Доктрина розподілу влади: від теоретичної концепції до політико-конституційного принципу: Автореф. дис… канд. політ. наук / О.С. Каневський, Львів.

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 321. 015

Eaiaanueeee Ieaenaiae? Naiaiiae/

Aeieo?eia ?iciiae?eo aeaaee: a?ae oai?aoe/ii? eiioeaioe?? aei
iie?oeei-eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio

23.00.02 – iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a aeaia?oaiaio? o?einionueeeo ? nioe?aeueieo iaoe
Naaanoiiieuenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

*aioeo Ieaenaiae? Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Naaanoiiieuenueeee aea?aeaaiee

oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

aee?aeoi? aeaia?oaiaioo

o?einionueeeo ? nioe?aeueieo iaoe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eieiae?e Aioii?ia Oaaei??aia,

eaoaae?a iie?oieia?? ? nioe?ieia??,

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Naiae?a/oe Noai?neaa Ee?eeiae/,

eaoaae?a aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i.Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a iie?oieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny « 6 » aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

Ae 35.051. 02 i?e Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea ca aae?anith :

290602, i?noi Euea?a, aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea( aoe.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee « 1 » aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe
Aeaienaiei A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeieo?eia ?iciiae?eo aeaaee ? aaaeeeaith eaieith a
?noi??? ?icaeoeo iie?oe/ii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee. ?? aieiaia ?aeay iieyaa?
a oiio, ui aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy naiaiaee, caaacia/aiiy caeiiiino? e
onoiaiiy ceiaaeeaaiiy aeaaeith c aieo aoaeue-yei? a?oie ?ioa?an?a,
caeeaaeo /e ie?aii? iniae iaiao?aeii ?icae?eeoe aea?aeaaio aeaaeo ia
caeiiiaeaa/o, aeeiiaa/o ? noaeiao. Eiaeia ?c oeeo a?eie – naiino?eia;
aiia no?eio? ?io? oa cae?enith? nai? ooieoe?? /a?ac iniaeea? nenoaie
i?aai?a o niaoeeo?/ieo i?aaiaeo oi?iao. Iaieiooth/e ?iciiae?e aeaaee,
ia?iae i?aai?ciao? aea?aeaaio aeaaeo oae, uia c?iaeoe ?? aia?ao
ae?eiaei, oaeei, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai iianyeaeaiii? i?aeoeee ia
iniia? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue i?ae
aea?aeaaieie ?inoeoooe?yie.

Iniiai? iinooeaoe iacaaii? aeieo?eie iaee aaeeeee aieea ia ae?iaeaiiy
a/aiiy i?i nooi?noue aeaaee, niiniae ? oi?ie ?? i?aai?caoe??, iaoai?ci
aca?iiae?? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, ooieoe?iioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai noaa?ai?oaoo, aeaiie?ao??, ia?eaiaioa?ecio e
?ioeo i?eioeeiiaeo iie?oieia?/ieo ieoaiue. Eiioeaioe?y ?iciiae?eo aeaaee
ao?eaia a eiinoeoooe?yo a?eueoino? e?a?i na?oo, cie?aia Oe?a?ie.

Aeaiie?aoe/iee aea?? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo cae??ieaii a Eiinoeoooe??
aea?aeaae a?ae 28 /a?aiy 1996 ?., oinoa noaooy yei? anoaiiaeth?, ui
«aea?aeaaia aeaaea a Oe?a?i? cae?enith?oueny ca i?eioeeiii ?? ?iciiae?eo
ia caeiiiaeaa/o, aeeiiaa/o oa noaeiao. I?aaie caeiiiaeaa/i?, aeeiiaa/i?
? noaeiai? aeaaee cae?eniththoue nai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy o aecia/aieo oe??th
Eiinoeoooe??th iaaeao ? a?aeiia?aeii aei caeii?a Oe?a?ie». Naia oiio
no/aniee, neeaaeiee ? noia?a/eeaee aoai aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie
aeiaaa? oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy nooiino? ?inoeoooo ?iciiae?eo aeaaee ye
a ?noi?e/iiio, oae ? a iie?oe/iiio aniaeoao, a oaeiae o ieai?
?iciaaeoaaiiy eiai caaaeueieo ? niaoeeo?/ieo neeaaeiaeo.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia ua e oei, ui a Oe?a?i? oa
?ioeo aea?aeaaao NIAe a?aeaoaa?oueny ia i?inoi ci?ia ae?o: o ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae ci?ith?oueny nai oei iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, c?inoa? nioe?aeueia
iia?euei?noue aaeeeeo ian ethaeae, aeieeathoue /eneaii? a?oie ?ioa?an?a
? iia? oeie iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee. Iie?oe/ia nenoaia oeueiai ia??iaeo
iiaeiia ni?eyoe a?aeiia?aeiiio a?oeeoethaaiith e aa?aaoaaiith
noia?a/eeaeo ?ioa?an?a, caaeia?eueiyth/e iniiai? ?c ieo. Ia?ao?aeia
nenoaia iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy ciaia’ycaia aacia?a?aii caaacia/oaaoe
aoaeoeaiee ? eaa?oeiiee ?iciiae?e noni?eueieo oe?iiinoae, ui ?
iaia’yceiaith oiiaith aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo. Noai?aiiy oaei? nenoaie
ia?aaeaa/a? iioeiaeueiee ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a aeaaea?thaaiiy /aeiiii?/ieo,
nioe?aeueieo, neeiaeo, eoeueoo?ii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo oiui/ –
?iciiae?e i?a?iaaoea a?eie aeaaee c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ? ?aaeueieo
iio?aa noni?euenoaa.

A?aeiii, ui ni?iae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee,
iaooiaooth/enue ia ?aaeuei?noue, iaiaeii?aciai cioooaaee iie?oee?a oa
o/aieo ia?aaeyaeaoe aeaye? iieiaeaiiy oe??? aeieo?eie, ui ana a?eueoa
a?aeaeaeyei i?aeoe/io iie?oeeo a?ae iie?oe/iiai ?aeaaeo. Iniaeea?noth
a?o/eciyiiai iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo ? eiai »iaacaeia?iiee» oa?aeoa? –
i?aaiaiiy ao?eeoe aaea aeanue ? eieenue ai?iaiaai? iiaeae?. Ioaea, a?ae
oiai, iane?eueee aea?aia iiaeaeue aoaea a?aeiia?aeaoe ?ioa?anai
eiie?aoiiai noni?euenoaa, ui aeaiie?aoeco?oueny, caeaaeeoue oni?o eiai
aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? oaie. Aeieo?eia ?iciiae?eo aeaaee
i?ieoea aaaaoia?eiaee oeyo ?icaeoeo. ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe ?iciaaeoaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oa ?o ooieoe?e cono??/athoueny ua a i?aoeyo aioe/ieo
ieneeoae?a — Ieaoiia, A??noioaey, Iie?a?y, aaoi??a Na?aaeiueia?//y —
Ia?nee?y Iaaeoainueeiai, AE.Aiaeaia oa ?i. Iniiai? iinooeaoe «eeane/ieo»
aa?n?e aeieo?eie aoee ae?iaeai? Ae.E?eueaa?iii, ?aeaieiaaie aaeeei?
(Aeae.Eiee ? O.–E.Iiioane’?) oa ae??aii? (AE.AE.?onni) ao?aeoac??. O
NOA iieiaeaiiy aeieo?eie ?iciiae?eo aeaaee aieeioee ye ia iie?oe/io
oai??th, oae ? ia eiinoeoooe?eio i?aeoeeo. O.Aeaeaooa?nii iaaieiooaaa ia
aca?iieo ??aiiaac? oa eiio?ie? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Aeae.Iaae?nii
i?aaioa aei anoaiiaeaiiy oe?eueiai? eiieo?aioe?? a?eie aeaaee oa
?icaoaeiae i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio «no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa», ui a??aiiaaaeo?
iie?oe/io nenoaio. O XVIII-XIX no. i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee io?eiaa
o?einionueea i?aea?oioy o i?aoeyo ?.Eaioa e A.A.O.Aaaaey.

O iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? ?in?? ?aeay ?iciiae?eo aeaaee oaeiae caeiaoea
iaaiee a?aeaoe. ?.Iinioeia ( 1665-1726) oia?oa ii?ooea ieoaiiy i?i
?iciaaeoaaiiy ?ano?n?a aeaaea?thaaiiy. I.Ua?aaoia (1733-1790) ?ic?iaeya
a?enoie?aoe/io iiaeaeue, N.Aeanieoeueeee (1740-1789) – i?aaia? aniaeoe
anoaiiaeaiiy a ?in?? eiinoeoooe?eii? iiia?o??. I.Nia?ainueeee (
1772-1839) i?iiiioaaa i?iaeo niaoe?ae?caoe?? ??cieo a?eie ?aeeii?
aeaaee a aea?aeaa?. O XIX — ia ii/aoeo XX no. eiioeaioe?y ?iciiae?eo
a?eie aeaaee a ?in?? ?ic?iaey?oueny caaaeii o aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiio
aniaeo?, caeeaeoth/enue c eeane/ieie iiaeaeyie. Ooo caaaea?ii
A.Aeaen??aa, A.Aa?’?, A.Aannaia, A.A?aaeianueeiai, I.Ei?eoiiaa,
A.*e/a??ia.

A oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e o?aaeeoe?? aeaiaioe aeieo?eie ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee, o o./. caniae iaiaaeaiiy naiiaeaaeaey aaoueiaia, ciaoiaeeii o
ia?o?e oe?a?inuee?e eiinoeoooe?? Ieeeia I?eeea (1710 ??e ). Nai???aeiee
aianie o oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaioe?? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee c?iaeee A.Aioiiiae/
(1834-1908), I.Einoiia?ia (1817-1885), I.Ae?aaiiaiia (1841-1895).
A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia iinooeaoai eeane/ii? aeieo?eie, aiie,
i?iaeiaaeoth/e e?i?th «ia?iaeiiai noaa?ai?oaoo» AE.AE.?onni, i?iaiaeeee
aeaaeio aa?oeeaeue a?ae a?iiaae aei oeaio?o, a ia iaaiaee. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae a?aeiia?aeaa iie?oe/i?e eoeueoo?? naia oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

O XX no. ?aeay ?iciiae?eo aeaaee i?iaeiaaeo? iin?aeaoe aaaeeeaa i?noea a
iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?. Caaaeueiiaeciaiith ? aeoiea, ui naiaiaeo iniae ?
i?ia?an oeea?e?caoe?? iiaeia caaacia/eoe o?eueee ca o??? oiiae, yeui
a?eee aeaaee aoaeooue ae?yoe ca i?eioeeiii ?o ?icae?eo, ? ui acaaae?
?iciiae?e i??i?eoao?a aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a ? aieiaiith i?iaeaiith
aea?aeaae, yea i?aaia caa?aaoe ieth?ae?noe/io aeaiie?ao?th.

Aei ieoaiue, ia ye? nueiaiaei? /anoi caa?oathoue oaaao a/ai?, iaeaaeeoue
aeei?enoaiiy ?inoeoooo ?iciiae?eo aeaaee aeey caaacia/aiiy «aeaaee
a?eueoino?», c iaeiiai aieo, oa aeey caiia?aaiiy «oe?ai?? a?eueoino?» –
c ?ioiai. ?ica’ycaiith oe??? i?iaeaie i?enayoeee i?aoe? A.Aain, Ae.Ae?i,
Ae.E?iaeii, A.Eiinoai, AE.-A.Eai’???, A.Oaaeai?on, A.A?ia oa ?io?.
?ioei aaeeeei iai?yiii ?icaeoeo aeieo?eie, yeo ?icaeyaea?ii, oa ??
i?aeoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, ? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ia?eaiaioa?ecio, ye
caniao eiio?ieth ca aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith. Oeae iai?yi ?ic?iaeyei
/eiaei caei?aeiiieo o/aieo, cie?aia, ?.Aea?aiaei?o, N.Oaio?iaoii,
Ae.Oa?i. Aaeeeee aianie a ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie a iaaeao iie?oe/ii?
aia?eeai?noeee c?iaeee a/ai? I?iaoeueeiai oiaa?enoaa Aia?eee ?
I?iaoeueeiai iie?oe/iiai ?inoeoooo o Aaoeiaoii?: A.Aaeain, E.Iaaea?,
?.O.oii Oaaea, TH.Oaeaeae?ia, E.Oaaaa oa ?io?.

Iie?oeei-i?aaia? e ?noi?e/i? aniaeoe eiioeaioe?? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee
inieneththoueny o i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo ?.Aieiaaoe, I.A?ei?aa,
A.Aeaienaiea, A.AEo?aanueeiai, I.Einoeoeueeiai, A.Iaaiaeaiea, I.I?ceoa,
I.?aa?iiae/a, A.*a?aaeie/aiea oa ?o ?in?enueeeo eieaa N.Aiae???aa,
A.Aeooiai?, ?.Eeyie?ia, ?.Iaoa??aa oa ?ioeo.

? ana ae oaee, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui i?iaeaia ?iciiae?eo aeaaee /anoi
noa? i?aaeiaoii iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui aiia
aeiaaa? iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy. A ?? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o iinoeiioi?noe/ieo
e?a?iao ua ia iiaeieai? iaeiiaie?noue, ?aeaieia?/i?noue oa
?ia?oe?ei?noue. O ?aaeyinuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? aeoeaio ?iaeany ia
ia??iae? oi?ioaaiiy aeieo?eie ?iciiae?eo aeaaee. ?aea? Iiaiai /ano ?
O1O noie?ooy a iaci?iiiio aeaeyae? i?iaoe?thaaeenue ia ae?oao iieiaeio
OO noie?ooy. I?e oeueiio iiai?noth ?aii?oaaeeny aaiethoe?y a?aeiinei
aeaniino?, ci?ia ?ie? aea?aeaae, caaaeueiiethaenueea cia/ou?noue
?inoeoooo ?iciiae?eo aeaaee. Iiyao niaoe?ae?ciaaieo a?oi ?ioa?an?a, ui
aeiaaaee ia?a?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a aeaaea?thaaiiy, aaaaeaee aeanoea?noth
aeeeth/ii cao?aeieo nenoai. Aeieeiaiiy iiae?aieo a?oi o N?N?
ioe?ithaaee ye iie?oe/io aeeaa?n?th ? ia?ane?aeoaaee. A oeueiio
iieyaaa oae caaiee «eeaniaee i?aeo?ae» aei ioe?iee iie?oe/ieo nenoai.

O oaia??oi?e /an o a?o/eciyi?e iie?oieia?? ?inoeooo ?iciiae?eo aeaaee
o?aeoo?oueny, a oe?eiio, ye oi?aa?naeueia aaniethoia oe?ii?noue. I?e
oeueiio ia aa?ooue aei oaaae ?noi?e/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy aeieo?eie
?iciiae?eo aeaaee, ?? aaiethoe?th ? noaae?? i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe??,
iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oe/ii? o?aaeeoe??. O?oaeiiu?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy /anoi
iiyniththoue ia?aaeeoeaie ieioeiai, iie?oe/iith ?aaeoe??th oiui, ui
??aiicia/ii « eeaniaiio i?aeoiaeo» iaaeai??o.

O i?aenoieo ooai?eany ?ic?ea i?ae oai???th ? iie?oe/iith i?aeoeeith.
Ua iaaeinoaoiuei aea/ai? oi?aa?naeuei? oa niaoeeo?/i? aniaeoe ?inoeoooo
?iciiae?eo aeaaee, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ?inoeooo?a aeaaee ia
no/aniiio aoai? cao?aeiiai iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo. Aeiaaa? iiaeaeueoiai
iie?oieia?/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy niaoeeo?ea canoinoaaiiy iniiaieo
i?eioeei?a eeane/ii? oai??? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee o ia?ao?aeieo iie?oe/ieo
nenoaiao.

Aeooaeueiei aeey oeeo e?a?i ? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ?iciiae?eo aeaaee
?c iiceoe?? nenoaiiiai ocaaaeueiaiiy ? c?noaaeaiiy ?? c i?ioeanaie
o?ainoi?iaoe?? no/anieo iie?oe/ieo nenoai. Iniaeeai oea aaaeeeai aeey
oe?a?inueeiai oa ?ioeo iino?aaeyinueeeo noni?euenoa, aea aoaeoeai?noue
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? ?ano?n?a iie?oe/ii? aeaaee ? ?iaeeeaoi?ii oni?oo
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaia ca?aeii c iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith i?ia?aiith
aeaia?oaiaioo o?einionueeeo ? nioe?aeueieo iaoe Naaanoiiieuenueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo «I?iaeaie iie?oeee, o?einio??,
?ae?a?? a no/aniiio na?o?».

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?inoeooo ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee ye iaeei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeaiaio?a iie?oe/ii? nenoaie
noni?euenoaa.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?eioeeie ? caeiiii??iino? aeieo?eie
?iciiae?eo aeaaee a ?? ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae canoinoaaiiy oeeo
i?eioeei?a ? caeiiii??iinoae o iie?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe? ??cieo aea?aeaa.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c i?e?iaee, ci?noo, noo? ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee ye o eiioeaiooaeueiiio aniaeo?, oae ? a i?aeoe/iiio canoinoaaii?
eiioeaioe?? aei oiia cao?aeieo noaa?eueieo nenoai ? nenoai, ui
?icaeaathoueny, cie?aia aea/aiiy aieeao ?iciiae?eo aeaaee ia
aeaiie?aoe/io o?ainoi?iaoe?th Oe?a?ie e ?in??.

Iacaaia iaoa coiiaeea iinoaiiaeo ? ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

· i?iaiae?coaaoe aaiaco, nooi?noue ? ci?no eeane/ieo oai??e ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee;

· aeyaeoe niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo eeane/ieo iiaeaeae ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee o ca’yceo c eiinoeoooe?eiith i?aeoeeith XVIII – XIX no. o
Cao?aei?e ?a?ii?, NOA ? ?in??;

· aea/eoe ca’ycie ia?eaiaionueei? nenoaie cao?aeieo aeaiie?ao?e ?c
i?eioeeiii ?iciiae?eo aeaaee;

· c’ynoaaoe iniaeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy ?aea? ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a
iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? a eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaiio iaoai?ci?
«no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa» o NOA;

· aeine?aeeoe aeina?ae canoinoaaiiy i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee o NIAe
ia iaoa??aeao Oe?a?ie ? ?in??.

Oai?aoe/ia ? iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaio aeei?enoaa
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai, ii??aiyeueiiai,
no?oeoo?iiai ? nenoaiiiai aiae?co, a oaeiae ieceo ?aeae, eiioeaioe?e,
oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue ? aeniiae?a a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo
iie?oieia?a, o?einio?a ? nioe?ieia?a. ?c oeueiai ?yaeo aa?oi,
ia?aaeian?i, ye oai?aoe/io iniiao aeae?eeoe eiioeaioe?th ieth?ae?cio
ae?o, ui iiynith? ca’ycie i?ae ?iciiae?eii ?ano?n?a iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? oa ?iciiae?eii a?eie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ? oai?aoe/io
iiaeaeue iie?oe/ii? nenoaie Ae.?noiia, yea iaceaa? oiiae noaa?eueiino?
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Aii??e/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee oaeoe, io?eiai? ca?oa?aeieie ?
a?o/eciyieie aeine?aeieeaie, iioae?eiaai? noaoenoe/i? ? nioe?ieia?/i?
iaoa??aee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

· cae?eniaii nenoaiia oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia inieneaiiy i?iaeai oai???
?iciiae?eo aeaaee oa ?? i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy ia iniia? ?o
aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino?, ui aeyaey?oueny a i?ioean?
iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo no/anii? Oe?a?ie;

· anoaiiaeai? iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? ?inoeoooo ?iciiae?eo aeaaee a
i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?ao?? ;

· aeyaeai? oi?aa?naeuei? ? niaoeeo?/i? neeaaeia? iaoai?cio ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee a iie?oe/i?e nenoai? no/anii? aea?aeaae;

· noi?ioeueiaaia oaiaeaioe?y ci?ie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?a?iaaoea a?eie
aeaaee ? ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? o no/anieo
cao?aeieo aea?aeaaao;

· aeyaeai? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaiiai iaoai?cio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee a
Oe?a?i? ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao??;

· cai?iiiiiaaiee oeyo oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie
iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy ia aac? eiinainono i?ae a?eeaie aeaaee ?
neeaaeiaeie aeaiaioaie iie?oe/ii? ae?oe.

Iaoeiai — oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa?
a oiio, ui aeniiaee oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue ciiao ?icoe?eoe
oai?aoe/i? ciaiiy noiniaii aaiace ? no/aniiai noaio aeieo?eie ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee oa ?? ?ie? a aeaiie?aoe/iiio ?icaeoeo, ni?eythoue eiiieaeniiio
aea/aiith iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano, a oiio /ene? a Oe?a?i?. Ocaaaeueiaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue c oe??? i?iaeaie e aaoi?nuee? aeniiaee aeathoue ciiao
aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae ooaa?aeaeaiiy ? noaa?e?caoe?? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a ? aooe iniiaith aeey
i?iaeiaaeaiiy aea/aiiy i?iaeai aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? ?ano?n?a o?yaeoaaiiy.

Oaeno aeena?oaoe?? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee o iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?
i?e aea/aii? eo?no caaaeueii? iie?oieia?? oa i?e ?ic?iaoe? niaoeeo?n?a c
?noi??? iie?oe/ieo a/aiue, ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a,
iie?oe/ieo nenoai, i?iaeai iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ai?iaiaai? o aeaeyae? aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie aeooiaiino? iai?ee?ioe? XX
no.» (Naaanoiiieue, 1997), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «XIII
A??noioae?anuee? /eoaiiy. Einiin: oain ? aa?iii?y (a?ae
aeaaiueia?aoeueei? o?einio?? aei no/anii?)» (Ia??oiieue, 1998),
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie ? oeyoe naiii?ciaiiy
ethaeeie a ?ae?a??, eoeueoo??, iie?oeoe? ? o?einio??» (Naaanoiiieue,
1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o o?ueio a?ioo?ao,
/ioe?ueio noaooyo o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao ? a iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo aeey
aoc?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iiaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noeoue anooi, aeaa
?icae?ee, ui iathoue ii o?e i?ae?icae?ee, aeniiaee ? nienie e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 171 no. Nienie e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae ia? 210 iiceoe?e.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? i?iaiae?ciaaii no/aniee noai aeine?aeaeaiino? aeieo?eie
?iciiae?eo aeaaee, aeyaeaii iaei ii?aoeueiaai? o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??
ieoaiiy, iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?iiaaii iaoo
? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaaaeaii aeia?aeee i?i
oai?aoe/ii-iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe, aecia/ai? iieiaeaiiy, ye?
i?iiiiothoueny aei caoenoo ? i?noyoue aeaiaioe iiaecie, aeacaii
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo aeniiae?a, iiaeai? oi?ie ?o
ai?iaaoe??, aeia?aeee i?i ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ? no?oeoo?o
i?iiiiiaaii? aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? «Noaiiaeaiiy, nooi?noue oa iniiai? aoaie
?icaeoeo oai??? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee» aaoi? ?icaeyaea? aaiaco oe??? oai???
oa ?? aaiethoe?th.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aaiaca eiioeaioe?? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee» ia iniia?
aea/aiiy i?aoeue Ieaoiia, A??noioaey, Iie?a?y, Ia?nee?y Iaaeoainueeiai,
AE.Aiaeaia, Ae.E?eueaa?ia ? ianooiieo eiiaioa??a aei ieo aeena?oaio
ae?eoia aeniiaeo i?i ?nioaaiiy aeaio aniaeo?a, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue
neeaaeiee ? noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa? noaiiaeaiiy aei eo?eie ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee. Ia?oee aniaeo noino?oueny iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aea? i?aai?caoe?? oa
cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ia iniia? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo
i?aoe? o iaaeao aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio ye oe?e?nii? nenoaie i?aai?a,
ye? ia?aaoaathoue o aecia/aiiiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? oa ? i?aai?caoe?eii
a?aeie?aieai?, a oaeiae /?oeiai ?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e i?ae ieie,
caaacia/aiiy ?o th?eaee/ii? naiino?eiino?, ae?eiai? aca?iiae?? oa
aca?iino?eioaaiiy.

Ae?oaei aniaeoii ? o?aeooaaiiy ?iciiae?eo aeaaee, ye oiiae cieuaiiy ?
caiia?aaiiy aeaniioecio, iaaeiiouaiiy ceiaaeeaaiiy aeaaeith oa ??
oco?iaoe??; ye ia?aaeoiiae iii??eiaaiiai i?aae?iiy, caaacia/aiiy
ii?yaeeo ? caeiiiino?; ye aa?aio?? i?aa ? naiaiae iniaenoino? oa
a?eueii? a?e iie?oe/ieo nee; ye aaaeeeaiai caniao a??aiiaaaeaiiy
i?ioeeaaeieo ?ioa?an?a, noaa?e?caoe?? noni?eueiiai eaaeo oa eiai
caa?aaeaiiy a?ae aia?o?? ? oe?ai??.

Aei XVII no. oe? o?aeooaaiiy /?oei noi?ioaaeenue ? oi/ aiie ua ia
ia’?aeiaeenue o nenoaiaoe/io aeieo?eio, i?ioa noaee iniiaith aeey
oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiieo iai eeane/ieo iiaeaeae ?iciiae?eo aeaaee.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «Nooi?noue eeane/ii? oai??? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee»
i?inoaaeo?oueny oi?ioaaiiy eeane/ieo aa?n?e aeieo?eie oa ?o i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy. Iath/e aeeaiea ?noi?e/ia ei??iiy, naiino?eia ? oe?e?nia
aeieo?eia noi?ioaaeanue o ia??iae ao?aeoacieo ?aaiethoe?e XVII-XVIII no.
o aeaio aa?n?yo, ye? ?ic??ciythoue ca e?eoa???i iiae?eueiino? aai
iaiiae?eueiino? ia?iaeiiai noaa?ai?oaoo. ?aeaieiaaie ia?oi? noaee
Aeae.Eiee ? O.-E.Iiioane’?, a ae?oai? – AE.AE. ?onni.

Nain eiioeaioe?? Aeae.Eieea iieyaaa o iaa?oiooaaii? eiii?ii?no i?ae
ao?aeoac??th ? aeai?yinoaii, ciooaieo /a?ac ??aiiaaao nee, ui neeaeany
ia oie ia??iae a Aiae??, ni?ai?aoethaaoe i?ae niaith. Aeae.Eiee
?ic??ciy? o?e aeaaee: caeiiiaeaa/o, aeeiiaa/o ? nithcio. Aiie
cae?eniththoue niaoeeo?/i? ooieoe?? – noai?aiiy caeii?a aeey caaaeueiiai
aeia?a, ?o aeeiiaiiy ? ciai?oi? a?aeiineie. Caeiiiaeaa/a aeaaea ye
ae?aaeaiiy aie? ia?iaeo (aeueo noai?a), iiaeiia aooe a?aeie?aieaiith
a?ae ?aooe aeaaee oa cina?aaeaeaiith o ia?eaiaio?, ui aeae?a?oueny.
Aeeiiaa/a ? nithcia aeaaea ??ci?, aea uia oieeiooe iaocaiaeaeaiino?,
aeia??ythoueny iiia?oia?. Aeaaea inoaiiueiai ia aaniethoia, i?ioa o
iaaecae/aeieo aeiaaeeao iiia?o aieiae?? iniaeeaeie i?a?iaaoeaaie.
Noaeiaa aeaaea ca Eieeii ia a?aeie?aieth?oueny: aiia ? /anoeiith
aeeiiaa/i?; i?e oeueiio iaaieioo?oueny, ui ia?iae (aeie ao?aeoac?? oa
aeai?yinoaa) iiaeiai a?aoe o/anoue o cae?eniaii? i?aainoaeaey. Aeae.Eiee
i?aeiyany aei oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ioa?an?a ao?aeoac??,
ona?aeiieaiiy yeeo aeaei ?e iiaeeea?noue ia’?aeiaoe aeani? neee oa
ia?aiiaoe aaniethoeci, oi/a a ? ia iniia? eiii?ii?no c iiaei
iao?aeoaciaiei aeai?yinoaii.

Aeaui ?ioa o?aeooaaiiy cai?iiiioaaa O.-E.Iiioane’?. A oiiaao
aei?noe?oiai i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae ei?ie?anueeith aeaaeith, a?enoie?ao??th
oa ao?aeoac??th o O?aioe??, i?ae a Aiae??, ?aea? Iiioane’? aoee
ni?yiiaai? ia oa, uia ia?aoeiaeeoe aa?oiai?e aeaae? cina?aaeeoenue o
?oeao iaeiiai eeano. A iaa?oiooaaii? eeaniaiai eiii?ii?no i?ae
ai?iaoth/eie a?oiaie c o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeueiiai na?aa?aeiioaiiy ?o nee o
O?aioe?? ana?aaeei? XVIII no. ? iieyaa? nooue aeieo?eie O.-E.Iiioane’?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Eieea, yeee o?aeooaaa ?iciiae?e aeaaee ye
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ? aca?iiae?th ia iniia? i?aaaethaaiiy caeiiiaeaa/i?
aeaaee, o?aioeocueeee ieneeoaeue iaaieiooaaa ia iaiao?aeiino? iiaii?
??aiiaaae, iacaeaaeiino? ? iaa?oue a?aeie?aieaiiy a?eie aeaaee (ui ia
icia/aei ?o iaiaiaaeaiino?). I?e oeueiio aeiaeia aeaaea ia iiaeiia aoea
ao?o/aoeny a eiiiaoaioe?th ?ioi?, aea an? iaee i?aai eiio?iethaaoe ?
no?eioaaoe iaeia iaeio, ia aeiioneath/e ceiaaeeaaiue.

Iiioane’? ?icoi?a, ui aei?noe?noue eiino?oeoe?? ia caeeoa? iiaeeeaino?
aeey noai?aiiy iaoai?cio ?ica’ycoaaiiy eie?c?e, aea aaaaeaa, ui oae
caaiee iaiao?aeiee ?oo ?a/ae coiiaeth? a?eee aeaaee ae?yoe ocaiaeaeaii.
I?ioa aoaeoeaiee iaoai?ci «no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa» aoa iani?aaae?
noai?aiee i?ci?oa – o NOA.

Aeieo?eia Eieea – Iiioane’? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo a?ae oaiaeaeueiiai aei
ao?aeoacii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa aeaea iiaeeea?noue ao?aeoac??:

a) iaa?oiooaaoe aeaniee i?eo?ae aei iie?oe/ii? aeaaee c iaeiaioei
iaiaaeaiiyi noaiiaeo i?ea?ea?a a?enoie?ao??;

a) o caaaeuei?e oa/?? iac??eeo iie?oe/ieo ?aoi?i aeiiiaoeny, uia
aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy cae?enithaaeinue a?aeiia?aeii aei caeii?a,
anoaiiaeaieo aeai?ieie i?aaiaie;

a) i?iaieineoe iniiai? iie?oe/i? i?aaa oa naiaiaee ? aiaeii/an ia
aeiionoeoe aaceiio?ieueiiai aieeao oe?ieeo ia?iaeieo ian ia aea?aeaai?
ni?aae.

I?aaiaiiy O.-E.Iiioane’? caa?aaoe ei?ie?anueeo aeaaeo, oi/ ? iaiaaeaio,
i?ioa iacaeaaeio a?ae ia?eaiaioo, yea ia?aoeiaeaeaea a aoi?aiaiith
iec?a o iie?oe/ia aeeooy, cono??ei caia?a/aiiy AE.AE.?onni. A ?aea?
Iiioane’? aaoi? «noni?eueii? oaiaee» aaa/aa iaaaaeai? e?aeiiu?,
ine?eueee i?ioenoaaeaiiy ? a?aeie?aieaiiy a?eie aeaaee ni?e/eiythoue ?o
ai?iaeia/o, aeathoue neeo i?eaaoiei aieeaai ? iaa?oue i?ecaiaeyoue aei
?icae?iaeaiiy naii? aea?aeaae.

Aiaeii/an ?onni aeciaaaa iaiao?aei?noue ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?e
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. I?e oeueiio caeiiiaeaa/a aeaaea o?nii
c’?aeio?oueny c? noaa?ai?oaoii. Oea – aiey ia?iaeo. Aiia noaa?aiia ?
oiio iiaeiia ?aaoethaaoe ieoaiiy caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aeey
caiia?aaiiy aieeao i?eaaoieo ?ioa?an?a ia noni?euei? ni?aae iaiao?aeii,
uia ia?aoai?aiiyi caeiio ye caaaeueiiai i?aaeea a aeoe
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o caeiaeanue iniaeeaa (aeeiiaa/a) aeaaea. Oey
aeaaea anoaiiaeth?oueny ??oaiiyi noaa?aia ? oiio aenooia? o?eueee ye
ea??aiee, eio?iai eiio?ieth? caeiiiaeaaaoeue.

AE.AE.?onni aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui ??aiiaaaa on?o noa? aeaaee o
aea?aeaa?, ?o ocaiaeaeaia ae?yeuei?noue iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoenue ia ?o
i?ioenoaaeaiiyi, ia ca aeiiiiiaith «no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa», a caaaeyee
caeiiiaeaa/?e aeaae?, yea ao?eth? iaiiae?eueiee noaa?ai?oao ia?iaeo.

O iiae?yo o?aioeocueei? ?aaiethoe?? ao?aeoac?y, uia aeinyaoe aeaaee,
nii/aoeo aeei?enoaea iiaeaeue ?onni, a caiaeii – Iiioane’?. Ci?oeieaoe
aeiiii?/ia ? iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua, o?aioeocueea ao?aeoac?y onoioea
oaiaeaeueio ciaoue ia o?eueee a?ae caeiiiaeaa/i?, a e a?ae aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ieoaiiy i?i ?iciiae?e aea?aeaaii? aeaaee i?ae
ao?aeoac??th e a?enoie?ao??th aoei ciyoa ? a?no?y aeieo?eie aoei
caa?iaia i?ioe iaeiiiaoaioiiai ? iaeiio?ieueiaaiiai aieeao ian ia
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaith.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ianooiiiai ?icaeoeo
eeane/ii? iiaeae? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee» aeine?aeaeo?oueny ca’ycie i?ae
iaoa??aeueieie oiiaaie aeeooy, ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi iie?oe/ieo nee ?
ao?eaiiyi o??? /e ?ioi? iiaeae? ?iciiae?eo aeaae o NOA, I?ia//ei? oa
?in?? o XVIII – XIX no.

O NOA ia aoai? ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaei?noue ?iciiae?e aeaaee aoa eeoa
iie?oe/iith oai???th, aaneii, ni?yiiaaiei i?ioe aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee a?ae
?iai? aiae?enueeiai ei?iey. Ca?aaee iineaaeaiiy «o?yaeiai? oe?ai??»
ia?aaeaa/aeinue, ca?aeii c ?aeayie Aeaeiia Eieea i?i aa?oiaainoai
caeii?a, iineeeoe caeiiiaeaa/o aeaaeo — eaa?neaoo?e ooao?a. I?ioa i?ney
?aae?caoe?? iacaaii? ?aea? o 1776 ?. aeyaeeinue, ui caeiiiaeaaoe? ooao?a
cina?aaeeee o nai?o ?oeao aaee/aci? iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ? ?o i?aae?iiy ii/aee
iaceaaoe «aeai?iei aeaniioeciii», ui i?ae?eaa? oe?e?ni?noue e?a?ie.

E?auith aeey oiia oe??? e?a?ie aeyaeeanue eiioeaioe?y /?oeiai
?iciiae?eo aeaaee c nenoaiith «no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa» o aeon?
Iiioane’?. ? oea i?e?iaeii, ine?eueee NOA aoee oi?eaeueiei
ni?aoiaa?enoaii, yea a?ae ii/aoeo neeaaeaeinue ?c iac’?aeiaieo i?ae
niaith i?/ei ni?eueiei ?iaeea?aeoae?no?a. Ae??aei oa aoaeoeaiei oaeee
aea?aeaaiee ono??e i?a noaoe eeoa ca eiai ?inoeooae?caoe??, oiaoi
ao?eaii? o /?oeo e noaa?eueio nenoaio eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaeo cania?a,
iaoiae?a ? i?ioeaaeo? eiii?ii?niiai ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a.
Aeo?aeiei i?eioeeiii ooo noaea oi?ioea «i?aae?iiy a?eueoino?, iaeiae i?e
iiaac? i?aa iaioino?».

?ioee i?aeo?ae ie niinoa??aa?ii oai, aea aea?aeaaia aeaaea caaaeaee
caeeoaeanue a iaeieo ? oeo naieo nioe?aeueieo a?oiao ? ao?ethaaeanue o
iiia?oia?. Oa?aeoa?iei ? o?aeooaaiiy aeieo?eie ?iciiae?eo aeaaee o
i?iaoeuee?e iie?oe/i?e e?oa?aoo??. A oiiaao aacneeey i?iaoeueei?
ao?aeoac?? oa ?icae?iaeaiino? e?a?ie i?aaenoaaieee iie?oe/ii-i?aaiai?
?aeaieia?? oyae?ee aei eiii?ii?no c oaiaeaeueiith a?enoie?ao??th ?
aenoaaee aeiiae o?eueee o noa?? iie?oe/ieo aano?aeoe?e, noieanoeee, a
caaoaeueiaaiiio aeaeyae?. I?iaoeuee? o?einioe oa th?enoe OOO-O?O no.
?icae?eyee aea?aeaaio aeaaeo ia /anoeie a?aeiia?aeii aei niaoeeo?ee ??
ooieoe?e, aea iaaieiooaaee, ui a?aei?iiino? i?ae ieie ia iiaeii?
?icaeyaeaoenue ye ?icae?iaeai?noue naii? aa?oiaii? aeaaee, ?aeeii? ca
noooth ? o an?o i?iyaao cina?aaeaeaii? o ?oeao iiia?oa.

Iiae?aia noaaeaiiy aei aeieo?eie ?iciiae?eo aeaaee aoei aeanoeaa ?
?in?enuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?. O ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy neaae?e
?in?enuee?e ao?aeoac?? (eoiaoeoao) iaiao?aeii aoei nia?oeny ia neeueio
oeaio?aeueio aeaaeo. Oiio ?? ?aeaieiae, iaaieiooth/e ia iaeeaniaiio
oa?aeoa?? aa?oiaii? aeaaee, yea neiaie?co? oe?e?ni?noue aea?aeaae,
iaiieyaaee ia aeio?eiaii? aei?noeiai ii?yaeeo a aea?aeaa?. A oiiaao
?in?enueeiai aaniethoecio aanei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee, eiee aiii aenoaaeiny,
ia i?noeei, ye i?aaeei, iniiaii? ?aea? – aca?iii? ??aiiaaae oa
iaiaaeaiiy a?eie aeaaee. Iie?oe/i? aeneiaethaaiiy ? eiinoeoooe?ei?
i?iaeoe iae/ano?oa ia aeoiaeeee ca iaae? aeiia /?oe?oiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy
ooieoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? ?iciiae?eo eiiiaoaioe?? i?ae
caeiiiaeaa/eie, aeeiiaa/eie oa noaeiaeie i?aaiaie. O oeueiio ca’yceo
oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui a Oe?a?i? ua ia ii/aoeo OOO no. ?nioaaa i?iaeo
eiinoeoooe?? aaoueiaia I.I?eeea, iniiai? ?aea? yeiai – ca?eueiaiiy
a?ae ?iia?nueeiai naiiaeaaeaey ? /?oea a?oeeoethaaiiy ?iciiae?eo
aeaaee .

Ii/aoie XIX no. o ?in?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianooiiei caaino?aiiyi
nioe?aeueieo noia?a/iinoae, iineeaiiyi ?aaiethoe?eieo iano?i?a. I?e
oeueiio naiiaea?aeaanoai aeyaey? iaaio oaiaeaioe?th aei e?aa?aeueieo
ia?aoai?aiue. Aeieeathoue ?aea? aeai?yinueeiai oa ao?aeoaciiai
e?aa?ae?cio. ?in?enueea ao?aeoac?y aoea caoe?eaaeaia o noai?aii?
iaiao?aeieo oiia aeey ?icaeoeo eai?oae?cio, aenooiaea ca ie?ia
ia?aoai?aiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa o eiinoeoooe?eio iiia?o?th, i?ioa
a?ae/oaaea no?ao ia?aae iaeiiaaioe?eiei ? iaeiiiaoaioiei ao?o/aiiyi
ia?iaeo.

Caiaea ? ni?ai?aoey ao?aeoac?? oa aeai?yinoaa i?e caa?aaeaii?
iiia?o?/ii? aeaaee, ia aeoieo e?aa?ae?a, aoee caeaoieie iaiaaeeoe
aaniethoeci, aii?yaeeoaaoe i?aaiaee ono??e, caaacia/eoe iniiai?
a?iiaaeyinuee? i?aaa ? naiaiaee, aa?aiooaaoe aeio?eiaiiy caeiiiino? oa
aiaeii/an ia?aoeiaeeoe aeei?enoaiith iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a ye «oe?ai??
a?eueoino?». O aoaeue-yeiio aeiaaeeo eiioeaioe?y ?iciiae?eo aeaaee ?
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/i? iiaoaeiae ?? e?eoee?a iaee eiii?ii?niee oa?aeoa? ?
aoee ?aeaieia?/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi iaiao?aeiino? i?eoiaeo aei aeaaee
ao?aeoac?? oa ?? iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy.

Ocaaaeueithth/e ?icia?ooy ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e oa i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy
aeieo?eie ?iciiae?eo aeaaee, aa?oi c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aeei?enoaiiy
o??? /e ?ioi? iiaeae? caeaaeii a?ae iio?aa iiai? ae?oe. Ni?eueiei iaeiae
aoei oa, ui aeoeaioe cnoaaeenue ia ei?enoue iaaeaiiy iio??aii? aia?a??
aeeiiaa/?e aeaae?, iineeaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue aaei?i?no?aoe?? c iaoith
iaiaaeeoe «aaceiio?ieueiee aeaiie?aoeci iec?a». Ia ia?oiio aoai?
ao?aeoac?y iio?aao? ci?oeiaiiy i?a?iaaoea ia?eaiaioo, a i?ney
caoaa?aeaeaiiy aeaniiai iaioaaiiy i?aaenoaaieoeuee? i?aaie noaaeyoueny o
iaae?, ye? oi ?icoe?ththoueny, oi caoaeothoueny caeaaeii a?ae
iie?oe/ii? eii’thieoo?e.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny «I?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee a
iaoai?ci? no/anii? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae». ?iciiae?e aeaaee,
aeieeioaoe ye ?aeay, iinooiiai ia?aoai?eany a oi?aa?naeueiee
eiinoeoooe?eiee i?eioeei. O oaeiio aeaeyae?, ye a?i nueiaiaei?
canoiniao?oueny, oeae i?eioeei icia/a?:

a) ?iciiae?e ooieoe?e ? eiiiaoaioe?e i?ae aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie ca?aeii
c aeiiaaie ?iciiae?eo i?aoe?;

a) ci?oeiaiiy aecia/aii? naiino?eiino? eiaeiiai i?aaio aeaaee i?e
cae?eniaii? iei nai?o iiaiiaaaeaiue;

a) iaae?eaiiy eiaeiiai i?aaio iiaeeea?noth i?ioenoaaeyoe aeanio aeoieo
??oaiith ?ioiai i?aaio, eiio?iethth/e oeei iaaiith i??ith eiai ae??. O
no/anieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?iao neeaeenue aea? iniiai? iiaeae? ao?eaiiy
aeaiiai i?eioeeio: «aio/eee» ? «aei?noeee» ?iciiae?e aeaaee.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Ia?eaiaioa?eci ? ?iciiae?e aeaaee»
?icaeyaea?oueny ia?oa iiaeaeue. Aiia a?oioo?oueny ia ?aea? Aeae.Eieea
i?i o?nio ni?ai?aoeth ? aca?iiae?th aeaaee i?e aa?oiaainoa? iaei??? c
ieo. Oey iiaeaeue ?aae?co?oueny a e?a?iao c ia?eaiaionueeith oi?iith
i?aae?iiy. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?i i?a?iaaoea ia?eaiaio?a
I?ia//eie, Aaeeeia?eoai??, ?oae?? oiui aeena?oaio ae?eoia aeniiaeo i?i
iayai?noue ianooiieo oaiaeaioe?e:

a) a oiiaao eiioeaio?aoe?? aeiiii?/ii? aeaaee oa iie?oe/iiai aieeao
o?ainiaoe?iiaeueieo ei?ii?aoe?e ( OIE ) ia?eaiaio, o ca’yceo c
iaiaeii??aei?noth neeaaeo ? neeueiith noeeuei?noth aei a?aooaaiiy
noni?eueii? aeoiee, ana iaioa caeaoai neoaoaaoe neooiyiei ?
aaca?aeiiaiei aaae?eai cae?eniaiiy iie?oeee OIE;

a) i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaaee a o?yaeiaiio
aia?ao?, ia?aoai?aiiy inoaiiueiai, a oaeiae aia?aoo i?ai’??a, a
iniaeeaee i?aai aea?aeaae, yeee ?nio? ii?yae c o?yaeii;

a) ??cei ciaioo?oueny eieaa?aeueia ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo,
oneeaaeiththoueny eiai no?oeoo?e, c’yaeythoueny iaeiinoeoooe?ei?
aeeiiaa/? ?inoeoooe;

a) ia?eaiaioe ana a?eueoa ia?aoai?ththoueny o aei?aae/ee i?aai, ?oii?
?aeae oa a?aio aeey iaaiai?aiiy cae?enithaaii? iie?oeee.

Iaeiae iineeaiiy o?yae?a ia icia/a? a?aeiiao a?ae ia?eaiaioa?ecio ?
iiaa?iaiiy aei aaoi?eoa?ieo iaoiae?a o?yaeoaaiiy. Iaiaaeaiiy ooieoe?e
ia?eaiaioo a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa aei iaaii? iaae?, ine?eueee aiie
iaiao?aei? aeey a??aiiaaaeoaaiiy i?aoaic?e eiieo?oth/eo a?oiiaeo
?ioa?an?a. Ca ia?eaiaioaie caeeoa?oueny ooieoe?y eiio?ieth, ei?eaoaaiiy
oa oi?iaeueiiai naieoe?iioaaiiy iie?oeee o?yaeo. Eeoa aeaeiee, ye
iai?eeeaae, o Neaiaeeiaanueeeo e?a?iao, aea o?eaaeee /an i?e aeaae?
ia?aaoaaee /e ia?aaoaathoue nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe, aaeeea ao?aeoac?y
(ie?aa?o?y) inoa??aa?oueny iaaeaaaoe o?yaeia? oe?ieo naiaiaeo ae?e. Oai
a?aeaoaa?oueny cnoa oeaio?o aeaaee ia ei?enoue ia?eaiaio?a.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «I?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee ? iaoai?ci
«no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa» o NOA» ?icaeyaea?oueny iiaeaeue, caniiaaia ia
?aea? Iiioane’? i?i ??aiiaaao, iacaeaaei?noue ? aca?iieiio?ieue a?eie
aeaaee. Iaeyne?aa?oa aiia i?iyaey?oueny o NOA oa ?ioeo i?aceaeaionueeeo
?anioae?eao.

sse nai i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee, oae ? aeiiiaithth/ee eiai iaoai?ci
«no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa» a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo NOA coiiaethaaeenue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie oa iie?oe/ieie oaeoi?aie, iio?aaaie iiai?
ao?aeoacii? ae?oe, yea a?ae naiiai ii/aoeo oi?ioaaeanue ye
ieth?ae?noe/ia. Eiaeia c ?? neeaaeiaeo i?aaioea aieeiooe ia
ae?yeuei?noue aea?aei?aai?a o aeanieo ?ioa?anao, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey
oeueiai iaoai?ci ?iciiae?eo aeaaee. I?ioa nenoaia «no?eioaaiue ?
i?ioeaaa» ia iiaea i?aoethaaoe aaoiiaoe/ii ye iaeaaiaeaeaiee iaoai?ci
aca?iiae?? o?ueio iiai?noth ??aiii?aaieo aeaiaio?a, ine?eueee nai
i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee ia?aaeaa/a? noai iai?oae aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy
??aiiaaae an??? nenoaie. Aeeoe c oaeiai noaio iiaeeeai eeoa i?e
iineeaii? iaei??? a?eee aeaaee, yea iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aea? ?ioa?anai
ao?aeoac??. A ?iaeono??aeueio aiioo, eiee NOA aoee ni?aae?oaei?noth
ie?aieo eai?oae?no?a, ui ?aaeueii ea?oaaee aeanieie a?ioeia, oeei
?ioa?anai a?aeiia?aeaa ia?eaiaioa?eci. Eiia?an ye aaciina?aaei?e
i?aaenoaaiee ao?aeoac?? (cie?aia Naiao) ? caeiiiaeaa/? cai?e ooao?a
a?ae?a?aaaee iniiaio ?ieue o ae??oaii? aea?aeaaieo ni?aa. Oea aoa
ia??iae «i?aae?iiy Eiia?ano», eiee caeiiiaeaa/a aeaaea ia?aaaaeaea iaae
aeeiiaa/ith.

A iino?iaeono??aeuei?e aiin? i?aaiaiiy aei oeaio?ae?caoe?? oa
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaaee, iia’ycaia ?c c?inoaiiyi iie?oe/iiai aieeao OIE,
o oai??? ? ia i?aeoeoe? i?ecaiaeeoue aei iineaaeaiiy aeiia aei?noeiai
?iciiae?eo aeaaee ? cnoao oeaio?o aeaaee o a?e aeeiiaa/i? a?eee. I?ioa
?nioth/? eiinoeoooe?ei? iaiaaeaiiy ia noai?ththoue iaia?aai?ieo
ia?aoeiae aeey ni?eueieo ae?e ?inoeooo?a aeaaee. »Ae?oa aieeao» ia ia?
ia iao? iiai?noth a?aeie?aieoe a?eee aeaaee, ine?eueee oea iiaea
i?ecaanoe aei iineaaeaiiy ?? ?ie? o i?iaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee.
E??i oiai, ?nio? iiea, ia yeiio iiaeeeaa ni?ai?aoey ? aca?iia
i?enoinoaaiiy a?eie aeaaee ia iniia? aeanoeaiai aia?eeainuee?e eoeueoo??
?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eo?a oeyoii ia?aaiai??a, oaiae ? eiii?ii?n?a. Oea ?
iiynith? aenieo no?ee?noue Eiinoeoooe?? NOA.

?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee ? nenoaie «no?eioaaiue ?
i?ioeaaa» iaea ia iao? noai?aiiy oaeiai iaoai?cio, ui i?a ae caaacia/eoe
aca?iiae?th an?o i?aai?a ?aeeii? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, ?aaeueiei
aieiaea?ai yei? ? ie?aa?o?/iee eai?oae NOA, a oaeiae aaeaioaoe?th oaeiai
iaoai?cio aei ci?i o noni?eueiiio aeeoo?. A oeueiio ?icoi?ii? iacaaiee
i?eioeei a?aeiia?aea? i?ecia/aiith ? nueiaiaei?.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? aeena?oaio ocaaaeueith? «Aeina?ae canoinoaaiiy
?iciiae?eo aeaaee a NIAe (ia i?eeeaae? Oe?a?ie ? ?in??)».

Iniiaiith ?oo?eiith neeith aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aoi?i a N?N?, a caiaeii o
NIAe, aenooieea iao?aeoaciaia ia?oainiiiiaieeaoo?a, yea ua ca
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a ia?aoai?eea caaaeueiiaea?aeaaio aeani?noue o iaaio
iiaeiao i?eaaoii?. Naia oey iniaeea?noue a?o/eciyiiai iie?oe/iiai
?icaeoeo, yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui iiaa ao?aeoacia ae?oa o ia?niiaeueiiio
aei??? iaeaea oioiaeia ieno?aei?e ae?o? ia?oa?enoie?ao?a, coiiaeea
eiie?aoio iiaeaeue ?iciiae?eo aeaaee.

C iaeiiai aieo, iinoeiioi?noe/ia ao?aeoac?y, yea ci?oeithaaeany, aoea
caoe?eaaeaia o caa?aaeaii? neeueii? nenoaie iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy. I?ioa
c ?ioiai, a ?ioa?anao eiina?aaoe?? ?? i?ea?eaeiaaiiai noaiiaeua, oey
ao?aeoac?y aeiaaaea oi?niaaiiai ceaio noa?i? aeaaeii? iaoeie. Iniiaith
o?aaeeoe?iiae?nonueei-eiioi?noe/ii? nenoaie iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy aoea
EI?N – eaac?ia?o?eia no?oeoo?a, ui i?iiecoaaea ana noni?euenoai – a?ae
noieeoe? aei ie?aiiai eieaeoeao.  Ci?ia iie?oe/ii? nenoaie noni?euenoaa
aoea iiaeeeaith o?eueee i?ney naieoe?? oe?ieeo ia?o?eieo ian, ui i?e
aenieiio ??ai? eiina?aaoecio inoaii?o aoei iaiiaeeeaei.

?icii/aany i?ioean ?io?eueo?aoe?? ia?o?eieo ea??aiee?a o ua iaaeaaii
aeaei?aoeai? ?aaee aiaeii/an c iineaaeaiiyi ia?o?eieo no?oeoo?. Iniiaia
aanei aeaiiai ia??iaeo – «Aeaia?oecaoe?y ? ia?aaeaiiy aeaaee ?aaeai».
Aiane?aeie oeueiai ia?oainiiiiaieeaoo?a caa?aaea i?ea?eaeiaaia noaiiaeua
e io?eiaea iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae eiioi?noe/ii? ?eoi?eee,
ine?eueee ii/aea i?aeoi i?aaenoaaeyoe ia o?eueee ia?o?ei? eiea, a e ona
ianaeaiiy.

Ooai?eeenue ?aaeeie c ia?aaaaeaiiyi i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee iaae
caeiiiaeaa/ith oa noaeiaith, ui iathoue noeeuei?noue aei aaoi?eoa?ieo
iaoiae?a ea??aieoeoaa. Eiinoeoooe?y ?in?? neeaaeaia oae, ui iie?oe/ia
nenoaia oe??? e?a?ie aea? iiaeeea?noue I?aceaeaioo a?aoe ?ieue iaeaea
iiia?oa. I?aceaeaio iaae?eaiee iaaecae/aeii aaeeeeie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ?
i?aeoe/ii aeaaaeaiee c nenoaie ?iciiae?eo aeaaee. Iiaeeeaino?
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ca?aeii Eiinoeoooe?? cia/ii aoae/?, aea a?i oaae
aeei?enoiao? on? iaaei?iaee a nenoai? «no?eioaaiue oa i?ioeaaa», a
oaeiae iecueeo i?aaina?aeii?noue noni?euenoaa, aeey ia?aa?aiiy ia naaa
ana oe?oeo iiaiiaaaeaiue. