Дослідження дифузійних і газодинамічних процесів у ПСГ при фільтрації природного газу і азоту: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / Л.Т. Гораль, Івано-Ф

?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco

Ai?aeue E?e?aia Oa?an?aia

OAeE [622.691.24:533].001.5

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeooc?eieo ? aaciaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o INA i?e
o?eueo?aoe?? i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? acioo

05.15.13 – Iaooiaacii?iaiaee, aace oa noiaeua

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?ia? ?iiai
Oaaei?iae/, ?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe
? aaco, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith iaooiaaciai? a?ae?iiaoai?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?oaec Aieiaeeie? ss?ineaaiae/,
?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith nii?oaeaeaiiy o?oaii?iaiae?a ? noiaeu;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, ?caao A?eoi? ?aaiiae/, aeoe?iia?ia eiiiai?y
Oe?o?ainaac, canooiiee ia/aeueieea oi?aae?iiy eiii?ani?ieo noaioe?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

a?aee?eoa aeoe?iia?ia oiaa?enoai, ?iaeei??eiaiai-ae?iaie/a i?aei?e?inoai
AI?I?O?AINAAC, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 15 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 10.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 20.052.04 i?e ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? iaooe ? aaco, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
aoe. Ea?iaonueea, 15.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e a?ae?ioaoe?
?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco,
284019, i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, aoe. Ea?iaonueea, 15.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 15 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Oeaiae E.N.

1

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

A oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei nenoaia aaciiinoa/aiiy Oe?a?ie
ia? iaae?eii caaeiaieueiyoe iiieo ia aac aoaeue-eiee ca?aeii c oa?i?iaie
eiio?aeo?a, iinoaaeyth/e niiaeeaa/ai iaiao?aei? ianyae i?e?iaeiiai aaco
iaoiiaeaii? yeino? i?e aecia/aieo oeneao a nenoai? aacii?iaiae?a. Oea
caaaeaiiy ?aae?co?oueny cie?aia ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aae? i?aecaiiiai
caa??aaiiy aaco.

C?o/i? aaia?ao?/i? /eiieee – iayai?noue ae?iaeaieo aaciaeo iieeaae?a,
ye? iathoue ni?eyoeea? aaieiai-i?iieneia? oa?aeoa?enoeee,
aaciina?aaeiuei a?ey iniiaieo aenii?oieo aacii?iaiae?a oa a?ey
cao?aeiiai ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie, coiiaeee noai?aiiy iaea?eueoiai a ?a?ii?
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai eiiieaeno i?aecaiiiai caa??aaiiy aaco, a yeiio
cina?aaeaeaii iiiaae 70% on??? iiooaeiino? i?aecaiiiai caa??aaiiy aaco a
Oe?a?i?.

Aeey iaae?eiiai ? aoaeoeaiiai o?aiceoo aaco iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe eiai
aeiiii?/ii ii?aaaeaia caa??aaiiy. Aeiiii?/i? iieacieee i?aecaiieo noiaeu
aaco a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae oiia noai?aiiy INA ?, a ia?oo /a?ao,
a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aooa?iei ? aeoeaiei aacii. Ciaioaiiy ia’?io
aooa?iiai aaco i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy cao?ao ia nai aooa?iee aac,
aea i?e oeueiio cieaeo?oueny ieanoiaee oene, ui iia??oo? oiiae a?aeai?o
aeoeaiiai aaco. Oiio aooa?iee aac aeioe?eueii aoei a ia ciaiooaaoe
e?euee?nii, a cai?ieoe ?ioei, aeiiii?/ii aei?aaaeaiei cai?iieeii. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae iniaeeai aeooaeueiee aeey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie ia
no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo, ine?eueee aeao?oeeo aaciaiai iaeueiiai
a?ae/ooiee o an?o aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Oaia ?iaioe a?aeiineoueny aei aaeocaai? i?iaeaie ? oaiaoe/ieo ieai?a
“Aea?aeeiiiaooiaaci?ii”. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeoeniaiiy caeeoeiai?
iaooe oa aaciaiai eiiaeainaoo ii aea?aeathaeaeaoi?e oai? A 13/4,
?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y i?aeaeuaiiy aeaeiaooeo aaco ia inoaii?e noaae??
aenieoaoaoe?? ?iaeiaeu c aeiiiiiaith caea/ee ?ia?oiiai aaco a ieano ii
oai? ?150/92.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

I?iaaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aaciaeeiai?/ieo ? aeeooc?eieo
i?ioean?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu? c iaoith cai?ie aooa?iiai aaco
?ia?oiei aeey iie?auaiiy aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a i?aecaiiiai caa??aaiiy
aaco.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1. Noaoenoe/ia ioe?iea aieeao ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco ia aeiiii?/i?
iieacieee i?aecaiiiai noiaeua aaco.

2. Aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco a noiaeu? c
a?aooaaiiyi ?aaeeio ?iaioe INA.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano aeeooc?? aac?a i?e ?o
eiioaeo? a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu?.

4. Aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano noi?oiooai?aiiy a i?iaeoeoeaiiio
ai?eciio? INA.

5. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a a i?iaeoeoeaiiio ai?eciio?
i?e aeoeniaii? aooa?iiai i?e?iaeiiai aaco ?ia?oiei.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iieyaa? a:

· iinoaiiaoe? ? ?aae?caoe?? iiaeo caaea/ i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? i?aecaiiiai caa??aaiiy aaco oeyoii cai?ie aooa?iiai aaco
?ia?oiei;

· iiaoaeia? ? ?aae?caoe?? aeiiiii-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? INA c iaoith
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco c a?aooaaiiyi ?aaeeio
a?aeai?o aeoeaiiai aaco;

· iinoaiiaoe? iaoeiaiai aenia?eiaioo c iaoith aea/aiiy i?ioeano aeeooc??
aac?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu? ? ocaaaeueiaii? eiai ?acoeueoao?a;

· aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeeooc?eieo i?ioean?a a i?iaeoeoeaiiio
ai?eciio? i?e aeoeniaii? aooa?iiai aaco ?ia?oiei;

