei?iia, ui neeaaea?oueny c eiiaeainiaaieo ia??a eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a Cr,
In ? o.i. Ii i??? iaieaaeaiiy ceeoea, iiaa?oiaaee oa? iino?eii
caaaa/o?oueny oeeie aeaiaioaie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo iaoaeo a iiaa?oiaaiio oa??. Oiio an? ceeoee i?ney ia?aieaao
iaaee?athoue. Aeey oeueiai i?ioeano iaiao?aeii iaia’yceiai iaoe
ii?iaeieno? aeaeo?iaee, ui naii ii nia? aei?iai ? aiineoue aeiaeaoeia?
oaoiieia?/i? o?oaeiiu?. E?eoe/iee aiae?c ?icaeyiooeo i?ioean?a iieacaa,
ui aeey ae?iaieoeoaa noaeae, ui i?noyoue acio, iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an
i?aaenoaaey? aeoaioeaeiaee ia?aieaa.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeano AeOI. O oeueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaii
oaiiiaiieia?/iee iien niiniao aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao ? i?eaaaeai?
??ci? noaie eiai ?aae?caoe??. ?icaeyiooi aeaeo?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo, iienaii iniaeeaino? ieaaeaiiy aeaeo?iaea ?
i?eaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao i?e AeOI.
Aeoaioeaeiaee ia?aieaa (AeOI) aeiee aiane?aeie ni?eueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae, ye aeaea?aea oaiea ? neioaoe/iiai oeaeo. Aeaeo?e/ia
aeoaa oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny a iaoaeo?a?? ? ? aoaeoeaiei ? /enoei
aeaea?aeii oaiea. Neioaoe/iee oeae, /a?ac yeee i?iionea?oueny no?oi,
?icina?aaeaeo? oaiei ii ia?aoeio ceeoea iacaeaaeii a?ae eiai oi?ie,
ni?ey? io?eiaiith aeaaeei? iiaa?oi?, ?ioaineo?eo? aeaye? iaoaeo?a?ei?
?aaeoe?? (aeeo/aiiy n??ee) ? ni?ey? noaa?e?caoe?? aeoae.

I?e aeoaioeaeiaiio ia?aieaa? aeaeo?iae, ui aeo?a/a?oueny, ieaaeoueny
aeoaith, ui ai?eoue i?ae aeaeo?iaeii ? iiaa?oiath oeaeo (iae. 1a). A
caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a i?ioeano aeoaa iiaea ai??oe ? i?ae
aeaeo?iaeii oa iiaa?oiath ??aeeiai iaoaeo, ui /anoeiai iaiey?oueny a?ae
oeaeo aiane?aeie oeneo noiaia aeoae. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo oeae iie?eaa?
eeoa ia?eoa??eio ciio iaoaeaai? aaiie (iae. 1a), ooai?thth/e e?eueoeaao
oeaeiao aaiio.

Aeey ia?aieaao iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeaeo?iaee, ui aeo?a/athoueny,
ye nooe?eueiiai ia?aoeio, oae ? ii?iaeieno?. Canoinoaaiiy ii?iaeienoeo
aeaeo?iae?a aeicaiey? a?eueo aoaeoeaii aieeaaoe ia iaoae aacaie oeyoii
iiaea/? eiai /a?ac ii?iaeieio aaciina?aaeiuei a ciio ai??iiy aeoae.

Ia?aieaa c iaiiai?noth iie?eoith oeaeii iaoaeaaith aaiiith (e?eueoeaaith
oeaeiaith aaiiith) iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaii ye i?e aeei?enoaii?
ii?iaeienoeo aeaeo?iae?a, oae ? i?e aeei?enoaii? aeaeo?iae?a
nooe?eueiiai ia?aoeio.

I?e AeOI aeaeo?e/ia aeoaa ai?eoue a aoiinoa?? caoeniiai aaco ? oeaeiaeo
ia??a. Iayai?noue ia??a oeaeo, a yeiio ? o?i?/i? aeaiaioe c iecueeei
iioaioe?aeii ?ii?caoe??, ni?ey? noaa?e?caoe?? ? no?eeino? ai??iith aeoae
i?e aoiinoa?iiio ? i?aeaeuaiiio oeneao.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? niiniao AeOI, ia?aaeon?i, noaaeeany caaea/a noai?eoe iaio
aia?ai?iiee a ii??aiyii? c AOI, IAeI ia?aieaaiee i?ioean, ui aeicaiey?
io?eioaaoe ceeoee ??ciiai ia?aoeio (a ia o?eueee e?oaeiai, ye i?e AAeI)
c oi?ioith iiaa?oiath ? aenieith (ia a??oa, /ei i?e AOI, IAeI) ye?noth
iaoaeo.

AeOI iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ye ia iino?eiiio, oae ? ia ci?iiiio no?oi?.
Aoee aea/ai? aeaeo?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo i?e AeOI.

Ia iae. 2 i?aaenoaaeai? noaoenoe/i? aieueoaiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo a ??cieo oiiaao. Aeaeii, ui iai?oaa ia aeoc? i?e AeOI
a a?aii? o?ioe aeua, i?ae i?e IAI, aea iaoee AAO i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee ?
eaaeeoue a iaaeao 2…510-3 A/A, a a?aae??io iai?oae a noiai? aeoae
noaiiaeoue 9…10 A/ni, ui cia/ii iaioa, i?ae o ieaciia?e aeoc? i?e
aoiinoa?iiio oeneo a a?aii? ? o?ioe aeua, i?ae o aaeooi?.

O aeiaaeeo AeOI ia ci?iiiio no?oi? neeueiee aieea ia aeaeo?e/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano (no?ee?noue ? noaa?euei?noue ai??iiy aeoae,
iai?oaa oieinoiai oiaeo aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy ? o.i.) iaaea? o?i?/iee
neeaae oeae?a. ? cie?aia

iayai?noue a eiai neeaae? aeaiaio?a c iecueeei iioaioe?aeii ?ii?caoe??,
ui ??cei cieaeothoue a?aae??io iai?oae a noiai? aeoae.

Noaa?euei?noue i?ioeano AeOI oaeiae iia’ycaia c iiooaei?noth, ui
i?aeaiaeeoueny oa ia?aoeiii aeaeo?iaea. O ca’yceo c oei, ui i?ioeane
AeOI ? IAI aeecuee? iaeei aei iaeiiai ca nai?e i?e?iaeith, oi aeey
ioe?iee noaa?eueiino? i?ioeano AeOI ie nei?enoaeeny caeaaei?noth,
aeaaaeaiith aeey IAI A?eai?aieii A.I. ? Oaeeii ?.A. (iae. 3). A iaeano?
A aeoaa iano?eea, a iaeano? A no?eea. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ae?aiao?a
aeaeo?iaea (a?eueoa ca 150 ii) iaiao?aeia u?euei?noue aia?a?? aeey
caaacia/aiiy no?eeino? ?aaeeio IAI cieaeo?oueny ? iaioa caeaaeeoue a?ae
ae?aiao?a.

Ia a?ao?eo i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ??cieo eaai?aoi?ieo oa i?iieneiaeo
ieaaie, aeeiiaieo niiniaii AeOI. O?anoeeii iicia/ai? ieaaee c iano?eeei
?aaeeiii, aiie eaaeaoue a iaeano? A. Cia/aiiy u?eueiino? aia?a?? c
no?eeei ?aaeeiii eaaeaoue a iaeano? A. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui aeey
i?ioeano AeOI iiaea aooe canoiniaaia io?eiaia ?ai?oa caeaaei?noue aeey
IAI.

Aoea io?eiaia caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? ieaaeaiiy aeaeo?iae?a ae?aiao?ii
(a?ae 48 aei 600 ii) a?ae aaee/eie no?oio.

Iiaea/a acioo a aoiinoa?o aeoae i?aeaeuo? oaeaee?noue ieaaeaiiy
aeaeo?iaea. Oea iiynith?oueny ?aeiia?iaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie aoii?a acioo
a aeoc? o iiaa?oi? iaoaeo, ye? eaeooue c aeae?eaiiyi oaiea.

AeOI, ye ? IAeI ? AOI, iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaiee a oiiaao aenieiai oeneo,
ai aeaeo?e/ia aeoaa ai?eoue aeineoue no?eei iaa?oue i?e oeneo, ui
aei??th?oueny aeanyoeaie aoiinoa?. Any ni?aaa a i?aaeeueiiio aeai??
aeaeo?e/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a. Iiaa?oiy ceeoe?a AeOI, caaaeyee
iayaiino? oeaeiaiai aa?i?naaeo, aeniei? yeino? ? ia aeiaaa? iaaee?aiiy.

Ii??aiyeueiee ?ic?aooiie aeaeo?iaia?aaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee AeOI ? AOI
iieacaa, ui aeoaioeaeiaee ia?aieaa aeicaiey? cieceoe ieoii? aeo?aoe
aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia aeieaaeo iaei??? oiie iaoaeo a ii??aiyii? c AOI
i?eaeecii a 1,5 ?ace.

Oa?iiaeeiai?ea ? e?iaoeea aani?aoe?? acioo ?icieaaaie ia iniia? cae?ca
i?e cia/iiio ?o ia?aa??a?. ?ic?iaea niiniao AeOI noaeae ? nieaa?a, ui
i?noyoue acio, caaeaaeaea anaa?/ii? ioe?iee aaaaoueio oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a oeueiai i?ioeano. Iniaeeaa oaaaa aoea i?eae?eaia
aeine?aeaeaiiyi oa?iiaeeiai?ee ? e?iaoeee aca?iiae?? acioo c ??aeeeie
iaoaeaie ? nieaaaie i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao i?e ?iaeoeoe?eiiio ?
aeoaiaiio ieaaeaii?. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ii/ao? a 70-o ?ieao. Aei
oiai /ano a e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoe/ii aoee a?aenooi? aeai? i?i
aenieioaiia?aoo?i? i?ioeane, ui i?io?eathoue ia ei?aeii? ?icae?eo
acio–oeae– iaoaeaaee ?icieaa. O oie aea /an oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeii?
aoee noaoe iaoeiaith iniiaith oaoiieia?? aciooaaiiy ia o?eueee aeey
AeOI, aea ? aeey ?ioeo ia?aieaaieo i?ioean?a.

Iaiao?aei?noue iiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeooaaeany ??ciiiai?oi?noth
ia?aiao??a ?aaeueieo iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a (oaiia?aoo?a, oene, neeaae
nieaa?a ? ?i.), a oaeiae e?euee?nieie ?icoiaeaeaiiyie e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaieo, iniaeeai a iaeano? aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/eo eiiiiiaio?a,
oaiia?aoo? ? oene?a acioo.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeno oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ? e?iaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?ic/eiiino? acioo a /enoeo iaoaeao, a?ia?ieo ? aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo
nieaaao a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? ? ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo acioo
aoa aeei?enoaiee aa?ooaaeueiee iaoiae ieaaee iaoaeo o caaaeaiiio noai?,
yeee aoa ?ic?iaeaiee a ?AC ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia A.?. Eaeiinueeei. Aoee
?ic?iaeai? i?ea?iaeuei? iaoiaeeee ? aeine?aeieoeueea iaeaaeiaiiy, ye?
aeicaieeee aea/eoe ?ic/eii?noue acioo a oe?e?e aaii? a?ia?ieo nieaa?a ia
iniia? cae?ca, eaaiaaieo aaiaae??i, i?ia??i, o?iiii, ia?aaioeai,
iie?aaeaiii, aieueo?aiii, i?eaeai, aoaeaoeai ? eeniai a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? ? eiioeaio?aoe?e oeeo aeaiaio?a. An? aea/ai?
nenoaie i?aeei?ythoueny caeiio N?aa?ona ca aeiyoeii a?ia?ieo nieaa?a
cae?ca, eaaiaaieo aaiaae??i ? i?ia??i. Aecia/ai? iniiai? oa?iiaeeiai?/i?
eiinoaioe, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?ic/eii?noue acioo a oeeo nenoaiao.

Io?eiaia ocaaaeueithth/a caeaaei?noue oaieioe ci?oaiiy acioo a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a. A?ao?/ia ? aiae?oe/ia ia?iaea
?acoeueoao?a aeicaieeea io?eiaoe ae?aaeaiiy caeaaeiino? eiaa?eoia
eiao?oe??ioa aeoeaiino? acioo a ?icieaaao cae?ca a?ae eiioeaio?aoe??
aaiaae?th, i?ia?th, o?iio, ia?aaioeth, iie?aaeaio, aieueo?aio, i?eaeth ?
aoaeaoeth aeey ??cieo oaiia?aoo? (iae. 4). Caeaaei?noue wmetafile8?
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Cyr?Ig???-??????????2?Ue
???R????2?[???%????2?<???f????2?9????lg???uath??????1/4? ?I?Times New Roman Cyr?Ig???-??????????27j???R????27X???Fe???2p???N????u @th??????1/4?????Symbol????-??????????2?1/2???-????uath? ?????1/4?????Symbol????-??????????27®???-????&??yyyy??? ?????u??????1/4???I"System?I???-??????????????‘‘??’’ aeey nieaa?a cae?ca, eaaiaaieo iie?aaeaiii, aieueo?aiii ? i?eaeai a iaaeao aea/aieo eiioeaio?aoe?e - i?yiie?i?eia ? iiaea aooe iienaia ??aiyiiyi ia?oiai ii?yaeeo. Aiaeia?/ia caeaaei?noue aeey ?icieaa?a cae?ca c aaiaae??i, i?ia??i, o?iiii, ia?aaioeai ? aoaeaoeai e?eaie?i?eia ? iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyie c o?aooaaiiyi ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? acioo ia?oiai, ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai ii?yaee?a. Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee, aoea io?eiaia oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? acioo ia?oiai (wmetafile8? ??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?I???-?????275???R????2p!???N????u@th??????1/4??I?Ti mes New Roman Cyr?I???-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-????????????????lg), ae?oaiai (wmetafile8? ??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????27/???R????2pa????N????u@th??????1/4??I?T imes New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2?9????r????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-?????????????yyy??lg) ? o?aoueiai (wmetafile8? ??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?I????-?????27J???R????2p6???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T imes New Roman Cyr?I????-??????????2?2????q????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-??????????????????lg) ii?yaee?a aeey aea/aieo nenoai ? iieacaii, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aieea ?o ia aaee/eio eiaa?eoia eiao?oe??ioa aeoeaiino? acioo neaaoa?. I?aeoe/ii an? no/ani? ieaaeeuei? aa?aaaoe, a oiio /ene? ? AeOI, aeey aeieaaee noaeae, ui i?noyoue acio, i?aoeththoue i?e oeneo acioo ui a aeanyoee ?ac?a ia?aaeuothoue aoiinoa?ia. A e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? aeai? i?i ?ic/eii?noue acioo i?e i?aeaeuaiiio oeneo. Iaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ? noai?aii iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ieaaee iaoae?a o caaaeaiiio noai? i?ae oeneii aei 11 aoi (1100 eIa). I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic/eiiino? acioo a nieaaao nenoai cae?ci-o?ii-i?eaeue, cae?ci-o?ii-ia?aaiaoeue, cae?ci-o?ii iieacaee, ui o aeiaaeeo, eiee ai?no acioo a ?icieaaao ia ia?aaeuo? 0,8%, ?ic/eii?noue acioo a ieo i?aeei?y?oueny caeiio N?aa?ona. I?e a?eueoiio ai?no? acioo niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? iiceoeai? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae oeueiai caeiio o aea/aieo nenoaiao, ye? iiyniththoueny aca?iiae??th aoii?a acioo i?ae niaith. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aaee/eia iiceoeaiiai a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae caeiio N?aa?ona iaioa? (iae. 5), oae ye ciaioothoueny neee aca?iiae?? i?ae aoiiaie o?iio ? acioo, a ye iane?aeie- eiioeaio?aoe?y aoii?a acioo a?ey aoii?a o?iio, oei naiei cieaeo?oueny iiaeeea?noue aca?iiae?? i?ae non?aei?ie aoiiaie acioo. Aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iieaco?, ui iiceoeaia a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae caeiio N?aa?ona, cie?aia i?e oaiia?aoo?? 2073E , niinoa??aa?oueny o aea/aieo nieaaao ? a /enoiio o?ii? i?e ??cieo ai?noao ?ic/eiaiiai a ieo acioo. Aeey nieaao Fe+30% Cr i?yiie?i?ei?noue caeaaeiino? ii?ooo?oueny i?e [N]>0,8%. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?ic/ei acioo a cae?ci-o?iienoiio
?icieaa? ia?anoa? aooe ?aeaaeueiei. A nieaa?, ui i?noeoue 60%Cr, oea
yaeua niinoa??aa?oueny i?e [N]>1,84%, a a ??aeeiio o?ii? — i?e
?ic/eiaii? a?eueoa – 3,9% N.

Iiyniaiiy oeueiio yaeuo iio??aii ooeaoe a ca?eueoaii? caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? aoii?a o?iio a ?ic/ei?, iiaeeco yeeo ia?aaaaeii
?icoaoiaothoueny aoiie acioo. C?inoaiiy ai?noo aoii?a o?iio aaaea ca
niaith ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueii? e?eueeino? ?ic/eiaiiai acioo ?, ye
iane?aeie, [N]e?, i?e ye?e ii?ooo?oueny i?yiie?i?ei?noue caeaaeiino?.

O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo aaee/eia [N]e? aeey nenoaie Fe-Cr, a iiaeeeai ?
aeey ?ioeo nenoai, iiaeiia aooe iino?eiith, ine?eueee aiia oa?aeoa?eco?
eiioeaio?aoe?th aoii?a acioo o iaeiiai aai a?oie aoii?a o?iio, i?e ye?e
noa? iiaeeeaith aca?iiae?y i?ae aoiiaie acioo. Ae?aceaoe eiioeaio?aoe?th
acioo ? o?iio a ?icieaaao (iae. 5), i?e yeeo ii/eia?oueny iiceoeaia
a?aeoeeaiiy, a aoiiieo i?ioeaioao, ie aecia/eee, ui aeey nieaa?a Fe-Cr
i?e O=2073 E ?ic/ei acioo ia?anoa? aooe iane?i/aiii ?icaaaeaiei a oiio
aeiaaeeo, yeui ia iaeei aoii acioo aeiaiaeeoueny aeanyoue aai iaioa
aoii?a o?iio. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeiia i?eaeecii aeo?eioaaoeny a?aeiioaiiy
aoii?a acioo aei aoii?a o?iio, ??aia 1:10.

Aiaeia?/ia ea?oeia aoea a?aei?/aia iaie i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?ic/eiiino?
acioo o aenieiaaiaae??aeo ? i?ia??aeo nieaaao cae?ca, a oaeiae a /enoeo
aaiaae?th ? i?ia?th. Nieaae ?c ci?noii <20% aaiaae?th ? i?ia?th i?aeei?ythoueny caeiio N?aa?ona. C i?aeaeuaiiyi ci?noo aaiaae?th ? i?ia?th a nieaaao niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? iiceoeai? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae caeiio N?aa?ona. Oae, aeey nieaao Fe+41,05% V e?i?ei?noue caeaaeiino? ii?ooo?oueny i?e [N]>0,77%, aeey nieaao Fe+58,6% V i?e [N]>1,09%, aeey
nieaao Fe+78,6% V i?e [N]>1,49%, a aeey /enoiai aaiaae?th i?e [N]>1,79%.
Ae?aceaoe, oae ye ? aeey nenoaie Fe-Cr, eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo, aaiaae?th
? i?ia?th a ?icieaaao a aoiiieo i?ioeaioao io?eia?ii, ui aeey nenoaie
Fe-V a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae caeiio N?aa?ona ii/eia?oueny i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii?
aoii?a acioo ? aoii?a aaiaae?th 1:15. Aeey nenoaie Fe-Nb, oea
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noaiiaeoue 1:12.

Aiae?oe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeicaieeea ?ic?aooaaoe
oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue ia?aiao??a acioo c acioii a nieaaao Fe-Cr,
Fe-Nb ? Fe-V:

Aaee/eie ia?aiao??a wmetafile8? ??3/4????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-?????279???N????2p!???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T
imes New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????yyy?b? aeey aea/aieo nenoai i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 2373E i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeia? ? neeaaeathoue (0,034-0,035). I?e
ciaioaii? oaiia?aoo?e (2173 E) cia/aiiy wmetafile8?
??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
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imes New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????????b? aeey Fe-Cr ? Fe-V nenoai
noaiiaeoue 0,041, a aeey nieaa?a nenoaie Fe-Nb o?ioe aeua — 0,046.

Iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iacaeaaeii a?ae o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino?
eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a (Cr, V, Nb) a nieaaao cae?ca, aaee/eia, wmetafile8?
??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-?????279???N????2p!???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T
imes New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????yyy?b? ui oa?aeoa?eco? i??o
aca?iiae?? aoii?a acioo i?ae niaith, aeey caaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e iiaeiia
aooe aaee/eiith iino?eii?, iacaeaaeiith a?ae neeaaeo ?icieaao.

Aiaeia?/i? ?ic?aooiee aoee c?iaeai? oaeiae aeey /enoeo aaiaae?th,
i?ia?th ? o?iio. Oae ye ? aeey nieaa?a, aaee/eia wmetafile8?
??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-?????279???N????2p!???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T
imes New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????yyy?b? aeey /enoeo iaoae?a ?
aaee/eiith iino?eiith, yea ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeyaeo iaoaeo, a
i?iy?oueny o?eueee ?c ci?iith oaiia?aoo?e. Io?eiaia ocaaaeueithth/a
oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue ia?aiao?a aca?iiae?? acioo c acioii aeey
aaiaae?th, i?ia?th ? o?iio:

Nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aani?aoe?eii? cae?aiino? aei acioo ??cieo
iiaea?eieo ? aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 1873-2373E aeicaieeee iai aea/eoe oa?iiaeeiai?eo
oeueiai i?ioeano ? io?eiaoe aeinoia??i? aeai? i?i ?ic/eii?noue acioo ye
a ae?aiacii? oene?a a?ae ioey aei 100 eIa, oae ? i?e i?aeaeuaiiio oeneo,
ui a aeanyoee ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? aoiinoa?ia. Oea aeicaieeei io?eiaoe
??aiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo ?ic/eiiino? acioo a iaoaeaaeo ?icieaaao
neeaaeiiai neeaaeo, a?oiooth/enue ia iieiaeaii? E. Aaaia?a i?i
aaeeoeai?noue aieeao o?ao?o ? iiaeaeueoeo aeaiaio?a nieaao ia
eiao?oe??io aeoeaiino? ?ic/eiaiiai a iueiio acioo. I??a aieeao eiaeiiai
aeaiaioa ioe?ith?oueny aaee/eiith ia?aiao?a aca?iiae?? eiiiiiaio?a
nieaao neeaaeiiai neeaaeo c ?ic/eiaiei acioii.

Ia?iaea aeaieo aeanieo aenia?eiaio?a ? e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo aeaea
iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe ooieoe?iiaeueio caeaaei?noue i?ae iaaei??ieie
aioaeuei??th (wmetafile8? ??3/4????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-?????27`???R????2pA???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T
imes New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?9????h????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????????36?) ? aio?ii??th
(wmetafile8? ??3/4????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?Iy???-?????271???R????2p???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T
imes New Roman
Cyr?Iy???-??????????2?G????s????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????yyy?36?) oa aaee/eiaie
ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? acioo ia?oiai (wmetafile8? ??3/4????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?I????-?????279???R????2p%???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T
imes New Roman
Cyr?I????-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????yyy?36?), ae?oaiai (wmetafile8?
??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? A@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
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imes New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?9????r????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????????36?) oa o?aoueiai
(wmetafile8? ??3/4????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-?????27J???R????2p6???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T
imes New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?2????q????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????yyy?36?) ii?yaee?a i?e
oaiia?aoo?? 2073E. Oea aeicaieeei io?eiaoe ?ic?aooieiaa ??aiyiiy aeey
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca:

(1)

I?iaaaeaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo aeey ??cieo aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca iieacaa,
ui ??aiyiiy (1) aea? iiaeeea?noue c aeinoaoiueith oi/i?noth aecia/aoe
aani?aoe?eio cae?ai?noue aei acioo ??cieo nieaa?a a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
oaiia?aoo? (1773-2373 E) ? oene?a, ui ia aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe ?io?
?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino?. Iaeneiaeueia a?aeiinia iiieeea o aecia/aii?
ai?noo acioo a aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nieaaao ia ia?aaeuo? 8%, ui,
aacnoii?aii, ? oi?ioei iieacieeii aeey oaeiai oeio ??aiyiue. Iio??aii
iniaeeai i?aee?aneeoe, ui aeaia ??aiyiiy oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey
ioe?iee aani?aoe?eii? caeaoiino? noaeae ? nieaa?a, ui i?noyoue acio,
ye? i?aeaeathoueny aeieaaoe? aai ia?aieaao a ieaaeeueieo aa?aaaoao
niaoe?aeueii? aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a??, ye i?e cae/aeiiio, oae ? i?aeaeuaiiio
oeneo aei 5 IIa ia o?eueee a Oe?a?i?, aea e ca ei?aeiiii.

C ??ciiiai?oieo aeaieo, ui ? a e?oa?aoo??, ii oa?iiaeeiai?/iei
eiinoaioai, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?aaeoe?? ?ic/eiaiiy aac?a (cie?aia
acioo) a ??aeeeo iaoaeao ? nieaaao a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeneo, oaiia?aoo?e
? neeaaeo, ?iiae? ne?ooii aeae?eeoe iaea?eueo aeinoia??i? cia/aiiy oeeo
aaee/ei. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a — oea ae??oo?oueny iaoiaeaie
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee. Oeae i?aeo?ae ia caaaeaee aeyaey?oueny
i?aaeeueiei, oiio ui a?i ia ?ice?eaa? o?ceei-o?i?/io nooue i?ioean?a,
ye? iathoue i?noea. Aeey ioe?iee aeinoia??iino? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo
eiinoaio ?ic/eiaiiy acioo a iaoaeao ? nieaaao aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
aeei?enoaoe aaee/eio ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii??. wmetafile8?
??O???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyya??‘?? ???&?
?MathType??@?
???u?????????»????-?????Ae?@????Ae?X???uath??????1/4??I
?Times New Roman
Cyr?Iy???-????20???no???2?????a????u@th??????1/4??I?Ti
mes New Roman
Cyr?Iy???-?????????2`N????S????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-??????????????? Oey aaee/eia iino?eia ? ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eiaiiai aaco, a ca’yceo c
a?aenooi?noth aca?iiae?? i?ae eiai aoiiaie. Aaee/eia ia?oe?aeueii?
noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? aaaaoi a /iio aoaea aecia/aoeny neeiaei iieai
aoii?a iaoae?a, ui neeaaeathoue iniiao ?icieaao, aieea yeiai aoaea
iaioaoe ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e, aiane?aeie ineaaeaiiy
i?aeaoiiieo nee. A iaeano? aeoaea aenieeo oaiia?aoo? (wmetafile8?
??Oe???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy????? ???&?
?MathType???? ???u?????????»????-?????P@????PNoaoenoe/ia
oa?iiaeeiai?ea aeicaiey? ?ic?aooaaoe /enaeueia cia/aiiy aio?ii??
yei?-iaaoaeue ?a/iaeie, cie?aia acioo, ?ic/eiaii? a ?icieaa?. I. Oaie ?
E.Eaiaa cai?iiiioaaee oi?ioeo aeey ?ic?aooieo aaee/eie a?aeiinii?
ia?oe?aeueii? aio?ii?? ?ic/eiaiiai a ??aeeeo iaoaeao aiaeith, yeee ?nio?
a ?icieaaao o aeaeyae? i?ioiiiiai aaco ? ia? iaiaiaaeaio ?ooeea?noue.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?? A.?.Eaeiinueeee ?ic?aooaaa ia?oe?aeueio noaiaea?oio
aio?ii?th aeey ?ic/ei?a aiaeith a ??aeeeo iaoaeao. Aiia noaiiaeea 27,89
Aeae/aaoii E. Ie a naith /a?ao, oia?oa oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aooaaee aaee/eio
ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? acioo a /enoeo iaoaeao, a?ia?ieo ?
aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo nieaaao, yea noaiiaeea 42,24 Aeae/aaoii E.

Ii??aithth/e oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaia cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii?
aio?ii?? c aiaeia?/iith aaee/eiith, io?eiaiith ia?iaeith
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, i?aaenoaaeaieo ia iae. 6, iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui an? cia/aiiy noaiaea?oii? ia?oe?aeueii? aio?ii?? acioo, ye?
aeua oai?aoe/iiai cia/aiiy, iio??aii aaaaeaoe iiieeeiaeie. sseui
io?eiaia aenia?eiaioaeueia aaee/eia wmetafile8? ??O????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy???–?? ???&? ?MathType??@?
???u?????????»????-???????@??????X???uath??????1/4??I?
Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-????2+…???no???2?›???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T
imes New Roman
Cyr?If???-?????????2`N????S????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-??????????????  iaioa oai?aoe/iiai
cia/aiiy, oi oea iiaeia iiynieoe ??cieie i?e/eiaie, a naia: /enoioith
iaoaeo, oaiia?aoo?ith aenia?eiaioo, a oaeiae nii??aeiai?noth iaoaeaaiai
?icieaao aei acioo.

Io?eiaia iaie cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? aeey
?ic/eiaiiy acioo i?eaeecii a 1,5 ?ace aeua ca cia/aiiy wmetafile8?
??O???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy???–?? ???&?
?MathType??@?
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Cyr?I???-????2+…???no???2?—???H????u@th??????1/4??I?Ti
mes New Roman
Cyr?I???-?????????2`N????S????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-??????????????  aeey aiaeith -27,89
Aeae/aaoiiE, ui iiynith?oueny a?eueo aenieeie cia/aiiyie noaiaea?oii?
aio?ii?? acioo a ii/aoeiaiio noai?, wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ????? ???&?
?MathType???????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?Ih???-?????27????0????2pIath/e a nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii?
cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? ?ic/eiaiiai a ?icieaaao
acioo, eaaei c?iaeoe ioe?ieo aeinoia??iino? aenia?eiaioaeueii
iaea?aeaii? caeaaeiino? ?ic/eiiino? acioo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e.

Ciath/e cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? ?ic/eiaiiai acioo,
aeineoue iaoe iaeio iaae?eii iaea?aeaio aenia?eiaioaeueio oi/eo iiaeeco
oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy aai e?ea?aeona aeey oiai, uia io?eiaoe
oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue ?ic/eiiino? acioo a aaaaoieiiiiiaioiiio
nieaa?.

Aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? aeieaaee ??cieo noaeae oa nieaa?a, ui
i?noyoue acio, iaoiaeii aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao iaiao?aeii ciaoe c
yeith oaeaee?noth iiaeeia?oueny acio oeeie ?icieaaaie a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo eiai a ieaaeeuei?e eaia?? ? oaiia?aoo?e ??aeeiai
iaoaeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee iiaeeiaiiy acioo ??cieie noaeyie ? nieaaaie i?e
??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao ? oene?a acioo aeicaieeoue iai i?aaeeueii
?ic?aoiaoaaoe aaciaee ? aeaeo?e/iee ?aaeeie ia?aieaao c iaoith io?eiaiiy
caaeaiiai ai?noo acioo a ceeoeao.

?ic/eiaiiy acioo a ?icieaaao a?aeiineoueny aei aaoa?iaaiieo i?ioean?a,
ia ye? cia/ii aieeaathoue o?ainii?oi? oiiae, ine?eueee ?aaeoe??
i?io?eathoue ia ei?aeii? ?icae?eo aeaio oac ? aeoaea aaaeeeaei ?
aeinoaaea ii/aoeiaeo ?a/iaei aei oeueiai ei?aeiio ? ia?aianaiiy
i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? aaeeaeio ?icieaao. Aieiaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?iaoeee aaoa?iaaiieo i?ioean?a ?ic/eiaiiy acioo a iaoaeao ? aecia/aiiy
e?i?ooth/i? noaae?? aca?iiae??, iieno ?? ? ciaoiaeaeaiiy oeyo?a ??
ci?ie.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy e?iaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeeiaiiy acioo ??cieie
noaeyie ? nieaaaie aoee noai?ai? niaoe?aeuei? eaai?aoi?i? onoaiiaee, a
oaeiae ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee, ye? aeicaieeee aea/eoe e?iaoeeo
aaciiai?iieo i?ioean?a i?e ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ao ? oene?a acioo aei 50
IIa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii ieaaee o caaaeaiiio noai? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 1873
? 1973 E ? ae?aiacii? oene?a acioo 100-1000 eIa iieacaee, ui ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo c?inoa?,
ui iia’ycaii a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo ?c ca?eueoaiiyi a?aae??ioa
eiioeaio?aoe??, a o ae?oaiio ca ?aooiie ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ia?ai?ooaaiiy
?icieaao ? ciaioaiiy aiane?aeie oeueiai oiaueie aeeooc?eiiai oa?o.
Ca?aeii c iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ?aaeoe?y aciooaaiiy eiio?ieth?oueny
caaaeueiei ??aiyiiyi ia?oiai ii?yaeeo. Caaaeueiee oene acioo ia aieeaa?
ia aaee/eio eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? (wmetafile8? ??.???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?I????-?????2????n????2?
???/????2?3/4???ni???2?T???10???uath??????1/4??I?Times
New Roman
Cyr?I????-??????????27e???2????uath??????1/4?????Symbol?
???-??????????27F???-????u@th??????1/4?????Symbol????-
??????????2?i???=????u@th??????1/4????Symbol????-?????
?????2?G????b????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I
???-??????????????????), a oie /an ye ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ia
100 a?aaeon?a ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith oeueiai eiao?oe??ioa i?aeoe/ii aaea?/?
(wmetafile8? ??_???????????
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Aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??j?? ???&?
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Cyr?If???-?????2?O???n????2?U???/????2?|???ni???2????10
???2?????2?
???2?c???…????2?F???95???2?H???,????2?S???1????uath??
????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????27¦
???2????uath??????1/4?????Symbol????-??????????27
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???2?i???=????u@th??????1/4????Symbol????-??????????2?
G????b????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I???-???
???????????????).

C iaoith ooi/iaiiy aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? acioo a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iane (a?aeiioaiiy iiaa?oi? aei ia’?io), ?ioaineaiino?
ia?ai?ooaaiiy, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy a?aae??ioa eiioeaio?aoe?? ca ?aooiie
i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo acioo a ieaaeeuei?e eaia?? aeua ca 10 aoi (100eIa),
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii e?iaoeoe? aani?aoe?? acioo aoee i?iaeiaaeai? ia
?iaeoeoe?ei?e onoaiiaoe?, ui aeicaieyea aeieaaeyoe ceeoee ae?aiao?ii aei
50 ii, ianith aei iaeiiai e?eia?aia i?ae oeneii acioo aei 100 IIa.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeai? ia iae. 7

?c ca?eueoaiiyi oeneo acioo oaeaee?noue i?ioeano iiaeeiaiiy eiai
nieaaaie ca?eueoo?oueny, oi/ ai?no eiai a ceeoeo, iaa?oue i?e aeo?eioe?
40 oa., ia aeinyaa? ??aiiaaaeii? eiioeaio?aoe??. Cieaeo? oaeaee?noue
iiaeeiaiiy iayai?noue ia aeca?eae? iaoaeaai? aaiie oeaeo. Ciaioaiiy
aaea?/? ieiu? iiaa?oi? aaiie ca ?aooiie oeaeo, i?eaeecii ia 30% ciaioo?
e?euee?noue acioo, ui iiaeeia?oueny ?icieaaii.

I?iaaaeai? e?iaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy eyaee a iniiao ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? iiaeeiaiiy acioo ia ??cieo noaae?yo ia?aieaao
iaoiaeii AeOI.

Iniaeeaino? eaaoaaiiy acioii i?e AeOI. O ?ac? eaaoaaiiy ??aeeiai iaoaeo
acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace i?e aeoaioeaeiaiio ia?aieaa?

oaeaee?noue i?ioeano iane/aiiy eiai acioii aaaaoi a /iio iiaea caeaaeaoe
a?ae ci?noo aaciaeo aeii?oie (eenith) ? neeaaeo oeaeo. Aoea ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea ? aeaioiaeaii aeine?aeieoeueea iaeaaeiaiiy aeey aea/aiiy ?o
aieeao ia e?iaoeeo i?ioeano iiaeeiaiiy acioo i?e ?iaeoeoe?eiiio ?
aeoaiaiio ieaaeaii?. Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeee ia noae? O18AA18.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iayai?noue eenith a aacia?e oac?
i?e aoaeue-yeiio niinia? ieaaeaiiy cieaeo? oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo.
Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie oiai, ui eenaiue, yeee aaeni?ao?oueny ia
iiaa?oi? ??aeeiai iaoaeo, caeia? /anoeio aaeain?e ? oei naiei cieaeo?
e?euee?noue aaeni?aiaaieo aoii?a acioo a iaeeieoeth /ano. E??i oiai,
iayai?noue eenith ia ei?aeii? aac-iaoae aoaea ni?eyoe ieeneaiith cae?ca
? ?ioeo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a. Ieenia ie?aea, ui ooai?th?oueny, oaeiae
aoaea oo?oaeiyoe i?ioean aaeni?aoe?? ia iiaa?oi? ? cieaeoaaoe
oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo.

Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a aacia?e aoiinoa?? c 0,001% aei 0,6%
ia ii?yaeie ciaioo? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? i?e
?iaeoeoe?ei?e ieaaoe?. Eiee ieaaea i?iaiaeeoueny a aeoaiaiio ?aaeei?,
oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo oaeiae cieaeo?oueny, iaeiae oaii cieaeaiiy
cia/ii iaioa. E??i eenith a aacia?e aoiinoa?? aaeeeee aieea ia
oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo i?e AeOI ia? e?euee?noue ? neeaae oethno,
ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a i?ioean? ia?aieaao ? eiai acioii?iieei?noue.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao neeaaeo oeaeo ia oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo
noaeeth O18AA18 aoee i?iaaaeai? a oiiaao ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ? aeoaiaiai
ieaaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aea?ai? a?o/eciyi? ? ca?oa?aei?
oethne, ui canoiniaothoueny i?e aeaeo?ioeaeiaeo oaoiieia?yo: 1) 50% CaO
+ 50% Al2O3; 2) 40% CaF2 + 32%CaO + 23% Al2O3 + 5% SiO2; 3) 15% CaF2 +
29% CaO + 52% Al2O3 + 2,5% SiO2; 4) 70% CaF2 + 15% CaO + 15% Al2O3; 5)
75% CaF2 + 25% NaF; 6) 90% CaF2 + 10% KNO3; 7) 100% CaF2.

Iayai?noue oeaeo ia iiaa?oi? ??aeeiai iaoaeo ?noioii ciaioo? oaeaee?noue
?ic/eiaiiy acioo. I?e a?aenooiino? oeaeo ??aiiaaaeia eiioeaio?aoe?y
acioo a noae? O18AA18 aeinyaa?oueny aaea /a?ac 30 naeoiae (iae. 8), a
oie /an, ye i?e iayaiino? oeaeo, /an aeey aeinyaiaiiy ??aiiaaae
ca?eueoo?oueny iaeaea ao?e/?. Iaeneiaeueia oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo
aoea io?eiaia i?ae /enoei ooi?enoei eaeueoe??i (e?eaa 2), a
i?i?iaeueia-i?ae oethnii, ui i?noeoue 50% NaI ? 50% Al2O3 (e?eaa 6).
A?aoiaoth/e, ui aeey a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaieo oethn?a a?aenooi?
aeinoia??i? aeai? i?i aaee/eio eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc?? acioo, a oaeiae
cia/aiiy ??aiiaaaeieo eiioeaio?-aoe?e acioo, ie ioe?ith-aaee
acioii?iieei?noue oethn?a, ?ic?aooaaaoe cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a
ianiia?aaea/? acioo ii ??aeeiio iaoaeo. Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy
eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? aoei io?eiaia aeey 100% CaF2 ? noaiiaeei 1,55
o10-2 ni/ n, a i?i?iaeueia aeey oethno 50% NaI, 50% Al2O3 – 0,14o10-2
ni/n. I?e oeueiio cia/aiiy wmetafile8? ???????????????
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?MathType??`????u@th??????1/4????Symbol????-?????2?G????b??
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????????? aeey noae? O18AA18, ia iie?eoi? oeaeii, noaiiaeei 1,85 o10-2
ni/n. A i?ioean? aenia?eiaio?a iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeany iino?eiino?
ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo acioo a ieaaeeueiiio i?inoi??, i?i?iaeueiiio ai?noo
eenith a acio? (< 10 ??i) oa aoaeaoeth a oeaeo. Aenia?eiaioe iieacothoue, ui o?i?/iee neeaae oeaeo aieeaa? ia oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo noaeeth i?e AeOI. Ioaea, aeey ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aciooaaiiy i?e AeOI, i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao, iaiao?aeii aanoe ia?aieaa ia oeaeao, ye? iathoue iaeneiaeueio acioii?iieei?noue. O?ceei-o?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue i?iaiae?coaaoe ? eeaneo?eoaaoe aaciiai?ii? i?ioeane i?e aeoaioeaeiaiio ia?aieaa?. An? i?ioeane aca?iiae?? acioo c iaoaeii i?e ia?aieaa? iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie: iiaeeiaiiy acioo ? aeae?eaiiy eiai. I?ae iiaeeiaiiyi acioo iaoaeii cae/aeii iathoue ia oaac? ia?ao?ae eiai a iaoae c ?ioi? oace. O iaoaeaao aaiio acio iiaea iinooiaoe c aaciai? aoiinoa?e, oeaeiai? aaiie ? aeaeo?iaea. I?e oeueiio iio??aii ?ic??ciyoe: iiaeeiaiiy c aoiinoa?e aeoae, aoiinoa?e, ui ioi/o? aeoao ? c ??aeeiai oeaeo. Eiee iaoae eiioaeoo? c aeaeo?e/iith aeoaith, iathoue aai iiaeooue iaoe i?noea aeaa aeiaaeee: iiaeeiaiiy acioo a aeoeai?e cii? o aiiaea ? iiaeeiaiiy eiai ia eaoiae?. Iaoae, ui eiioaeoo? c aoiinoa?ith, yea ioi/o? aeoao ia ii??aiyii aaeeeiio aeaeaeaii? a?ae ?? in?, aca?iiae?? c acioii oae naii, ye ? a oiiaao ?iaeoeoe?eiiai ieaaeaiiy. Aeaea?aeii aaco, ui iiaeeia?oueny iaoaeii, iiaea aooe ? oeae. I?ioean ia?aoiaeo acioo c oeaeo a iaoae i?io?ea? iia?euei?oa, i?ae c aaciai? oace. Oeae i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeooc?eiei oeyoii, a oaeaee?noue i?ioeano caeaaeeoue a?ae a?aae??ioa eiioeaio?aoe?? i?ae oeaeii ? iaoaeii, oaiia?aoo?e ? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae oeaeo. Aeae?eaiiy acioo - oea i?ioean aeeo/aiiy eiai c iaoaeaaiai ?icieaao i?e ieaaeaii? iaoaeo oa e?enoae?caoe?? ceeoea. Aeae?eaiiy acioo c iaoaeo a i?ioean? eiai ieaaeaiiy iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie: aeeooc?eia aeae?eaiiy acioo /a?ac iiaa?oith aaiie ? ioce?eiaa aeae?eaiiy c aaiie. A iaaieo oiiaao o aaii? iiaeooue niinoa??aaoeny ae?eueieoe? iaoaeo, ia?aiane/ai? acioii. sse o?eueee eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo a iaoaeaa?e aaii? ia?aaeueoue ??aiiaaaeio, acio ii/eia? aeae?eyoeny c iaoaeo oeyoii aeeooc??. I?e aeinoaoiuei aaeeeiio ia?aiane/aii? iaaiiai ia'?io iaoaeo oa iayaiino? oeaio??a ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaea ooai?eoeny iooe?aoeue aaco. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?aeaoaa?oueny ioce?eiaa aeae?eaiiy aac?a c iaoaeo: aaiia ii/eia? eei?oe. Ia aeae?eaiiy aac?a c iaoaeo iiaea ?noioii aieeaaoe oeaeiaa aaiia, ine?eueee oeae aaeueio? aeeooc?ei? i?ioeane. I?ioeane iiaeeiaiiy oa aeae?eaiiy acioo c ?icieaao iiaeooue i?io?eaoe iaeii/anii a iaei?e ? o?e aea iaoaeaa?e aaii?. *a?ac iaeio /anoeio iiaa?oi? aaiia iiaea iiaeeiaoe acio, a /a?ac ?ioo acio iiaea aeae?eyoeny. A i?ioean? ia?aieaao iiaea aooe ia iaeia, a aeae?eueea iiaa?oiiue iiaeeiaiiy, ui eiioaeoothoue c acioii, ui ia? ??ciee aia?aaoe/iee noai. Iiaa?oi? ?aaaoaaiiy iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe oaeei /eiii: iiaa?oiy iaoaeaai? aaiie, ui eiioaeoo? c aeoeaiei aacii c aoiinoa?e aeoae ? c acioii c aoiinoa?e, yea ioi/o? aeoao; iiaa?oiy aeaeo?iaea: ??aeea ie?aea iaoaeo, ui eiioaeoo? c aeoeaiei aacii ? oieiaeiei aacii iaaeiei aeoae; oaa?aea iiaa?oiy; iiaa?oiy ??aeei? e?aie?, ui eiioaeoo? c aeoeaiei ? a?aeiinii oieiaeiei aacii. Aeey aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iathoue aaee/eie iiaa?oiiue oi?oey aeaeo?iaea, oeaeiai? ? iaoaeaai? aaiie. Aieea iiaa?oiiue ??aeei? eaie? a i?ioeanao aca?iiae?? iaoaeo c aacii a ca'yceo c ei?ioei/ani?noth ?? ?nioaaiiy, ye i?aaeei, iacia/ia, ? a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iei cae/aeii iaooothoue. Aca?iiae?th acioo i?e aeoaioeaeiaiio ia?aieaa? iiaeia a?aeianoe aei oeiiaeo aaoa?iaaiieo ?aaeoe?e, ui i?io?eathoue ia ei?aeii? aac-oeae-iaoae. O ?aaeoe?yo oaeiai oeio caaaeaee iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e iniiai? noaae??: o?ainii?o acioo aei iiaa?oi? ?aaaoaaiiy, aeania ?aaeoe?y ?ic/eiaiiy ? a?aeaaaeaiiy i?iaeoeo?a aca?iiae?? a?ae ei?aeiio ?icae?eo oac a ia'?i oeaeo aai iaoaeo. Iaeiia?euei?oa noaae?y aecia/a? oaeaee?noue i?io?eaiiy anueiai i?ioeano caaaeii. I?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe, ui a iai?iieo ?aaeoe?yo i?ae iaoaeaaei ?icieaaii ? aacii naii? iia?eueiith noaae??th ? aeeooc?y aaco a i?eei?aeiiiiio iiaa?oiaaiio oa??, yea iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi: I?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue noaa aacith, ui aeicaieeea noai?eoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue iiaeeiaiiy acioo i?e AeOI. Aiia aeeth/a? o?e noaae?? aca?iiae?? ??aeeiai iaoaeo c acioii: 1 – a ie?aoe? ia oi?oe? caaioiaee, ui ia?aieaaey?oueny; 2 – a eaieyo; 3 – a iaoaeaa?e aaii?. ??aeeee iaoae ?ic?a??aa?oueny aeoaith, aaea ciaoiaey/enue a ie?aoe?, ? iaaeae?, aei iiiaaeaiiy a iaoaeaao aaiio, eiai oaiia?aoo?a ci?ith?oueny iacia/ii. Oiio iiaeia i?eeiyoe, ui ia an?o noaae?yo aca?iiae?? oaiia?aoo?i? oiiae aaoa?iaaiieo ?aaeoe?e iaeiaeia?. Oaeei /eiii, a?aei?iiino? ?acoeueoao?a aca?iiae?? iaoiiaeththoueny ??cieie cia/aiiyie ieiu iiaa?oi? ?aaaoaaiiy. I?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? iiaeeiaiiy aac?a i?e aeoaiaiio ia?aieaa? ie aeoiaeeee c e?eoa??th, ui ia'?i ??aeeiai iaoaeo a iaeeieoeth /ano, ui ciaoiaeeoueny o aeaeyae? ie?aee ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea, e?aieyo ? a iaoaeaa?e aaii? i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee. Oiaoi, ?ioeie neiaaie, a noaoe?iia?iiio ?aaeei? ne?eueee iaoaeo i?eoiaeeoue o aeaeyae? eaiaeue, no?eueee ae e?enoae?co?oueny a ceeoie. Aoee io?eiai? ??aiyiiy aeey eiaeii? noaae?? ? noia?ia ??aiyiiy: Ca?aeii c ??aiyiiyi (3) aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaea?eueo iiaiiai iane/aiiy iaoaeo aacii iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe aenieee eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/?, iecueeo oaeaee?noue ieaaeaiiy aeaeo?iaea ? a?eueo ?icaeiai? iiaa?oi? ie?aee, eaie? ? aaiie. Aca?iiae?th ??aeeiai iaoaeo c acioii a i?ioean? AeOI iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe, ye aeainoaae?eiee i?ioean, ui aeeth/a? iiaeeiaiiy acioo ie?aeith ??aeeiai iaoaeo ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea ? iiaa?oiath iaoaeaai? aaiie, aai iiai?noth cae?eoi? oa?ii ??aeeiai oeaeo, aai /anoeiai a?aee?eoi? aaciina?aaeiuei i?ae ae??th oeneo aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae (iae. 1). O noaeiio ?aaeei? ia?aieaao iieaaeaiee oi?aoeue aeaeo?iaea caaaeaee iie?eoee oiieei oa?ii ??aeeiai iaoaeo. Oiaueia oeueiai oa?o ia caaaeaee iaeiaeiaa ii an?e ieiu? aeaeo?iaea. Na?aaeiy oiaueia ??aeei? ie?aee ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea caeaaeeoue a?ae e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? eiai ieaaeaiiy, o?i?/iiai neeaaeo iaoaeo ? oi?ie iieaaeaiiai oi?oey. C c?inoaiiyi e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? ieaaeaiiy aeaeo?iaea oiaueia ie?aee iaioa? ? i?e oaeaeeino? ii?yaeeo 0,1-0,2 ii/n eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 0,07 - 0,16 ii. *ei o?eaae?o?e i?ioean ooai?aiiy eaie?, oei iiai?oa ?icaeaathoueny i?ioeane aca?iiae?? ??aeeiai iaoaeo c aaciaith oacith, ui i?noeoue acio. ?ici?? eaiaeue aecia/a?oueny i?aeoe/ii o?eueee oiiaaie ?o a?ae?eao a?ae oi?oey aeaeo?iaea, a oaeaee?noue ooai?aiiy eaiaeue - o?eueee oaeaee?noth ia?aieaao. Aaaa eaie? a na?aaeiueiio neeaaea? ii?yaeeo 8-10 a?ai?a, a /an ?? ?nioaaiiy i?e e?i?ei?e oaeaeeino? ieaaeaiiy aeaeo?iaea 0,10-0,15 ii/n noaiiaeoue 1,5-2,5 n. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo acioo a eaieyo ? ie?aoe? ??aeeiai iaoaeo ia oi?oeyo aeaeo?iae?a, ui ia?aieaaeythoueny AeOI, aoee i?iaaaeai? ia aeaeo?iiiiio ?ano?iaiio i?e?ineii? JSM-840, a oaeiae i?e?iaiae?caoi?? SX-50, ui ia? aieiiaeenia?n?eiee niaeo?iiaoi?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoaeoeaiino? aciooaaiiy iaoaeo c aoiinoa?e, ui i?noeoue acio iieacaee, ui aaea ia noaae?? ooai?aiiy ie?aee oa iiaeaeueoeo eaiaeue ??aeeee iaoae anoeaa? iiaeeiooe cia/i? e?eueeino? acioo. Iio??aii i?aee?aneeoe, ui iiaeeiaiiy acioo c aaciai? oace, eaea a e?iaoe/iiio ?aaeei?, oiio eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo, ye? o?enothoueny ia aeaeo?iae?, iiaeooue aooe cia/ii ieae/eie ??aiiaaaeieo (wmetafile8? ??¶???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy@??^?? ???&? ?MathType???????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?Iy???-?????2¬???p????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?Iy???-??????????2 +????C????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-?????????????????). Oea ianaiia?aae aecia/a?oueny e?i?eiith oaeaee?noth ieaaeaiiy aeaeo?iaea. I?e e?i?ei?e oaeaeeino? 0,8 ii/n e?euee?noue ?ic/eiaiiai acioo ia aeaeo?iae? aeinyaa? ii?yaeeo 20-30% a?ae ??aiiaaaeii? eiioeaio?aoe??. Ciaioaiiy e?i?eii? oaeaeeino? aei 0,2 ii/n aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe iane/aiiy aei 60%. O aeiaaeeo, eiee i?ioean ia?aieaao cae?enithaaee ia oaeaeeinoyo ii?yaeeo 0,1-0,2 ii/n ? ia?oe?aeueiiio oeneo acioo a ?aaeoe?ei?e cii?, yeee ia ia?aaa?oo? 100 eIa, niinoa??aa?oueny iaa?oue aeayea ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo acioo a eaieyo ? ie?aoe? ia aeaeo?iae? a ii??aiyii? c ??aiiaaaeiith eiioeaio?aoe??th. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ai?noo acioo a ie?aoe? ? eaieyo ??aeeiai iaoaeo ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iae?a i?e ?aaeueieo ieaaeao iaoiaeii AeOI ? IAI a aoiinoa??, ui i?noeoue acio, c ?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie ii ??aiyiith (3), i?aaenoaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1. Oaaeeoey 1 Ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue ai?noo acioo a iaoae? ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaeo ?ic?aooiie ii ??aiyiith (3) aea? caaeia?eueio ca?aei?noue c aenia?eiaioaeueieie cia/aiiyie. Aeeeth/aiiy neeaaea? ieaaea noae? O16I4, aea aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ca ai?noo acioo a eaieyo ??aeeiai iaoaeo iaeaea aaea?/? ia?aaeuothoue ?ic?aooieiaa. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui a ??aiyii? (3) ia a?aoiao?oueny aieea aia?a?? caoaeaeaiiy aoii?a ? iieaeoe acioo ia aaee/eio ??aiiaaaeii? eiioeaio?aoe??. Aieea aia?a?? caoaeaeaiiy iaea?eueo a?ae/ooii a nieaaao c iecueeith (wmetafile8? ??¶???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy@??^?? ???&? ?MathType???????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????2Y???p????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2 ,????C????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-??????????????????? 0,05%) ? na?aaeiueith (wmetafile8? ??¶???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy@??^?? ???&? ?MathType???????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????2Y???p????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2 ,????C????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-??????????????????? 0,2%) aani?aoe?eiith i?noe?noth, eiee a i?ioean? ieaaee ia?aieaaeythoueny aeaeo?iaee iaeiai ia?aoeio ( 3000 ii2). O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeoaa ioiieth? aaeeeo /anoeio iiaa?oi? oi?oey aeaeo?iaea oa ni?ey? eiioaeoo c iath caoaeaeaieo iieaeoe acioo c iaiiai?noth ?aeaeniaaiith eieeaaeueiith aia?a??th. I?e oeueiio ??aiiaaaeia eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo a iaoae? aoaea cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaoe eiinoaioo N?aa?ona (oaae. 1 iic. 1,2). ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ae?aiao?a aeaeo?iaea (wmetafile8? ??¶???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyya?? ?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????2o???y????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2 N????S????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-??????????????????? 1000ii2) aaeeea /anoeia ?icieaaeaiiai iaoaeo aoaea eiioaeooaaoe c aoiinoa?ith, yea ioi/o? aeoao ia ii??aiyii aaeeeiio a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae ?? in?. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo aca?iiae?y iaoaeo c acioii aoaea i?io?eaoe a oiiaao, aeecueeeo aei ?iaeoeoe?eiiai iaa??ao. *anoea caoaeaeaieo iieaeoe acioo a ii??aiyii? ?c caaaeueiith ?o e?euee?noth, ui eiioaeoo? c iiaa?oiath ??aeei? ie?aee, aoaea iaea. Ioaea, ia?aaeuaiiy iaae wmetafile8? ??¶???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy@??^?? ???&? ?MathType???????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????2Y???p????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2 ,????C????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-???????????????????eiinoaioith N?aa?ona aoaea iacia/ia ? ?ic?aooieiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y aoaea aeecueeith aei aenia?eiaioaeueii? (oaaeeoey 1, iic.8-10). Aia?a?y caoaeaeaiiy iieaeoe acioo caeaaeeoue, a iniiaiiio a?ae aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa ieaciiai? ni?aoe?? acioo (wmetafile8? ??Oe???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4?????Symbol????-?????27O???Ae? ???uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2pE???N????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2?N????K????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-????????????????), yeee, a naith /a?ao, caeaaeeoue a?ae ??cieo /eiiee?a (oeneo acioo, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieiu iiaeeiaiiy ? aeae?eaiiy ? o.ae.). Ia iae. 9 iaaaaeaia caeaaei?noue aaee/eie wmetafile8? ??Oe???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4?????Symbol????-?????27O???Ae? ???uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2pE???N????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2?N????K????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-???????????????? a?ae oeneo acioo a eaia?? ? iiaa?oi? iaoaeaai? aaiie (ae?aiao?a e?enoae?caoi?a). Ca?eueoaiiy oeneo acioo c 100 eIa aei 500 eIa (iae. 9a) aeicaiey? i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth cae?enieoe i?ioean ?aeaenaoe?? eieeaaeueii? aia?a?? iieaeoe acioo ( De?=50 ii), oiaoi cieceoe aia?a?th caoaeaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii aei ioey. Oaeei /eiii, ii/eiath/e c oeneo acioo 500 eIa ? aeua eiinoaioa ??aiiaaae ieaciiai? ni?aoe?? i?aeoe/ii ia aoaea a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae eiinoaioe ??aiiaaae c acioii a cae/aeiiio eieeaaeueiiio noai? (wmetafile8? ??¶???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? AA???&??yyyy?????Ayyy«yyy???k?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????2q????S????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2?N????K????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-?????????????yyy????). Aiaeia?/ii aieeaa? ia eiao?oe??io wmetafile8? ??Oe???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4?????Symbol????-?????27O???Ae? ???uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2pE???N????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2?N????K????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-????????????? ??? iiaa?oiy iaoaeaai? aaiie aai, ?ioeie neiaaie, ae?aiao? e?enoae?caoi?a (iae. 9a). Ii/eiath/e c De?>100ii eiao?oe??io ieaciiai? ni?aoe?? iaaeeaea?oueny aei cia/aiiy
eiinoaioe N?aa?ona (wmetafile8? ??¶????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
AA???&??yyyy?????Ayyy«yyy???k?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-?????2q????S????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?N????K????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-?????????????yyy????).

Aoaeoeai?noue aciooaaiiy i?e AeOI aoea i?iaiae?ciaaia iaie ca
?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo ieaaie ??cieo noaeae, aeieaaeaieo
niiniaii AeOI ? IAI i?ae ??ciei oeneii a aoiinoa??, ui i?noeoue acio ia
eaai?aoi?ieo oa i?iieneiaeo ia/ao (oaaeeoey 2). O oaaeeoe? oaeiae
iaaaaeai? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy noia?iiai ai?noo acioo, ia ia?o?e ?
o?ao?e noaae?yo ia?aieaao, io?eiai? ii ??aiyiith (3) c o?aooaaiiyi
eiao?oe??ioa ieaciiai? ni?aoe?? (wmetafile8? ??Oe????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??j?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uath??????1/4?????Symbol????-?????27O???Ae?
???uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2pE???N????u@th??????1/4??I?Times
New Roman
Cyr?If???-??????????2?N????K????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4
???I»System?I???-????????????? ???).

Oaaeeoey 2 Ai?no acioo a ??cieo noaeyo i?ney AeOI ? IAI a aoiinoa??
acioo

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? a oaaeeoe? 2 iiaeia ?icaeoe ia o?e a?oie: ia?oa
— oea ieaaee, i?iaaaeai? aac oeaeo (?? 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 12,13), ae?oaa —
ieaaee i?ae oeaeii c /anoeiai a?aee?eoith iaoaeaaith aaiiith (??
6,9,14), ? o?aoy — ia?aieaa cae?enithaaee c iiai?noth cae?eoith
iaoaeaaith aaiiith (?? 4, 5, 10, 11).

Aiae?coth/e ia?oo a?oio ieaaie iio??aii cacia/eoe, ui ca?eueoaiiy
ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo acioo a ieaaeeueiiio i?inoi?? i?aeaeuo? ai?no acioo
a ceeoeo. I?e oeueiio ?ic?aooieia? eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo ii ??aiyiith (3)
ciaoiaeyoueny a oi?ioiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? aei e?ioeaaiai ai?noo acioo a
ceeoeo.

?c ca?eueoaiiyi oeneo acioo oa ae?aiao?a e?enoae?caoi?a (?? 7, 8), aieea
eiao?oe??ioa ieaciiai? ni?aoe?? cieaeo?oueny, ui aeicaiey?,
ei?enooth/enue ??aiyiiyi (3), c aeinoaoiueith i??ith oi/iino?
i?iaiicoaaoe ai?no acioo a ceeoeo.

Iayai?noue oeaeo ia aeca?eae? iaoaeaai? aaiie i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao
cieaeo? e?euee?noue acioo, ui iiaeeia?oueny iaoaeii (?? 4, 5, 6).
Iaeiae, i?e iae?e aenio? oeaeiai? aaiie ca ?aooiie oeneo aeoae oeae
a?aeo?niy?oueny c i?ae aeaeo?iaea a ia?eoa??eio ciio ? /anoeia iiaa?oi?
iaoaeaai? aaiie iaiey?oueny. Oea aeicaiey? aeinyaiooe iaiao?aeieo
?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ai?noo acioo a ceeoeo (?? 6, 9, 14).

I?e aaeee?e aenio? oeaeiai? aaiie, eiee ca ?aooiie oeneo aeoae ia
aaea?oueny iaieeoe aeca?eaei iaoaeaai? aaiie, ai?no acioo a ceeoeo o?ioe
c?inoa? ? i?aeoe/ii a?aeiia?aea? e?eueeino? acioo, ui ?ic/eieany ia
ia?o?e noaae?? ia?aieaao, oiaoi a ie?aoe? ? eaieyo ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea
(??9-11).

Ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue ai?noo acioo a
io?eiaieo ceeoeao ??cieo noaeae aeicaiey? c oiaaiai?noth eiinoaooaaoe,
ui cai?iiiiiaaia iaie iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iiaeeiaiiy acioo i?e AeOI c
aeinoaoiueith i??ith oi/iino? aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe ai?no acioo a
?icieaa? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?ioeano
AeOI.

Oaoiieia?y aeieaaee aenieiacioenoeo noaeae iaoiaeii AeOI. I?ioean AeOI a
aoiinoa??, ui i?noeoue acio, ii?aeio? a nia? aeaa oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioeane: eaaoaaiiy iaoaeo acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace ?
ia?iaeo iaoaeo oeaeii c oi?ioaaiiyi ceeoea a oeaeiaiio aa?ienaae?.
Ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? eaaoaaiiy acioii c aaciai? oace a i?ioean? AeOI
i?ae oeneii (AeOIO) cae?enithaaee ia eaai?aoi?i?e onoaiiaoe? OO-178.
Aeieaaeyee ceeoee noae? O18I10, O18A18 ? 4O5IOAN ae?aiao?ii 100 ii ?
aenioith 60 ii. Ieaaee i?iaiaeeee i?ae oethnii AIO-32 i?e oeueiio
aeei?enoiaoaaee aeaeo?iaee ae?aiao?ii 45 ii. ?iai/ee oene a eaia?? ia/?
noaiiaea 1 IIa. Acio a eaia?o ia/? iiaeaaaee /a?ac ii?iaeieio a
aeaeo?iae?. Eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo ii ia?aoeio ceeoea aoea ??aiii??ia,
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae na?aaeiuei? aaee/eie ia ia?aaeuoaaee 0,001% aan.

Aeey ia?aa??ee io?eiaieo a eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeao caeiiii??iinoae aoea
i?iaaaeaia na??y aenia?eiaio?a ia iai?ai?iieneia?e aeaeo?ioeaeia?e
onoaiiaoe? ?-951 c oethniaei caoai?ii. ui aeicaiey? i?aoethaaoe a
aeoaioeaeiaiio ?aaeei?. Aea/aee aieea aeo?aoe acioo, aenioe oeaeiai?
aaiie ? ai?noo eenith a aacia?e aoiinoa?? ia i??o iane/aiiy iaoaeo
acioii i?e aeoaioeaeiaiio ia?aieaa?.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? ieaaee i?iaiaeeee a i?aeiiio aiaeiioeiaeaeoaaiiio
e?enoae?caoi?? ae?aiao?ii 100 ii ia onoaiiaoe? AOI, yea ia? oethniaee
caoai?. Aeey ia?aieaao aeei?enoiaoaaee i?ieao (aeaeo?iaee) ae?aiao?ii
60 ii noae? oeio O18I10.

O oiae? ieaaie iai?oao, no?oi, ianiao oaeaee?noue ? aeiaaeeio aeoae
i?aeo?eioaaee iino?eieie. I?iaeoaaiiy acioo cae?enithaaee /a?ac
eieaeoi?, ?icoaoiaaiee i?ae e?enoae?caoi?ii oa oethniaei caoai?ii, ? o?e
i?eaa?ai? aei aeaeo?iaea aeo?aoi? o?oaee c aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii ioai?o
5 ii. Oene acioo a ?aaeoe?ei?e cii? noaiiaea 100 eIa. sse oeae
aeei?enoaee noi?o, ui neeaaea?oueny c 50% NaI ? 50% Al2O3.

C o?aooaaiiyi ?ic?iaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?ioeano AeOI ?
aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a aeaeo?iaea ? e?enoae?caoi?a, a oaeiae ianiai?
oaeaeeino? ia?aieaao (0,95 ea/oa.), ?ic?aooaaee noia?io e?euee?noue
acioo, ui iiaeeia?oueny ??aeeei iaoaeii, yea noaiiaeea 0,169%. Oea
cia/aiiy aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c o??th e?euee?noth acioo, yea aoea
io?eiaia a ceeoeao i?ney ia?aieaao i?e aenio? oeaeiai? aaiie < 40 ii. Oiio iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui i?e oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao?ao ieaaee (u?euei?noue no?oio ia aeaeo?iae? neeaaeaea - 100 A/ni2), ui aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ca ?aooiie oeneo aeoae oeae a?aeo?niy?oueny ia ia?eoa??th, a?aee?eaath/e /anoeio iiaa?oi? iaoaeaai? aaiie aeey aaciina?aaeiueiai eiioaeoo c aaciaith oacith. Oey iiaa?oiy noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii 1/3 caaaeueii? ieiu? iaoaeaai? aaiie, ui aeicaiey? ia oe?e noaae?? aeiaeaoeiai iiaeeiooe aei 30% acioo a?ae caaaeueii? eiai e?eueeino?. Ca?eueoaiiy aenioe oeaeiai? aaiie > 40 ii
aeeeth/a? iiaeeea?noue ?ice?eooy aeca?eaea iaoaeaai? aaiie — i?ioean
iiaeeiaiiy acioo i?io?ea? o?eueee ia noaae?? ooai?aiiy ie?aee oa eaiaeue
??aeeiai iaoaeo ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea — ? e?ioeaaee ai?no acioo a ceeoeo
aoaea aecia/aoeny o?eueee o??th e?euee?noth acioo, yea anoeaia
iiaeeiooeny ie?aeith ? e?aieyie ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea (0,09…0,12%).

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aeyaeoe oa ooi/ieoe i??o aieeao
??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iane/aiiy iaoaeo acioii ? iieacaee,
ui i?e aeio?eiaii? iioeiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a ia?aieaao iiaeia
eaaoaaoe iaoae acioii c aaciai? oace aei eiioeaio?aoe?e, aeecueeeo aei
noaiaea?oii? ?ic/eiiino?.

Iiaeaeueo? iai?ai?iieneia? ieaaee, i?iaaaeai? a ?AC ?i. ?.I.Iaoiia,
oaeiae iieacaee aenieo aoaeoeai?noue eaaoaaiiy ??cieo noaeae acioii
aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace. I?e ia?aieaa? noae? oeio O15I11I2 ia
ia/? ?951 o aeaeyae? aeaeo?iae?a 100 ii ? ui iathoue inueiao ii?iaeieio
15 ii, ai?no acioo a ceeoeo 200 ii neeaa a na?aaeiueiio 0,185%. Ai?no
acioo ca?eueoeany i?aeoe/ii ia ii?yaeie a ii??aiyii? c ii/aoeiaei
ai?noii eiai a aeaeo?iae? (0,02%). Ai?no acioo ii aenio? ceeoea
??aiii??iee, a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae na?aaeiueiai ?acoeueoaoo noaiiaeei ia
a?eueoa ± 0,005%.

Iiaeaeueo? ?iaioe aoee iai?aaeai? ia noai?aiiy i?iieneiai? oaoiieia??
io?eiaiiy iaoiaeii AeOI aaeeeioiiiaaeieo ceeoe?a neaaiiaai?oii?
o?iiiia?aaioeaai? noae? oeio O18AA18 ?c ai?noii acioo, yeee a?aeiia?aeaa
ae ??aiiaaaei?e eiioeaio?aoe?? eiai i?e cae/aeiiio oeneo. Ia ia?oiio
aoai? aoei aeieaaeaii aeaa ceeoee ianith aei 3 oiii ia?aoeiii 560o560 ii
ia ia/? AOI-5AA ?AC ?i. ?.I. Iaoiia,

Aeey AeOI canoiniaoaaee aeaeo?iaee 370…380 ii. Ii/aoeiaa
eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo a ieo aoea a na?aaeiueiio 0,52±0,02 %. Oe?
aenia?eiaioe aoee i?iaaaeai? c iaoith io?eiaoe a?aeiia?aeue ia ieoaiiy,
/e eaea i?ioean aeaacioaoe?? i?e ia?aieaa? noae? O18AA18 iaoiaeii AeOI c
oethniaei caoai?ii. Acio iiaeaaaany a ?aaeoe?eio ciio ii /ioe?ueio
o?oaeao, ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaieo ii ae?aiao?o aeaeo?iaea. Ieaaee
i?iaiaeeeeny i?ae oethnii AIO-32.

Aoee io?eiai? ceeoee ianith aei 3 oiii. ?iciiae?e acioo ii aenio?
ceeoe?a ??aiii??iee. O?i?/iee neeaae noae? aei ? i?ney ia?aieaao
i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ieany, ao?aoe iniiaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a (o?ii,
ia?aaiaoeue) iacia/i? ? neeaaeaee iaioa ca 1 % a?aeiinieo. Aeieaaea
i?iieneiaeo aaeeeioiiiaaeieo ceeoe?a iaoiaeii AeOI aeicaieeea ii??aiyoe
oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaai? eiioeaio?aoe?? acioo aeey ?aaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo
?aaeei?a ia?aieaao c oaeoe/ii io?eiaieie. ?aaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo
a ceeoeo a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeoue 0,55 % ? aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c
?ic?aooieiaith (0,543%). I?e oeueiio iiai?noth aoa a?aenooi?e i?ioean
aeaacioaoe?? i?e aoiinoa?iiio oeneo, a niinoa??aaeinue iaa?oue aeayea
i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo acioo. ?acoeueoaoe i?iieneiaeo ieaaie eyaee a iniiao
iiaeaeueoeo aenia?eiaio?a ii noai?aiith oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy ceeoe?a
noaee O18AA18 ianith 8 oiii ? a?eueoa iaoiaeii AeOI a aoiinoa??, ui
i?noeoue acio, c oethniaei caoai?ii. I?iieneia? ieaaee i?iaiaeeee ia
ia/? AOI eiino?oeoe?? o??ie «Eiina?e» a e?enoae?caoi? 860 ii a
aoiinoa?? /enoiai acioo (ai?no eenith ia a?eueoa ca 20 ??i).) Aoei
i?iaaaeaii 6 ieaaie noae? O18AA18. Aeey ia?aieaao aoee aeei?enoai?
aeaeo?iaee 600 ii nooe?eueiiai ia?aoeio ? c oeaio?aeueiei inueiaei
ioai?ii 80ii. A i?ioean? ieaaie aeei?enoiaoaaee aeaa oethne: ia?oee
AIO-32 40,5% CaF2; 22,5% CaO; 1,4% Al2O3; 6,7% SiO2; 3,2% IgI), a
ae?oaee oethn, ui neeaaea?oueny c 70% CaF2; 15% CaO; 15% Al2O3. Oia?oa
iaoiaeii AeOI a aoiinoa??, ui i?noeoue acio aoee aeieaaeai? ceeoee noae?
O18AA18 ianith 8 ? 4 oiiie.

An? ceeoee i?ney ieaaee aoee a oeaeiaiio aa?ienaae?, oiaueia yeiai aoea
1,5-2 ii. Ceeoee iaee aeaaeeo iiaa?oith aac aeaoaeo?a. Aeai? o?i?/iiai
aiae?co noae? O18AA18 aei ? i?ney ia?aieaao iieacothoue, ui ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny ciaioaiiy iniiaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a. Ci?no o?iio
i?aeoe/ii caeeoa?oueny ia ??ai? ii/aoeiaiai iaoaeo, ao?aoe ia?aaioeth ia
ia?aaeuothoue 1…2% a?aeiinieo. Iaeneiaeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y acioo o
aeieaaeaieo ceeoeao noaiiaeea 0,43%.

I?ioean AeOI a aoiinoa??, ui i?noeoue acio, aeaeo?iae?a 600 ii
noi?iaiaeeoueny aaaaoieaiaeueiei ia?aianaiiyi ??aeeiai iaoaeo c oi?oey
aeaeo?iaea a ??aeeo aaiio. I?ney ieaaee oi?oe? aeaeo?iae?a iathoue
ieineo iiaa?oith, ia ye?e aeaeii aace?/ canoeaeeo eaiaeue. Iacaeaaeii
a?ae oeio aeaeo?iae?a (iiaea/a acioo a oeaio?aeueiee ioa?? aai ia
ia?eoa??th) oa?aeoa? ieaaeaiiy iaoaeo caeeoa?oueny iaeiaeiaei.

sse iieacaee i?iieneia? ieaaee, i?ioean AeOI c oethniaei caoai?ii ?
ia?niaeoeaiei, ine?eueee aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe aaeeeioiiiaaei? ceeoee
aoaeue-yeeo oeii?ici???a i?e oeueiio ieoiia aeo?aoa aeaeo?iaia?a?? i?e
ia?aieaa? noaiiaeoue 900…1100 Eao//o. Oeae iieaciee a 1,5 ?ace ieae/a,
i?ae i?e AOIO.

Iniiai? ia?aaaae AeOI noaeae, ui i?noyoue acio:

· iiaeeea?noue aciooaaiiy noaeae aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace i?e
iiaiiio aeeeth/aii? oa?inieaa?a, ui i?noyoue acio, aai ea?ai?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a oeio i?o?eaeo e?aii?th ia an?o aoaiao oaoiieia?/iiai oeeeeo;

· i?inoioa eiai cae?eniaiiy ia ieaaeeueiiio iaeaaeiaii?, yea
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey AOI, ui cia/ii cieaeo? eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe ia
eiai cae?eniaiiy. Aeey aeieaaee noaeae c ??aiiaaaeiei acioii iio??aia
eeoa aeaioiaeaiiy oae caaiiai oethniaiai caoai?a aeey ?cieyoe??
ieaaeeueiiai i?inoi?o a?ae iaaeieeoiuei? aoiinoa?e ? caiiaiaiiy eiai
aaciiiae?aiei acioii;

· a?aeiinii iecueea, a aeaa ?ace iaioa a ii??aiyii? c AOI, aeo?aoa
neioaoe/iiai oeaeo, ui aei?iai eiooo?;

· a?aeiinii iecueea ieoiia aeo?aoa aeaeo?iaia?a??, i?eiaeii? a 1,5 ?ace
ieae/a, i?ae i?e AOI a eiai eaiii?/iiio aeaeyae? (ia?aieaa ii
iaeiiaeaeo?iaei?e i?yi?e noai? aeaeo?iae-ceeoie);

· /oaeiaa iiaa?oiy ceeoea, aeniea o?i?/ia ? no?oeoo?ia iaeii??aei?noue.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee.

1. Aiae?c ?nioth/eo niinia?a ae?iaieoeoaa noaeae ? nieaa?a c aenieei
ai?noii acioo, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao a Oe?a?i? ?
ca ?oaaaeai (AOI, AOIO, IAeI ? IAI) iieacaa ia?niaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy aeey oeeo oe?eae aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao. A?i aaeaei
ii?aeio? iiceoeai? yeino? aeaeo?e/ii? aeoae ye aoaeoeaiiai aeaea?aea
oaiea oa neioaoe/iiai oeaeo, ni?eyth/iai noaa?e?caoe?? ?? ai??iiy ?
io?eiaiiy ye?nieo ceeoe?a c oi?ioith iiaa?oiath.

2. I?aaenoaaeaiee oaiiiaiieia?/iee iien i?ioeano AeOI a aoiinoa?? acioo
i?e iaaei??iiio ? i?aeaeuaiiio oeneo, eiee aeoaa ai?eoue i?ae
aeaeo?iaeii, ui aeo?a/a?oueny ? oeaeii, ui iie?eaa? iiai?noth aai
/anoeiai iaoaeaao aaiio. Aea/ai? aeaeo?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeoaiaiai
?ic?yaeo i?e AeOI ? iieacaii, ui iayai?noue eaaei?ii?co?ieo aeaiaio?a a
oeaeo ??cei cieaeo? a?aae??io iai?oae a noiai? aeoae. I?e oeneo acioo
aei 3,0 IIa a i?ioean? AeOI aeineoue iaoe iai?oao oieinoiai oiaeo
aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy ia a?eueoa ca 150…200 A, ui aeicaiey? aeei?enoaoe
aac na?eicieo ia?a?iaie cae/aei? aeaea?aea aeeaeaiiy, ye?
canoiniaothoueny aeey AOI.

3. Io?eiai? iniiai? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? aaee/eie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
aani?aoe?th acioo a aeine?aeaeaieo iaoaeao ? nieaaao, ocaaaeueithth/o
caeaaei?noue oaieioe ?ic/eiaiiy ? eiaa?eoia eiao?oe??ioa aeoeaiino?
acioo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? eiioeaio?aoe?? eaaoth/eo
aeaiaio?a. Iieacaii, ui caeaaei?noue wmetafile8? ??^???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? AA
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy? ??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u–y
????1/4?????Symbol????-?????2thy???[????u–y
????1/4?????Symbol????-??????????2th
???]????u@th??????1/4??I?Times New Roman
Cyr?Ig???-??????????2?Ue
???R????2?[???%????2?<???f????2?9????lg???uath??????1/4? ?I?Times New Roman Cyr?Ig???-??????????27j???R????27X???Fe???2p???N????u @th??????1/4?????Symbol????-??????????2?1/2???-????uath? ?????1/4?????Symbol????-??????????27®???-????&??yyyy??? ?????u??????1/4???I"System?I???-?????????????1?? i?yiie?i?eia aeey ?icieaa?a cae?ca, eaaiaaieo iie?aaeaiii, aieueo?aiii ? i?eaeai, ? iieno?oueny ia?aiao?ii aca?iiae?? ia?oiai ii?yaeeo. Aeey nieaa?a cae?ca c aaiaae??i, i?ia??i, o?iiii, ia?aaioeai ? aoaeaoeai eiioeaio?aoe?eia caeaaei?noue eiaa?eoia eiao?oe??ioa aeoeaiino? iineoue e?eaie?i?eiee oa?aeoa? ? iieno?oueny c o?aooaaiiyi ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? acioo ia?oiai, ae?oaiai oa o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo. 4. ?ic?iaeaia i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea ? i?iaaaeai? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeiaiiy acioo ??cieie noaeyie ? nieaaaie a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? ? iaaei??iiai oeneo acioo. Eiee ai?no acioo a ?icieaaao ia ia?aaeuo? 0,8% ?ic/eii?noue acioo i?aeei?y?oueny caeiio N?aa?ona. I?e a?eueoiio ai?no? acioo niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? iiceoeai? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae oeueiai caeiio a ??cieo nieaaao cae?ca, eaaiaaieo o?iiii, ia?aaioeai, aaiaae??i, i?ia??i ? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia?aiao?e aca?iiae?? acioo c acioii (wmetafile8? ??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????279???N????2p!???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T imes New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-?????????????????lg). Io?eiaia oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue wmetafile8? ??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????279???N????2p!???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T imes New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-?????????????????lg aeey /enoeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca. Iieacaii, ui iacaeaaeii a?ae o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? eaaoth/iai eiiiiiaioa a ?icieaaao cae?ca ? /enoeo iaoaeao (V, Nb, Cr) aaee/eia ia?aiao?a aca?iiae?? wmetafile8? ??3/4???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? A????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??j?? ???&? ?MathType??`????uath??????1/4??I?Times New Roman Cyr?If???-?????279???N????2p!???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T imes New Roman Cyr?If???-??????????2?2????e????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-?????????????????lg, yea oa?aeoa?eco? i??o aca?iiae?? aoii?a acioo i?ae niaith, ia caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo ? ? aaee/eiith iino?eiith aeey caaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e. 5. Oia?oa oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaia cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? acioo, yea noaiiaeei 42,24 Aeae/aaoiiE. Ii??aiyiiy cia/aiiy wmetafile8? ??O???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy???–?? ???&? ?MathType??@? ???u?????????"????-???????@??????X???uath??????1/4??I? Times New Roman Cyr?If???-????2+…???no???2?›???N????u@th??????1/4??I?T imes New Roman Cyr?If???-?????????2`N????S????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4 ???I"System?I???-???????????? ?yr? c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie aeey /enoeo iaoae?a ? ??cieo nieaa?a iieacaei, ui noaiaea?oia aio?ii?y ?ic/eiaiiai a ??aeeeo iaoaeao ? nieaaao acioo ia? iino?eia cia/aiiy, yea ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeyaeo ?icieaao. Iie?oa?ie ?ic/eiiino? acioo a io?eiaieo ?icieaaao noiaeyoueny a iaeio aocueeo iaeanoue. Iath/e a nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii? cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? ?ic/eiaiiai a ?icieaaao acioo, iiaeia eaaei ioe?ieoe aeinoia??i?noue aenia?eiaioaeueii? oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? ?ic/eiiino? acioo a ??cieo ?icieaaao. 6. Aiane?aeie e?iaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiaii /enaeuei? cia/aiiy aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? acioo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo acioo. Ca?eueoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ?icieaao ia 100 a?aaeon?a iaeaea aaea?/? ca?eueoo? eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/?. 7. ?ic?iaeaia i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeeea oa i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae eaaoaaiiy acioii ?icieaa?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oeaeo ? a?ae aeaeyaeo ieaaee. Iaeneiaeueia oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo niinoa??aa?oueny o ?ac? ieaaeaiiy i?ae /enoei ooi?enoei eaeueoe??i, a i?i?iaeueia i?ae oethnii 50 NaI e 50% Al2O3. Oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy neeueii caeaaeeoue a?ae niiniao ieaaee. I?e aeoaiaiio ieaaeaii? noae? O18AA18 i?ae oeaeii AIO-32 eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? a aeaa ?ace aeua, i?ae i?e ?iaeoeoe?eiiio ieaaeaii?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a aacia?e aoiinoa?? c 0,001% aei 0,6% ia ii?yaeie ciaioo? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? i?e ?iaeoeoe?ei?e ieaaoe?. Eiee ieaaea i?iaiaeeoueny a aeoaiaiio ?aaeei?, oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo oaeiae cieaeo?oueny, iaeiae oaii cieaeaiiy cia/ii iaioee. 8. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iiaeeiaiiy acioo ia ??cieo noaae?yo aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/?, oaeaeeino? ieaaeaiiy, ieiu? iiaa?oi? ie?aee ? eaiaeue ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea ? iiaa?oi? iaoaeaai? aaiie. Aea/aia oaeaee?noue iiaeeiaiiy acioo ia ??cieo noaae?yo ia?aieaao. Aaea ia noaae?? ooai?aiiy ie?aee ? iiaeaeueoeo eaiaeue ??aeeee iaoae ia oi?oe? aeaeo?iaea anoeaa? iiaeeiooe cia/io e?euee?noue acioo, yea caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeaeeino? ieaaee, ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo acioo ? iiaa?oi? ?aaaoaaiiy. Iieacaii aieea oeneo acioo, ieiu? iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaea oa e?enoae?caoi?a ? iayaiino? oeaeo ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeaai? aaiie ia e?euee?noue acioo, yea iiaeeia?oueny ??aeeei iaoaeii a i?ioean? AeOI. 9. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao noaeae ? nieaa?a c iaeii/aniei eaaoaaiiyi ?o acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace. I?e aeoaioeaeiaiio ia?aieaa? i?ioean aciooaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny aeineoue ?ioaineaii a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee a i?ioean? ia?aieaao aeinyaa?oueny /anoeiaa iaieaiiy aeca?eaea iaoaeaai? aaiie a?ae oeaeo. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?ioean aciooaaiiy c aaciai? oace a?aeaoaa?oueny iaea?eueo iiaii, ye ia noaae?? ie?aee oa e?aie?, oae ? ia noaae?? iaoaeaai? aaiie. I?e i?aeo?eioe? iioeiaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a ia?aieaao iiaeia eaaoaaoe iaoae acioii c aaciai? oace aei eiioeaio?aoe?e, aeecueeeo aei ?ic?aooieiaeo. 10. Aeaioiaeaii iaeaaeiaiiy, yea caaacia/o? eaaoaaiiy iaoae?a ? nieaa?a acioii c aaciai? oace i?e aoiinoa?iiio ? iaaei??iiio oeneo. Aeey ae?iaieoeoaa noaeae ? nieaa?a c ??aiiaaaeiei ai?noii acioo iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? cae/aei? (aaceaia?i?) aeaeo?ioeaeia? ia/? c oethniaei caoai?ii. Aeey aeieaaee noaeae ? nieaa?a c iiiaae??aiiaaaeiei ai?noii acioo iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaoe niaoe?aeuei? eaia?i? ia/? aeey AeOI, ye? i?aoeththoue a aoiinoa?? acioo i?ae oeneii aei 4 IIa. Aeey oeeo oe?eae iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? eaia?i? ia/? AOI, ye? iiaeii? aooe ia?aiaeaaeiai? aeey ?iaioe i?ae oeneii acioo. Cai?iiiiiaai? noaie iiaea/? acioo i?e AeOI. Aeaioiaeai? ? ia?aa??ai? a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao nenoaie iiaea/? acioo /a?ac aeo?aoiee aeaeo?iae ii niaoe?aeueiei o?oaii?iaiaeai. 11. Noeoii?noue oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe aeicaieeea ae??oeoe aaaeeeao i?iaeaio ?ic?iaee iaoeiaeo iniia ? oaoiieia?? aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao, ui aeicaiey? eaaoaaoe ??aeeee iaoae acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace i?e iiaiiio aeeeth/aii? iaoa??ae?a, ui i?noyoue acio, a oaeiae noai?aiith iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai niiniao ia?aieaao a i?iieneiaino?. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaiee a ioae?eaoe?yo: 1. A?eai?aiei A.I., Iiia?ei TH.I. Aiaei?iae e acio a iaoaeeao i?e ieaciaiiie ieaaea. - Eeaa: Iaoe. aeoiea, 1989.- 200n. 2. Grigorenko G.M., Pomarin Y.M. Nitrogen and hydrogen in molten metals and alloys.- Sov. Tech. Rev. 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Aeeyiea ninoaaa oethnia e aaciaie aoiinoa?u ia iiaeiuaiea acioa noaeyie e nieaaaie i?e eiaeoeoeeiiiii e aeoaiaii ieaaeaiee// I?iae. niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee.- 1995.- ?3.- n.6-14. 56. Iaoii A.A., A?eai?aiei A.I., Iaaeiaa? A.E. e ae?. I iiauo aiciiaeiinoyo aeoaioeaeiaiai iaa?aaa// I?iae. niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee.- 1995.- ?4.- n.3-6. 57. Iiia?ei TH.I., Oeieoeui N.ss., A?eai?aiei A.I. e ae?. Eiaeoeoeeiiiay ia/ue aeey auieaaee ?acee/iuo acioniaea?aeaueo noaeae e nieaaia iiae aeaaeaieai aei 13 IIA// I?iae. niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee.- 1996.- ?2.- n.46-50. 58. I?eianeee A.TH., A?eai?aiei A.I., Iiia?ei TH.I. Aani?aoeey acioa aeeaeeeie nieaaaie nenoaiu Fe-Nb// I?iae. niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee.- 1997.- ?1.- n.61-66. 59. Grigorenko G.M., Pomarin Y.M., Orlovsky V.Yu. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the thermodinamic and kinetic nitrogen absorption by liquid alloys// The 5-th international conference “High Nitrogen steels HNS-98”: Finland, Sweden.- 1998.- c.5. 60. Medovar B.I., Medovar L.B., Pomarin Y.M. and al. Influence of the flux composition and state of the gas atmosphere over the kinetics of nitrogen absorption by steels and alloys at the arc slay remelting// The 5-th International conference “High Nitrogen steels HNS-98”: Finland, Sweden.- 1998.- p.99. 61. Iiia?ei TH.I. Aeoaioeaeiaue ia?aieaa e?oiiioiiiaaeiuo neeoeia noaee O18AA18 ia i?iiuoeaiiie ia/e YOI// I?iae. niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee.- 1998.- ?1.- n.11-16. 62. Iiia?ei TH.I., A?eai?aiei A.I. Noaiaea?oiay yio?iiey aaca - e?eoa?ee ioeaiee aeinoiaa?iinoe oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo eiinoaio ?anoai?eiinoe aacia a iaoaeeao e nieaaao// I?iae. niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee.- 1998.- ?2.- n.45-51. 63. Iiia?ei TH.I. Enneaaeiaaiea eeiaoeee iiaeiuaiey acioa ?acee/iuie noaeyie e nieaaaie ec aaciaie oacu a caaeneiinoe io oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeaiey acioa// I?iae. niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee.- 1998.- ?2.- n.6-9. 64. Iiia?ei TH.I. Iniaaiiinoe iiaeiuaiey acioa ?anieaaaie ia iniiaa aeaeaca, eaae?iaaiiiai auniei?aaeoeeiiiuie iaoaeeaie// I?iae. niaoe. yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee.- 1998.- ?4.- n. 71-73. 65. A.n. ?337035 NNN?. Ieaciaiiiaeoaiaay ia/ue/- Iaoii A.A., Eaeiineee A.E., A?eai?aiei A.I., Oaeei E.A., Iiia?ei TH.I. e ae?./ ?1634222. Caya. 29.03.1971a. 66. A.n. ?660392 NNN?. Niinia eaae?iaaiey noaeae e nieaaia acioii/- A?eai?aiei A.I., Oaeei E.A., Iiia?ei TH.I., Eaieaieioeeee N.A./ ?2363433. Caya. 19.05.1976a. 67. A.n. ?885776 NNN?. Niinia ieaaee iaoaeeia e nieaaia/ A?eai?aiei A.I., Eaoao TH.A., Oaeei E.A., Iiia?ei TH.I. e ae?./- ?2864210. Caya. 4.01.1980a.; Iioae. 30.11.81, Athe. ?44. 68. A.n. ?932955 NNN?. Ono?ienoai aeey ieaaee iaoaeeia e nieaaia ai acaaoaiiii ninoiyiee/ A?eai?aiei A.I., Eaoao TH.A., Oaeei E.A., Iiia?ei TH.I. e ae?./- ?3233846. Caya. 9.01.1981a. 69. A.n. ?991739 NNN?. Ono?ienoai aeey ia?aieaaa ?anoiaeoaiuo caaioiaie a e?enoaeeecaoi?a/ Eaoao TH.A., A?eai?aiei A.I., Aoeaei A.E. e ae?./- ?3308610. Caya. 29.06.1981a. 70. A.n. ?1041014 NNN?. Ono?ienoai aeey ieaaee iaoaeeia e nieaaia ai acaaoaiiii ninoiyiee/ Eaoao TH.A., A?eai?aiei A.I., Oaeei E.A., Iiia?ei TH.I./- ?3386573. Caya. 1.12.1981a. 71. A.n. ?1070939 NNN?. Auno?i?aaeouay noaeue/ Eaoao TH.A., A?eai?aiei A.I., Eethaa I.E., Iiia?ei TH.I./- ?3455877. Caya. 18.06.1982a. 72. A.n. ?1092970 NNN?. Niinia ieaciaiiiaeoaiaiai ia?aieaaa ?anoiaeoaiuo yeaeo?iaeia/ Eaoao TH.A., A?eai?aiei A.I., Iiia?ei TH.I. e ae?/- ?3541279. Caya. 18.01.1983a. 73. A.n. ?1479247 NNN?. Niinia eieoaoeee i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a naa?i/iie aaiia i?e naa?ea ieaaeaieai/ THuaiei E.A., A?eai?aiei A.I., Iiia?ei TH.I. e ae?./- ?4271294. Caya. 30.06.1987a., Iioae. 15.05.89, Athe. ?18. 74. A.n. ?1590287 NNN?. Niinia eieoaoeee i?ioeanna nouanoaiaaiey naa?i/iie aaiiu/ THuaiei E.A., A?eai?aiei A.I., Iiia?ei TH.I. e ae?./- ?4391175. Caya. 14.03.1988a., Iioae. 7.09.90, Athe. ?33. 75. A.n. ?1657537 NNN?. Niinia ecia?aiey oaiia?aoo?u ?anieaaa i?e aai iaa?aaa a oeaea ieaciaiiiaeoaiaui ?ac?yaeii naa?oo/ A?eai?aiei A.I., Iiia?ei TH.I., Nieiaae E.I./- ?4645672. Caya. 28.11.1988a., Iioae. 23.06.1991a., Athe. ?23. 76. Iaoaio/ ?789490 a Aaeueaee; ?100604 AAe?; 3965361 a Eoaeee; ?328111 a Aano?ee; ?890091 a ssiiiee; ?202640 a *aoineiaaeee/ Ieaciaiiiaeoaiaay ia/ue./ Iaoii A.A., Eaeiineee A.E., A?eai?aiei A.I., Iiia?ei TH.I. e ae?. - 1972. AIIIOAOeEss Iiia?ei TH.I. Enneaaeiaaiea aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo i?ioeannia acaeiiaeaenoaey acioa n ?anieaaaie e ?ac?aaioea niiniaa eaae?iaaiey acioii noaeae i?e aeoaioeaeiaii ia?aieaaa. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.07- iaoaeeo?aey auniei/enouo iaoaeeia e niaoeeaeueiuo nieaaia - Einoeooo yeaeo?inaa?ee ei. A.I.Iaoiia IAI Oe?aeiu,Eeaa.1999. Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaai e ?ac?aaioai niinia eaae?iaaiey noaeae e nieaaia acioii iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec aaciaie oacu a i?ioeanna aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaaa. Aia?aua i?iaaaeaiu nenoaiaoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey oa?iiaeeiaieee e eeiaoeee iiaeiuaiey acioa ?anieaaaie a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo?, aeaaeaiee e eiioeaio?aoeee eaae?othueo eiiiiiaioia. Aia?aua oai?aoe/anee ?ann/eoaii cia/aiea aaee/eiu ia?oeeaeueiie noaiaea?oiie yio?iiee acioa, eioi?ay iicaieeea ioeaieoue aeinoiaa?iinoue iieo/aiiuo oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo eiinoaio e i?aaeeiaeeoue o?aaiaiea aeey ?an/aoa ?anoai?eiinoe acioa a ethaii nieaaa ia iniiaa aeaeaca. I?aaeeiaeaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue, iienuaathuay eeiaoeeo iiaeiuaiey acioa ?anieaaii ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo ia?aieaaa a caaeneiinoe io iniiaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia AeOI. ?ac?aaioaia oaoiieiaey aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaaa acioniaea?aeaueo noaeae e aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth, eiathuaainy ieaaeeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e nicaeaieth iiauo aeoaioeaeiauo ia/ae aeey auieaaee neeoeia iiae ecauoi/iui aeaaeaieai acioa. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeoaioeaeiaue ia?aieaa, acio, oethn, eeiaoeea, ?anoai?eiinoue, oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeaiea. yio?iiey, eiyooeoeeaio ianniia?aaea/e. AIIOAOe?ss Iiia??i TH.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? acioo c ?icieaaaie ? ?ic?iaea niiniao eaaoaaiiy acioii noaeae i?e aeoaioeaeiaiio ia?aieaa?. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 05.16.07- iaoaeo?a?y aeniei/enoeo iaoae?a ? niaoe?aeueieo nieaa?a - ?inoeooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?.I.Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee ? ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a eaaoaaiiy noaeae ? nieaa?a acioii aaciina?aaeiuei c aaciai? oace a i?ioean? aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao. Oia?oa i?iaaaeai? nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?ee oa e?iaoeee iiaeeiaiiy acioo ?icieaaaie a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?, oeneo ? eiioeaio?aoe?e eaaoth/eo eiiiiiaio?a. Oia?oa oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaaia cia/aiiy aaee/eie ia?oe?aeueii? noaiaea?oii? aio?ii?? acioo, yea aeicaieeea ioe?ieoe aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo eiinoaio ? cai?iiiioaaoe ??aiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo ?ic/eiiino? acioo a aoaeue-yeiio nieaa? ia iniia? cae?ca. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, ui iieno? e?iaoeeo iiaeeiaiiy acioo ?icieaaii ia ??cieo noaae?yo ia?aieaao a caeaaeiino? a?ae iniiaieo oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a AeOI. ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y aeoaioeaeiaiai ia?aieaao noaeae, ui i?noyoue acio ? cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith ?nioth/iai ieaaeeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa noai?aiith iiaeo aeoaioeaeiaeo ia/ae aeey aeieaaee ceeoe?a i?ae iaaei??iei oeneii acioo. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeoaioeaeiaee ia?aieaa, acio, oethn, e?iaoeea, ?ic/eii?noue, oaiia?aoo?a, oene. aio?ii?y, eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/?. SYNOPSIS Pomarin Yu.M. Investigation of high-temperature processes of interaction of nitrogen with melts and development of a method for alloying of steels with nitrogen during arc-slag remelting. - Manuscript. Thesis for a degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences in speciality 05.16.07 - Metallurgy of High-Purity Metals and Special Alloys. - E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The thesis is dedicated to high-temperature investigations into thermodynamics and kinetics of interaction of nitrogen with molten metals and alloys, and development of a technology and equipment for arc-slag remelting of steels combined with nitrogen alloying directly from the gas phase. Presented is the phenomenological description of the ASR process occurring in the atmosphere of nitrogen under surplus and increased pressures, where the arc burns between a consumable electrode and slag which fully or partially covers the metal pool. Electrical characteristics of the arc discharge during ASR were studied. It is shown that the presence of easily ionized elements in slag causes a drastic decrease in voltage gradient in the arc column. Pioneering systematic investigations were conducted to study thermodynamics and kinetics of absorption of nitrogen by the melts within a wide range of temperatures, pressures and concentrations of alloying elements. Derived are the basic thermodynamic values to characterize absorption of nitrogen in metals and alloys investigated and generalize dependencies of dissolution heat and logarithm of the nitrogen reactivity factor upon the temperature and concentration of alloying elements. For the first time the value of partial standard entropy of nitrogen was calculated, it being equal to 42.24 J/g-atom. The value of partial standard entropy of nitrogen dissolved in the melts being known, the degree of confidence of experimental temperature dependencies of solubility of nitrogen in different melts can be readily estimated. Suggested is the equation for calculation of solubility of nitrogen in multi-component iron-base alloys for a wide range of concentrations of alloying elements, temperatures and pressures of nitrogen. The calculations presented prove validity of the Wagner's rule of additivity for multi-component iron-base alloys, as well as possibility of using the equation suggested for estimation of absorption ability of nitrogen-containing steels and alloys remelted in special electrometallurgy units under normal and surplus pressure of up to 5 MPa. The ingenious procedure was developed and investigations were conducted to study peculiarities of nitrogen alloying of the melts depending upon the chemical composition of slag and the type of melting. Mathematical model was developed to describe absorption of nitrogen at different stages of arc-slag remelting depending upon the mass transfer coefficient, melting rate, surface area of the film and droplets at the electrode tip and surface of the metal pool. Rate of absorption of nitrogen at different stages of remelting was studied. The technology was developed for arc-slag remelting of steels and alloys by simultaneously alloying them with nitrogen directly from the gas phase. In arc-slag remelting the nitriding process can occur rather intensively, providing that remelting causes partial removal of slag from the metal pool surface. In this case the process of nitriding from the gas phase is most complete both at stage of the film and droplet and at stage of the metal pool. Equipment which provides alloying of metals and alloys with nitrogen from the gas phase under atmospheric and surplus pressures was manufactured. Conventional (chamber-free) electroslag furnaces with flux gate can be used to produce steels and alloys with an equilibrium content of nitrogen. To melt steels and alloys with a super-equilibrium content of nitrogen, it is necessary to use special ASR chamber furnaces designed for operation in the atmosphere of nitrogen under a pressure of up to 4 MPa. The ESR chamber furnaces can be utilized for these purposes, although in this case they should be re-equipped for operation under the nitrogen pressure. Diagrams of nitrogen feeding for ASR are offered. Systems for feeding nitrogen through a consumable electrode or special tubings were manufactured and validated under industrial conditions. The set of theoretical postulates and experimental results made it possible to solve an important problem of working out the scientific principles and development of the technology for arc-slag remelting to provide alloying of molten metal with nitrogen directly from the gas phase by eliminating any nitrogen-containing material, as well as building of equipment for commercial realization of this remelting technology. Key words: arc-slag remelting, nitrogen, flux, solubility, kinetics, temperature, pressure, alloying, entropy, mass transfer coefficient.

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