· aea/aii? caeiiii??iinoae ?ooo ciie eiioaeoo i?e?iaeiiai ? ?ia?oiiai
aac?a i?e ?o noi?ni?e o?eueo?aoe?? a i?iaeoeoeaiiio ai?eciio? INA.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeathoue ciiao iiaeeaeoe ciaiiy
no?oeoo?e aeiiii?/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo iieaciee?a noai?thaaieo INA,
c?icoi?oe o?ce/io i?e?iaeo i?ioean?a aeeooc?? aac?a a ii?enoiio
na?aaeiaeu?, ciiaeaethaaoe ea?oeio ci?ooaaiiy aac?a a i?iaeoeoeaiiio
ai?eciio? INA oa aeeiai?eo ia?ai?uaiiy ciie eiioaeoo ci?ooaaiiy aac?a.
?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee ? i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo aeicaieythoue aea?aoe
iioeiaeueiee ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco a INA (iacaeaaeii a?ae eiai i?e?iaee)
oa ciiaeaethaaoe i?ioean o?eueo?aoe?? aac?a i?e aeoeniaii? aooa?iiai
aaco ?ia?oiei. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie iiaoaeiaaieo iaoaiaoe/ieo oa aeiiiii-
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae noai?aii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo iioei?caoe??
ia?aiao??a i?aecaiieo noiaeu aaco, yea caoaa?aeaeaia ye ea??aiee
aeieoiaio ?inoeoooii Oe?aaci?iaeo ? ai?iaaaeaeaia aeey aeei?enoaiiy a
AeI “I?eea?iaoo?ainaac”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a ioe?ioe? aieeao ia’?io aooa?iiai
aaco ia aeiiii?/i? iieacieee INA, yea c?iaeaia ia iniia? aiae?co
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo. Iiaoaeiaaii aeiiiii-iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue INA c
iaoith iioei?caoe?? ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco ? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ??
?aae?caoe?? [1]. Noai?aii aenia?eiaioaeueio onoaiiaeo, i?iaaaeaii
aeine?aee oa?aeoa?o aeeooc?eiiai ci?ooaaiiy aac?a a ii?enoiio
na?aaeiaeu?, aeeiiaii ia?iaeo ?o ?acoeueoao?a [3]. Aea/aii oa?aeoa?
ci?ooaaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? acioo i?e ?o noi?ni?e o?eueo?aoe?? a
i?iaeoeoeaiiio ai?eciio? INA [5]. I?iaaaeaii aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaciaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a a INA i?e aeoeniaii? aooa?iiai aaco ?ia?oiei.

A ni?euei?e ioae?eaoe?? [8] aaoi?ii aeeiiaiee aiae?c ?aaeei?a ?iaioe INA
I?eea?iaooy, a iaienaiiy eiii’thoa?ii? i?ia?aie aaoi?ii ? iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe noaee i?aenoaaith aeey iaienaiiy ni?eueii? i?aoe? [7].

Ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia:

· can?aeaiiyo iaoeiaiai nai?ia?o eaoaae?e iaooiaaciai? a?ae?iiaoai?ee
?OAeOOIA. (1992-1996 ?.?.), can?aeaiiyo iaoeiaiai nai?ia?o oaeoeueoaoo
aaciiaooii?iaiae?a ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.13 — “Iaooiaacii?iaiaee,
aace oa noiaeua”, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ?OAeOOIA (1992-1998 ?.?.),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Noai, i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
iaooiaaciaiai eiiieaeno Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie” (1995)

Ioae?eaoe??

Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 8 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeue, a oiio /ene?
4 noaoo? (3 iaeiiin?aii)

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe

?iaioa aeeiiaia o oi?i? ?oeiieno, neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeeeaaeaieo ia 171 noi??ioe? iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
a oiio /ene? 23 oaaeeoe?, 29 ?enoie?a ? 6 aeiaeaoe?a. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 124 iaeiaioaaiiy i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa
? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue,
aeeeaaeai? iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo
iieaciee?a INA cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie, oae ye i?aecaii? noiaeua
aaco, noai?ai? o aeniaaeaieo ?iaeiaeuao I?eea?iaooy (Oaa?nueea,
Iia?nueea, Aeaoaanueea, Aiai?iae/ainueea ? Oaa?nueei-A?eue/a-Aieeoeueea)
i?ecia/ai? aeey caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? aenii?oieo iinoaaie aaco a
e?a?ie Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? aaciiinoa/aiiy Cao?aeiiai aeiiii?/iiai ?aeiio
e?a?ie, a ca’yceo c iino?eiei cieaeaiiyi aeaeiaooeo aaco ?c ?iaeiaeu
cao?aeieo iaeanoae Oe?a?ie.

Caaaeueiee aeoeaiee ia’?i aaco a oeeo aacinoiaeuao a 1990 ?ioe? neeaa
10,75 ie?ae.i3 , c ieo 7,86 ie?ae.i3 – aeey caaacia/aiiy ia’?i?a
aenii?oieo iinoa/aiue (aac a?aooaaiiy ?aca?ao ia?iciiae?eaiiai aeoeaiiai
ia’?io aaco). ?iaioe ii i?iaeooaaiith ? noai?aiith INA a Cao?aeiiio
?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie aaaeooueny c 1969 ?ieo. Ii?yae c i?eaaaeaieie
oaoiieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie, i?aecaii? noiaeua aaco, noai?ai? a
aeniaaeaieo ?iaeiaeuao I?eea?iaooy, iathoue nai? aaieiai-oaoi?/i?
iniaeeaino?.

I?aeoe/ii an? aeniaaeai? ?iaeiaeua I?eea?iaooy i?eo?i/ai? aei
iaiaeii??aeieo (ye ii ieiu? oae ? ii ?ic??co) eieaeoi??a. A ?acoeueoao?,
a iecueeii?iieeieo /anoeiao iieeaae?a, ooai?ththoueny oae caai?
“cano?ei?” ciie aacinoiaeu, ye? ia i?eeiathoue o/anoue a ?iaio? i?e
oeeee?/i?e aenieoaoaoe?? aacinoiaeu, aea ye? noai?ththoue iioaioe?eiee
i?aei?? ? ye? ca?eueoothoue, a ?acoeueoao?, aaee/eio aooa?iiai ia’?io
aaco.

Aiae?c no/aniiai noaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ii oi?ioaaiith INA a
e?a?iao ?a?iie oa NOA i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeooaeuei?noue iinoaaeaii? a
?iaio? caaea/?.

Iaoith i?iaaaeaiiai ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co aoei anoaiiaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e
aieeao iniiaieo oaoi?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo iieaciee?a noai?aiiy
i?aecaiieo noiaeu aaco ia ?o aeiiii?/i? iieacieee. Iiaoaeiaai?
ei?aeyoe?ei? caeaaeiino? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? c iaoith
i?iaiicoaaiiy oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo i?aecaiiiai caa??aaiiy aaco,
oaiaeaioe?e aieeao iniiaieo ia?aiao??a i?aecaiieo noiaeu ia ?o
aeiiii?/i? iieacieee. sse iieaco? aiae?c ei?aeyoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae
iaea?eueoee aieea ia eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy ? nia?aa?o?noue caa??aaiiy aaco
ia? ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco. I?e oeueiio ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ia’?io aooa?iiai
aaco eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy c?inoathoue, a nia?aa?o?noue caa??aaiiy aaco
ciaioo?oueny. I/aaeaeii, ui cai?ia aooa?iiai aaco acioii, yeee ? a?eueo
aeaoaaei c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o i?eaaaea aei ciaioaiiy eai?oaeueieo
cao?ao ia noai?aiiy INA.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia’?io aooa?iiai
aaco ia oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee INA.

Ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco, aecia/aiee c a?aooaaiiyi oaoiieia?/ieo oiia
aenieoaoaoe?? noiaeua, /anoi ia caaeiaieueiy? aeiiii?/iei aeiiaai. I?e
oeueiio cao?aoe ii caa??aaiith aaco ca /an ?iaioe noiaeua ia ?
i?i?iaeueieie. Aooa?iee aac yaey? niaith i?iaeoeoe?th, yea ia? aecia/aio
oe?io. C?icoi?ei, ui /ei a?eueoa aa?o?noue aooa?iiai aaco, oei iaioa
eiai iiaeiii aooe a noiaeu? i?e ?ioeo iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao.

Ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco, e??i oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, caeaaeeoue a?ae
eai?oaeueieo cao?ao ia ao??iiy naa?aeeiaei, aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao i?e
?o ?iaio?, aa?oino? iaeeieoe? ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeo?ao ia eiai iaai?oaiiy oa iiiiaeaiiy ,eai?oaeueieo cao?ao ia
aoae?aieoeoai eiii?ani?ii? noaioe?? ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo cao?ao i?e ??
?iaio?.

Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia aecia/aiiy ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco a INA ?, caeaaeii
a?ae iueiai, /enea aenieoaoaoe?eii-iaai?oaeueieo naa?aeeiaei aea?oueny a
?iaioao Oe?eianueeiai A.?., *a?iiai ?.A., Caaei?e A.?., Ieio?oeeia A.N.,
Neaei?aiea I.A., Eaeeiianueeiai TH.A., Aoceiiaa N.I.

Ie i?iiiio?ii aeei?enoaoe aaee/eio aooa?iiai ia’?io aaco aeey
iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a aenieoaoaoe?? aacinoiaeu oeyoii iiooeo i?i?ioio
i?eaaaeaieo cao?ao ia noai?aiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?th INA.

E?eoa???i iioeiaeueiino? aaaaeathoueny i?eaaaeai? cao?aoe ia noai?aiiy ?
aenieoaoaoe?th INA. A caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? i?eaaaeai? cao?aoe I ??ai?

I = EAi + a, (1)

aea E – eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy, a – aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe, Ai –
ii?iaoeaiee eiao?oe??io aii?oecaoe??.

Caaaeuei? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe ae?aaeai? o aeaeyae? noie

E = Ea + En + Eaia + Ei, (2)

aea Ea – cao?aoe ia aooa?iee aac;

En – cao?aoe ia naa?aeeiaeie;

Eaia – cao?aoe ia aaciiaai?oaeuei? aia?aoe;

Ei — eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy, ui ia caeaaeaoue a?ae ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco.

Aenieoaoaoe?ei? cao?aoe iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? ye noia neeaaeiaeo:

a = aen + an + aa + ai, (3)

aea aa , an , aen ? ai – aenieoaoaoe?ei? cao?aoe, a?aeiia?aeii, ia
caea/eo aooa?iiai aaco, ia naa?aeeiaeie, ia AeEN ? oae?, ui ia
caeaaeaoue a?ae ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco.

I?aenoaaeyth/e iaea?aeai? cia/aiiy eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo
cao?ao a oi?ioeo (1), iaea?aeeii i?eaaaeai? cao?aoe, ye ooieoe?th ia’?io
aooa?iiai aaco. Oiae? iioeiaeueia aaee/eia ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco iiaea
aooe aecia/aia c ??aiyiiy

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???u?????????»????-??????@?????A???u?th??????Iaoith
?ic?aooieo aoei aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a INA (ia’?io aooa?iiai
aaco, ieanoiaiai oeneo a e?ioe? a?aeai?o ? /enea aenieoaoaoe?eieo
naa?aeeiaei) oa aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a (eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue,
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa i?eaaaeaieo cao?ao).

C iaoith ai?iaaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo iioeiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a noai?thaaieo i?aecaiieo noiaeu aaco i?iaiaeeeenue ?ic?aooiee
aeey oiia, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue oiiaai Aiai?iae/ainueeiai INA. Noaaeeanue
caaea/a aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e i?aecaiiiai noiaeua aaco,
noai?thaaiiai ia aac? aeniaaeaiiai ?iaeiaeua ca e?eoa???i i?i?ioio
i?eaaaeaieo cao?ao ia eiai noai?aiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?th.

sse ? ne?ae aoei /aeaoe, i?e noae?e aa?oino? aooa?iiai aaco
aenieoaoaoe?ei? cao?aoe, ye ooieoe?y ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco, iathoue
i?i?ioi, yeee a?aeiia?aea? iioeiaeuei?e aaee/ei? a?aeiiniiai ia’?io
aooa?iiai aaco. I?e ca?eueoaii? cao?ao ia noai?aiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?th
aenieoaoaoe?eieo naa?aeeiaei c 25 aei 35 iei.$ i?i?iaeuei? cao?aoe ia
noai?aiiy INA c?inoathoue, a ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco, ui ?i a?aeiia?aea?
ca?eueoo?oueny c 18% aei 20%. I?i?iaeueiee ?ic?aooieiaee ieanoiaee oene
a INA ia e?iaoeue ia??iaeo a?aeai?o c?inoa? a?ae 26,14 aoa aei 29,76
aoa, /enei aenieoaoaoe?eieo naa?aeeiaei i?e oeueiio ciaioo?oueny c 728
aei 644. ?ioeie neiaaie, i?e c?inoaii? aa?oino? naa?aeeiaeie ia 40%
iioeiaeueiee ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco ca?eueoo?oueny ia 2%, i?i?iaeueiee
ieanoiaee oene c?inoa? ia 13,8%, a /enei aenieoaoaoe?eieo naa?aeeiaei
ciaioo?oueny ia 11,5%.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii na?oiaee aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy
?ia?oieo aac?a ? aeeiiaii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano ci?ooaaiiy aac?a a
ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Aacia? iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy iaooiaacieiiaeainaoia?aeaea/? ieano?a –
iaai?oaiiy a ieano aoaeaaiaeiaaeo aac?a, NI2, acioo ? aeeiiaeo aac?a ?
aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaieie oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie, ye? iiaeia oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia.

Ia aeaiiio aoai? aeuaaeacai? aacia? iaoiaee aeei?enoiaothoueny a
na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?, a iniiaiiio aeey caea/ee a iaooia? ?
aacieiiaeainaoi? iieeaaee aeey aeo?niaiiy iaooe ? aaciaiai eiiaeainaoo
oeyoii aaaaoieiioaeoiiai ci?ooth/iai aeo?niaiiy i?e aenieeo oeneao. Ca
?aooiie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeeo iaoiae?a iaooi- ? aacieiiaeainaoia?aeaea/a
iiaea c?inoe ia 7-20 %.

A 1988 ?ioe? a na?o? cae?enithaaeinue a?ey 170 i?iaeo?a ii caea/oe? a
ieano ??cieo aac?a, noia?iee ia’?i caea/ee a ia?a?aooieo ia ii?iaeuei?
oiiae neeaa a?eueoa 100 ie?ae.i3, caaaeyee oeueiio aeaeiaooi a?ey 30
iei.o iaooe.

E??i oiai, iaaoaeaaiaeiaa? (acio ? aeeiia?) aace aeei?enoiaothoueny ia
INA, iai?eeeaae o O?aioe?? aeey cai?ie /anoeie aooa?iiai ia’?io
aacinoiaeua.

O ca’yceo c aenieith aa?o?noth i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? NI2, ia iaoo aeoieo,
ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe acio ? aeeiia? aace. Ia?niaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
acioo ? aeeiiaa?ieo aac?a (87% acioo ? 12% NI2) cai?noue i?e?iaeiiai
aaco ? NI2 iiynith?oueny ianooiieie oaeoi?aie:

1. Ae?iaieoeoai ?ia?oieo aac?a a i?iieneiaeo ianooaaao aeineoue
aeinooiia (o na?o? iaea?eueo a?aei?aoeueiaaia ae?iaieoeoai acioo
e??iaaiiei niiniaii ?c iia?o?y, caaiae ii ae?iaieoeoao acioo iiaea aooe
?ici?uaiee ia naiiio ?iaeiaeu?);

2. Acio i?e i?aeaeuaii? oeneo ia? iaioo noeneoaai?noue, i?ae NI2 ?
aoaeaaiaeiaa? aace (a?aeiia?aeii a 3 ? 1,5 ?ace) ? iaaenieo ?ic/eii?noue
a ieanoia?e aiae? (13 i3/i3). Oiio i?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao a ieano
caea/othoue acioo ii ia’?io iaioa, i?ae NI2 aai i?e?iaeiiai aaco.
Caaaeyee iecuee?e noeneoaaiino? aaciiai?ioi? ao?aoe acioo a ieano?
(caeeoeiaee, cauaieaiee aac) ? cao?aoe ia eiai noeniaiiy a 2-3 ?ace
iaio? i?ae i?e aeei?enoaii? NI2 ? i?e?iaeiiai aaco;

3. Aa?o?noue io?eioaaiiai ?c iia?o?y acioo, yeee aeinoaaey?oueny ia
?iaeiaeua i?e aenieiio oeneo aac o?ainii?oieo cao?ao, iaioa aa?oino? NI2
? i?e?iaeiiai aaco a 2-3 ?ace ? a 4-8 ?ac?a a?aeiia?aeii. C a?aooaaiiyi
iecueei? noeneoaaiino? acioo, caaaeuei? ao?aoe ia eiai caea/eo ieano
iiaeooue neeanoe 15-20 % aeo?ao ia caea/eo NI2 aai i?e?iaeiiai aaco;

4. I?e aeei?enoaii? acioo a?aeiaaea? i?iaeaia ei?ic?? iaeaaeiaiiy ?
ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aieiaiei iaaeie?eii aeei?enoaiiy acioo ? aeeiiaeo aac?a aeey ca?eueoaiiy
iaooiaacieiiaeainaoia?aeaea/? ? iia??oaiiy aeanoeainoae aeaeiaoaath/iai
i?e?iaeiiai aaco i?ney i?i?eao ?iai/iai aaaioo a aenieoaoaoe?ei?
naa?aeeiaeie. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo, ye ? i?e aeei?enoaii? NI2, iaiao?aeia
aoae?aieoeoai ?aaaia?aoe?eieo onoaiiaie.

A NOA oaoiieia?y caea/ee ?ia?oieo aac?a a ieano aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeaaiaeia?aeaea/? ieano?a aei?iaoaai? a 30 i?iaeoao i?e ??cieo
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiiaao ? ?icaeyaeathoueny aenia?oaie ye aeineoue
ia?niaeoeai? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane. A iao?e e?a?i? ? ia’?eoe , aea aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeaaiaeia?aeaea/? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia caea/ea acioo /e
aeeiiaeo aac?a. Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui oey oaoiieia?y i?eaeaoia aeey
a?eueoino? aaciaeo ?iaeiaeu ia caeeth/i?e noaae?? ?ic?iaee aeey
aeo?niaiiy caeeoeiaeo caian?a aaco. ?niothoue ?aaeuei? oiiae aeey
noai?aiiy oaoi?/ieo cania?a aeey ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai iaoiaeo. A oie aea
/an a e?a?i? iaia? i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo ii aeei?enoaiith acioo ?
aeeiiaa?ieo aac?a, iaia? i? oaoi?ee, i? oaoiieia??, a?aenooiy
nenoaiaoeciaaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i aeaiee iaoiae.

Ia?oi/a?aiaith ? iaea?eueo nooo?aith i?iaeaiith ? i?iaeaia ci?ooaaiiy
i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? acioo i?e ?o noi?ni?e o?eueo?aoe??. A caeaaeiino?
a?ae ?ioaineaiino? ci?ooaaiiy i?e eiioaeo? oeeo aac?a ooai?eoueny iaaiee
ia’?i noi?o?, ui i?ecaaaea aei iacai?ioieo ao?ao i?e?iaeiiai aaco.
Ioaea, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ioaineaiino? ci?ooaaiiy, cai?ia aooa?iiai
aaco acioii iiaea noaoe aeiiii?/ii iaaei?aaaeaiith. Oiio iniiaiith
caaea/ath ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie cai?ie aooa?iiai aaco acioii ? caaea/a i?i
ci?ooaaiiy aac?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu?. Caaea/a oaeiai ieaio iiaea
aooe ae??oaia o?eueee ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ine?eueee iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe eiao?oe??io aeeooc?eiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy
aac?a. Iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ne?ae aaeaiooaaoe aei oiia
?aaeueieo i?aecaiieo noiaeu aaco ? ia oe?e iniia? ?aae?coaaoe
oaoiieia?th cai?ie aooa?iiai aaco acioii.

Iaie noai?aia aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea, ca aeiiiiiaith yei?
i?iaiaeeeenue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano ci?ooaaiiy aac?a a ii?enoiio
na?aaeiaeu? c iaoith aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo aeeooc??.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee
iaea?aeaoe aii??e/io caeaaei?noue aeey aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo aeeooc??,
ye ooieoe?? i?iieeeeaino? ii?iaee, oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e na?aaeiaeua.
Aeey iiaoaeiae aeacaii? aii??e/ii? caeaaeiino? aeei?enoaia iaoiaeeea
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo. Iacaeaaeieie ia?aiao?aie
aaaaeaeenue i?iieeeea?noue k, oene P ? oaiia?aoo?a T. *aoaa?oee ia?aiao?
aaaaeaany noaeei C. Ooieoe??th-a?aeaoeii aaaaeaany eiao?oe??io aeeooc??
aac?a, /enaeueii aecia/aiee a ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaio?a. Iiaoaeiaa
noaoenoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae ooieoe??-a?aeaoeo a?ae ia?aiao??a
i?iaiaeeeanue ia iniia? iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a ia i’yoe ??aiyo.

Caaaeueiee aeae ooieoe?? D = F(k,P,T) aoaea

D = ? k0,475 p–0,018 T0,48. (5)

Aecia/eaoe na?aaei? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo ? aeey oiia aeine?aeo,
iaea?aeaee oi?ioeo

D = 1,210–14 k0,475 p–0,018 T0,48, i2/n. (6)

Na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia iioeaea neeaaea? 1,451110–19, a eiao?oe??io
aa??aoe?? – 0,0121 (1,21%). A iaea?aeai?e oi?ioe? i?iieeeea?noue k ne?ae
i?aenoaaeyoe a aea?n?, oene – a IIa, oaiia?aoo?o – a E.

?ic?aooiee eiao?oe??ioa aeeooc??, i?iaaaeai? ia iniia? iaea?aeaii?
oi?ioee iieacothoue, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia (oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e)
cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo aeeooc?? ci?ith?oueny iaei. Oae, i?e ci?i?
oaiia?aoo?e a ae?aiacii? 280 — 320 E cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo aeeooc??
c?inoa? ia 6,62%, a i?e ci?i? oeneo a?ae 3 aei 12 IIa — ciaioo?oueny ia
2,52%. Ioaea aeey eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoeoeaiiai ai?eciioo eiao?oe??io
aeeooc?? ne?ae aecia/aoe ia iniia? na?aaeiuei? i?iieeeeaino? ii?enoiai
na?aaeiaeua ? iiaeia aaaaeaoe iino?eiei a /an?.

E??i aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaiaeeeenue aiae?oe/i?
?ic?aooiee aeeooc?eiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy aac?a a cii? eiioaeoo c iaoith
aecia/aiiy ia’?io ia?ai?ooaaiiy acioo ? i?e?iaeiiai aaco.

Na?aaei? cia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a ii aeiaaeei?
ciie ci?ooaaiiy ia caeaaeeoue a?ae /ano ? ia eiaeai iiiaio /ano ia?
noaea cia/aiiy Cna? = 0,5. I/aaeaeii, ui na?aaeiy ii aeiaaeei? ciie
ci?ooaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?y iiaea aooe ciaeaeaia ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

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?@???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy???F?? ???&? ?MathType??
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iaea?aeaee oi?ioeo aeey aeiaaeeie ciie ci?ooaaiiy L o aeaeyae?

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`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy????? ???&? ?MathType??P?
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???????»????-????T…???OeI???-?????OeO???R?2???
R?2???R?e???u?th??????Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooie?a, aeiaaeeia
noi?o? ca ia??iae oeeeeo a?aeai?o ia ia?aaeuo? 1 i, ui aeicaiey?
aaaaeaoe oene iino?eiei ii aeiaaeei? noi?o? ? caeaaeiei o?eueee a?ae
/ano ia??iaeo a?aeai?o t. I/aaeaeii, ui c ieeiii /ano aeiaaeeia ciie
noi?o? c?inoa?. Oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? aeiaaeeie noi?o? a?ae /ano
aecia/a?oueny ??aiyiiyi (8) Caeii c?inoaiiy aeiaaeeie noi?o? a /an?
aeecueeee aei ia?aaie?/iiai. sseui aaaaeaoe, ui oene a noiaeu? a ia??iae
caea/ee c?inoaoeia ii e?ea?e, ui aeca?eaeueii a?aeia?aaea? eiai
ciaioaiiy a ia??iae a?aeai?o , oi iiaeia anoaiiaeoe, ui oa?aeoa? ci?ie
aeiaaeeie noi?o? ca ia??iae caea/ee aoaea ?aeaioe/iee ia??iaeo a?aeai?o.
Ioaea, ca ia??iae caea/ee aeiaaeeia ciie noi?o? c?inoaoeia ia aaee/eio
aei 1 i.

Aaaaeath/e, ui eiioeaio?aoe?? eiaeiiai c eiiiiiaio?a ia an?e aeiaaeei?
noi?o? a eiaeai iiiaio /ano iaeiaeia? ? ??ai? 0,5, aecia/eee e?euee?noue
i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? e?euee?noue acioo a noi?o? ia e?iaoeue ia??iaeo
a?aeai?o. I?e oeueiio ?acoeueoao io?eiaee o a?aeiinieo iaeeieoeyo. Aeey
i?e?iaeiiai aaco a?aeiinio eiai e?euee?noue aecia/eee ii a?aeiioaiith
aei iaeneiaeueii? ?iiino? noiaeua, a aeey acioo — aei ia’?io aooa?iiai
aaco.

A?aeiini? e?eueeino? i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? acioo a noi?o?

wmetafile8? ??c???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??2?? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-??????????I????ae????E
???? ????E???§???§ue???u?th??????aea R – ?aae?on
eiioo?o i?iaeoeoeaiiai ai?eciioo; h – iiooaei?noue ieanoa; W – ia’?i
ii?iaiai i?inoi?o.

Aeey oiia Aiai?iae/ainueeiai INA, ii?iaee ia’?i i?iaeoeoeaiiai ai?eciioo
yeiai neeaaea? 30,66 iei.i3, ca caeaaeiinoyie (9) iaea?aeeii

?Va = 1,310–4; ?Va = 2,9610–4.

sse aecia/aii iaie a ?acoeueoao? ?ic?aooieo iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a INA,
a caeaaeiino? a?ae aa?oino? aaco iioeiaeueiee ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco a INA
neeaaea? 13 — 21% a?ae caaaeueii? ?iiino? noiaeua. sseui aaaaeaoe oeae
aac iacai?ioi?ie ao?aoaie, ni?yiiaaieie ia i?aeo?eiaiiy iaiao?aeiiai
ieanoiaiai oeneo, oi i?e cai?i? aooa?iiai aaco ?ia?oiei acioii oe?
ao?aoe ca iaeei oeeee a?aeai?o ciaioaoueny aei 0,013%, oiaoi iaeaea a
1000 ?ac?a. E??i oiai, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui noi?o aaco c acioii, ui
ooai?eeanue a ieano?, iiaeia (? aeioe?eueii) aeei?enoiaoaaoe a e?ioe?
ia??iaeo a?aeai?o c iaoith iiaeaiiy. Oaea noi?o ia? iaioo ieoiio
oaieioo cai?aiiy, yeo iiaeia ca?eueoeoe ci?ooth/e c /enoei i?e?iaeiei
aacii ia iiaa?oi?. Aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy acioiaaiiai i?e?iaeiiai aaco ca
?oaaaeai caaaeueiia?aeiiee (iai?eeeaae, a Iieueu?).

Ae?oaee iieaciee (?Va) oa?aeoa?eco? aeo?aoo acioo ca iaeei oeeee
a?aeai?o. sse aeaeii c ?ic?aooie?a, aiie neeaaeathoue aeecueei 0,03%
a?ae ia’?io caea/aiiai acioo. sseui aeey oiia Aiai?iae/ainueeiai INA
iaiao?aeiee ia’?i caea/ee acioo (yeee ??aiee ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco)
neeaaea? 1568 iei.i3, oi ui??/iee ia’?i eiai aeicaea/ee, iia’ycaiee c
noi?oiooai?aiiyi ? aeei?enoaiiyi noi?o?, neeaaea 0,464 iei.i3.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciaeeiai?/ieo
i?ioean?a a i?iaeoeoeaiiio ai?eciio? i?e aeoeniaii? aooa?iiai ia’?io
aaco acioii. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaee ca iaoo ioe?ieoe oa?aeoa?
ci?ooaaiiy aac?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu?, /an i?ioeano ? ?iciiae?e
oene?a ii ieiu? i?iaeoeoeaiiai ai?eciioo ? a /an?.

Nenoaia aeo?aeieo ??aiyiue ?ica’ycoaaeanue i?e iaaieo ii/aoeiaeo ?
a?aie/ieo oiiaao iaoiaeii Oo?’?. A ?acoeueoao? iaea?aeaii oa?aeoa?
?iciiae?eo oeneo a iaeano? i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? acioo ia e?iaoeue iiiaioo
/ano ?t

wmetafile8? ??«???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
«???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyya!??@?? ???&?
?MathType??????uthY?????aea k – eiao?oe??io i’?cii?ia?aeiino?
ii?enoiai na?aaeiaeua;

a – aac?ici??iee eiao?oe??io;

Q – caaaeueia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?e a?aeai?? /e iaai?oaii? aeoeaiiai
aaco;

Qa – caaaeueia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?e iaai?oaii? acioo.

Ci?iia x i?iy?oueny c e?ieii ?x, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny

· a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo (aeey iaeano? i?e?iaeiiai aaco)

wmetafile8? ??1/2???????????
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a????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@??—?? ???&?
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l(t)

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¶yyy`??–?? ???&?
?MathType??A????uthY?????aea N – /enei ?icaeooy iaeano? (N = 10).

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae i?ioeano aeoeniaiiy
aooa?iiai aaco acioii c ii?enoiai na?aaeiaeua i?iaiaeeeeny ?ic?aooiee ia
iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaie iaoiaeeee. Ine?eueee aeey ?aaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoeaiiai ai?eciioo INA oae? caeiiii??iino? i?ine?aeeiaothoueny ia
aeineoue /?oei caaaeyee aieeaai iia?/ieo oaeoi??a, oi aeai? ?ic?aooiee
i?iaiaeeeenue aeey a?iioaoe/iiai INA, i?iaeoeoeaiee ai?eciio yeiai ?
iaeii??aeiei, ia? oi?io i?aaeeueiiai oeee?iae?a, ia eiioo?? yeiai
??aiii??ii ?ici?uai? naa?aeeiaeie aeey iaai?oaiiy acioo, a a oeaio??
?ici?uaia oe?oiiaia naa?aeeiaeia aeey a?aeai?o ? caea/ee aeoeaiiai aaco.
Ia’?i i?iaeoeoeaiiai ai?eciioo ? oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?enoiai na?aaeiaeua
aea?aii ?aeaioe/ieie ia?aiao?ai Aiai?iae/ainueeiai INA.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeacaieo ?ic?aooie?a ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio ?ic?aooie?a ia
aeai?eoi?/i?e iia? BAS?C. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a iieacothoue, ui
iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iith ? caeaaei?noue ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio a?ae oa?aeoa?o
?iaioe INA. ?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeeenue aeey i?ioeano iaai?oaiiy acioo c
i?iaeoeoeai?noth Qa, ui aoea noaeith a /an?, i?e ??cieo aa??aioao
ia?ai?uaiiy aeoeaiiai aaco. ?icaeyaeaeenue aa??aioe ?iaioe INA, eiee i?e
iaai?oaii? acioo a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aea?? aeoeaiiai aaco c
i?iaeoeoeaiinoyie iaioith, ??aiith ? a?eueoith ca i?iaeoeoeai?noue
caea/ee Qa ? i?e ??aiii??iiio a /an? iaai?oaii? acioo aeoeaiee aac ia
a?aeae?a?oueny ? ia caea/o?oueny; i?e ??aiii??iiio iaai?oaii? acioo
/a?ac oe?oiiaio naa?aeeiaeio a oeaio?? i?iaeoeoeaiiai ai?eciioo
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaai?oaiiy aeoeaiiai aaco c i?iaeoeoeai?noth iaioith,
??aiith ? a?eueoith ca i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaai?oaiiy acioo.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ? noai?aia eiii’thoa?ia caaacia/aiiy aeicaieythoue
ia o?eueee i?iaiae?coaaoe oa?aeoa? aaciaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a a
i?iaeoeoeaiiio ai?eciio? INA, aea e ?ic?aooaaoe oaii iaai?oaiiy acioo
(i?e a?aeiiiio oaii? a?aeai?o aeoeaiiai aaco), i?e yeiio ciia eiioaeoo
aac?a aeinyaia caaeaiiai iieiaeaiiy (aeaith aenieoaoaoe?eieo naa?aeeiaei
a oeaio?? iieeaaeo) ia e?iaoeue ia??iaeo a?aeai?o. Iiaea aooe
?aae?ciaaia caaea/a a ?io?e iinoaiiaoe?: ciaeoe ?ici?uaiiy ciie eiioaeoo
i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? acioo a i?iaeoeoeaiiio ai?eciio? ia caaeaiee iiiaio
/ano i?e a?aeiiiio oaii? caea/ee acioo ? a?aeai?o aeoeaiiai aaco. Eiaeia
c iinoaaeaieo caaea/ iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaiith ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee niiniaii ia?aai?o aa??aio?a.

Iaie i?i?aoiaaii iiaeeeaee oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee aoaeo i?e iaai?oaii?
acioo a ieano ?-?? ai?eciio?a Iia?nueeiai ?iaeiaeua.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue cae?eniaiiy caea/ee a ieano ?ia?oieo aac?a
iiaea aooe aecia/aia ye ??cieoey i?ae aa?o?noth aeiaeaoeiai aeaeiaooiai
aaco a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ? noiith eai?oaeueieo ?
aenieoaoaoe?eieo cao?ao ia cae?eniaiiy iaai?oaiiy ?ia?oieo aac?a ?
a?aea?? i?e?iaeiiai aaco. Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia /anoeia ?iaioe ia?
aeinoaoiuei aaeeeo iioeaeo ?ic?aooie?a, oae ye ia a?aoiaaii aaaaoi
aaee/ei, ui iathoue ?iia??i?niee oa?aeoa?, oae? ye cao?aoe ia ?aiiioe
oiui. Aea aaaeeeaei aoei ieoaiiy ?nioaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? cai?ie aooa?iiai i?e?iaeiiai aaco ia ?ia?oiee.
sse iieacaee ?ic?aooiee, aeiiii?/iee aoaeo noaiiaeoue a?ae 13,5 aei 21,7
iei. a?i. a caeaaeiino? a?ae aa??aioo ?ic?iaee. E?eoa???i iioeiaeueiino?
aaaaeaany ia??iae cai?ie aooa?iiai ia’?io aaco acioii.

AENIIAEE

1. ?ica’ycaia aaaeeeaa ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea caaea/a, yea aeicaiey? ia
iniia? aiae?co oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?aecaiieo noiaeu aaco
Oe?a?ie iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee anoaiiaeoe, ui i?e c?inoaii?
ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco a 5,21 ?ac?a eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy c?inoathoue a 4,16
?ace, ui na?ae/eoue i?i nooo?aee aieea ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco ia
aeiiii?eo i?aecaiiiai caa??aaiiy aaco.

2. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c na?oiaiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ia?oieo aac?a c iaoith
aeo?niaiiy aoaeaaiaei?a c i?iaeoeoeaieo ai?eciio?a. Iiaeaia caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea aaciaeo iaoiae?a ca?eueoaiiy
iaooiaacieiiaeainaoia?aeaea/? ieano?a. Ia aac? ?-?? ai?eciio?a
Iia?nueeiai ?iaeiaeua c?iaeaii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaai?oaiiy ?ia?oieo aac?a. A ?acoeueoao? ?ic?aooie?a iaea?aeaia aaee/eia
aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo, yea noaiiaeoue 21,652 iei.a?i.

3. Iiaoaeiaaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, ui ca’yco? cao?aoe ia noai?aiiy INA
c eiai oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie; ?aae?caoe?y iiaeae? iaoiaeii iiooeo
aeno?aioio aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe, ui iioeiaeueiee ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco c
oi/ee ci?o i?i?ioio i?eaaaeaieo cao?ao ia noai?aiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?th
noiaeua caeaaeeoue a?ae oe?ie aooa?iiai aaco ? eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 13
— 21 % a?ae iiaiiai ia’?io aaco.

4. I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano
ci?ooaaiiy aac?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu? iieacaee, ui ?ioaineai?noue
i?ioeano iaaeniea; ia iniia? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
iaea?aeaii aii??e/io oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai eiao?oe??ioo
i?ioeano aeeooc?? aac?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu?.

5. Aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano aeeooc?? aac?a a ii?enoiio
na?aaeiaeu? iieacaee, ui aeiaaeeia ciie ci?ooaaiiy, aecia/aia c
a?aooaaiiyi aenia?eiaioaeueii ciaeaeaiiai eiao?oe??ioo aoaeoeaii?
aeeooc?? ca iaeei oeeee a?aeai?o aaco ia ia?aaeuo? iaeiiai iao?a, ui
i?ecaaaea aei ooai?aiiy noi?o? c ia’?iii i?e?iaeiiai aaco aeecueei 0,5
iei.i3, yeo i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoaoe aeey iiaeaiiy oeyoii ci?ooaaiiy ??
c i?e?iaeiei aacii ia iiaa?oi?.

6. Iiaoaeiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea oa i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy ?ic?aooieo ia?ai?uaiiy ciie eiioaeoo aac?a a i?ioean?
a?aeai?o aeoeaiiai aaco aeicaieythoue i?iaiicoaaoe /an ia??iaeo a?aeai?o
? oaii caea/ee acioo i?e a?aeiiiio oaii? a?aeai?o.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE AEEEAAeAI?:

1. Ai?aeue E.O. Iioei?caoe?y ?aaeeio aenieoaoaoe?? i?aecaiieo aacinoiaeu
// Iaooiaa ? aaciaa i?iieneia?noue. 1997.– ?4.– N.29-31.

2. Ai?aeue E.O. Iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy aeo?niaiiy i?e?iaeieo
aac?a ?ia?oieie // Iaooiaa ? aaciaa i?iieneia?noue. 1996.– ?4.– N.
51-52.

3. Ai?aeue E.O. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano ci?ooaaiiy
aac?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu? // Iaooiaa ? aaciaa i?iieneia?noue. 1998.–
?6.– N. 56.

4. Ai?aeue E.O., A?ia? ?.O., Aiae???oei I.I. ?ic?aooiie eiao?oe??ioa
i’?cii?ia?aeiino? ii ea?oao ?ciaa? // Iaooiaa ? aaciaa i?iieneia?noue.
1992.– ?2.– N.

5. Ai?aeue E.O. Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano aca?iiae?? i?e?iaeiiai ?
?ia?oiiai aac?a i?e ?o noi?ni?e o?eueo?aoe?? // Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?aeaioiaee
niaoe?ae?no?a aeey aoae?aieoeoaa nenoai o?oaii?ia?aeiiai o?ainii?oo” –
?aaii-O?aie?anuee.– 1998. N.42.

6. Ai?aeue E.O. Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c aieeao ia?aiao??a INA ia ?o
aeiiii?/i? iieacieee // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oi?aa?neoaoo iaooe ? aaco –
?aaii-O?aie?anuee.– 1998.

7. Ai?aeue E.O., Aiae???oei I.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano aca?iiae??
i?e?iaeiiai ? ?ia?oiiai aac?a i?e ?o o?eueo?aoe?? a ii?enoiio
na?aaeiaeu? // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ?inoeoooo iaooe ? aaco.
?aaii-O?aie?anuee.– 1994. N.83-84.

8. Ai?aeue E.O., Aeia? ?.O. I?i iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoaiiy aacia?aeaea/?
aeniaaeaieo iieeaae?a oeyoii aeo?niaiiy aeeiiaa?ieie aacaie // Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Noai, i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
iaooiaaciaiai eiiieaeno Cao?aeiiai ?aa?iio Oe?a?ie”, Euea?a.– 1995.
N.96.

Ai?aeue E.O. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeooc?eieo ? aaciaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o
INA i?e o?eueo?aoe?? i?e?iaeiiai aaco ? acioo – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.13 – Iaooiaacii?iaiaee, aace oa noiaeua –
?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco,
?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1999 ?.

I?iaaaeaii iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciaeeiai?/ieo ? aeeooc?eieo
i?ioean?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu? c iaoith cai?ie aooa?iiai ia’?io aaco
?ia?oiei. Aeaia noaoenoe/ia ioe?iea aieeao ia’?io aooa?iiai aaco ia
aeiiii?/i? iieacieee i?aecaiiiai noiaeua aaco. ?aae?caoe?y iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae? ui ca’yco? cao?aoe ia noai?aiiy INA c eiai oaoiieia?/ieie
ia?aiao?aie, iaoiaeii iiooeo aeno?aioio aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe, ui
iioeiaeueiee ia’?i aooa?iiai aaco c oi/ee ci?o i?i?ioio i?eaaaeaieo
cao?ao ia noai?aiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?th noiaeua caeaaeeoue a?ae oe?ie
aooa?iiai aaco ? eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 13 — 21 % a?ae iiaiiai ia’?io
aaco. Ia iniia? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo eaai?aoi?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ci?ooaaiiy aac?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu? iaea?aeaii
aii??e/io oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai eiao?oe??ioo i?ioeano
aeeooc?? aac?a a ii?enoiio na?aaeiaeu?. Iiaoaeiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea oa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy ?ic?aooieo ia?ai?uaiiy
ciie eiioaeoo aac?a a i?ioean? a?aeai?o aeoeaiiai aaco aeicaieythoue
i?iaiicoaaoe /an ia??iaeo a?aeai?o ? oaii iaai?oaiiy acioo i?e a?aeiiiio
oaii? a?aeai?o.

Eeth/ia? neiaa oa ae?ace:

i?aecaii? noiaeua aaco, aooa?iee ia’?i, o?eueo?aoe?y, aeeooc?y,
aaciaeeiai?/i? i?ioeane.

Ai?aeue E.O. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeoooceiiiuo ? aaciaeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia
o IOA i?e oeeueo?aoeee i?e?iaeiiai aaca ? acioa – ?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.13 – Iaooaaacii?iaiaeu aacu e o?aieeeua –
Eaaii-O?aieianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao iaooe e aaca,
Eaaii-O?aieiane, 1999 a.

I?iaaaeaii iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey aaciaeeiaie/aneeo e aeeoooceiiiuo
i?ioeannia a ii?enoie n?aaea n oeaeueth caiauaiey aooa?iiai iauaia aaca
eia?oiui. Aeaia noaoenoe/aneay ioeaiea aeeyiey iauaia aooa?iiai aaca ia
yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee iiaecaiiiai o?aieeeua aaca. ?aaeecaoeey
iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee, eioi?ay naycuaaao cao?aou ia nicaeaiea IOA n aai
oaoiieiae/aneeie ia?aiao?aie iaoiaeii iaoiaeaeaiey yeno?aioia, iicaieeea
onoaiiaeoue, /oi iioeiaeueiue iauai aooa?iiai aaca, n oi/ee c?aiey
ieieioia i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?ao ia nicaeaiea e ?yenieoaoaoeeth o?aieeeua,
caaeneo io oeaiu aooa?iiai aaca e eieaaeaony a i?aaeaeao 13- 21% io
iieiiai iauaia aaca. Ia iniiaa ia?aaioee ?acoeueoaoia i?iaaaeaiiuo
eaai?aoi?iuo enneaaeiaaiee niaoeaaiey aacia a ii?enoie n?aaea iieo/aii
yiie?e/aneoth oi?ioeo aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai eiyooeoeeaioa
i?ioeanna aeeooocee aacia a ii?enoie n?aaea. Iino?iaiiay iaoaiaoe/aneay
iiaeaeue e ?ac?aaioaiiay iaoiaeeea e i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ?an/aoa
ia?aiauaiey ciiu eiioaeoa aacia a i?ioeanna ioai?a aeoeaiiai aaca
iicaieytho i?iaiice?iaaoue a?aiy ia?eiaea ioai?a e oaii caea/ee acioa
i?e ecaanoiii oaiia ioai?a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa e au?aaeaiey:

iiaecaiiua o?aieeeua aaca, aooa?iue iauai, oeeueo?aoeey, aeeooocey,
aaciaeeiaie/aneea i?ioeannu.

Horal L.T. Investigation of diffusive and gasodynamic processes in
underground gas storages during natural gas and nitrogen filtration.

Dissertation for the Candidate of Technical Sciences degree in the
speciality 05.15.13 – oil and gas pipelines, bases, and storage
facilities – Ivano-Frankivsk State Technical University of Oil and Gas,
Ivano-Frankivsk, 1999.

A scientific research of gasodynamic and diffusion processes in porous
medium has been carried out aiming at exchanging buffer gas volume by
inert gas volume influence (effect) upon economic parameters of
underground gas (UGS) storage has also been made. Realisation of the
mathematical model, which its technological parameters, using the
extremum search method lead to a conclusion that optimum buffer gas
volume depends on the price of buffer gas and is within the limits of
13-21% of the full volume gas.

In case buffer volume is looked upon as non-reversible loses of natural
gas, then the decrease of buffer gas volume will result in considerable
improvement of economic parameters of gas storage. But the decrease of
the volume leads to the decrease for the worse the selecting conditions
of active gas. Therefore it is advisable not to reduce buffer gas
quantitatively but to replace it by some other substitute, economically
justified.

However, from the point of view of the buffer gas storage technology the
replacement of buffer gas by nitrogen requires solution of a number of
technical and technological problems, connected with joint filtration of
natural gas and nitrogen in porous medium. That is why the solution of
the problem of replacing buffer gas by nitrogen lies in solving the task
of mixing gases in porous medium. The task has been solved on the basis
of experimental research, aiming at determining the mixing character of
gases in porous medium. And the way this process is influenced by the
porous medium characteristics, it’s pressure and temperature.

On the bases of the processed results an empirical formula has been
obtained to determine the efficiency of gases diffusion in porous
medium.

Calculations of the diffusion efficiency made on the basis of this
formula show insignificant changes in it under the influence of
temperature and pressure. It is appropriate to determine the diffusion
efficiency for a given producing horizon on the basis of average
permeability of porous medium. It can be considered constant in time.

To create (build up) the empirical dependence, mentioned above method of
rational planning of experiment has been used. Construction of
statistic dependencies of the function was carried out on the basis of
the least square method on five levels.

To work out the technology of displacement of buffer gas by nitrogen
research must be carried out to investigate the process of transfusion
of contact zone of gases in the producing horizon as well as the
character of pressure compression in porous medium in the filtration
zone of natural gas and nitrogen.

The created mathematical model, the method and software of calculated
transfusion of contact zone of gases when collecting active gas allow to
predict the time of collecting and the rate of nitrogen injecting when
the collecting rate is known.

These investigations aimed at defining the character of gas mixing zone
transfusion in porous medium, time of the process and distribution of
pressures on the producing horizon area and in time.

Key words and phrases:

underground gas storages, buffer volume, filtration, diffusion,
gasodynamic processes.

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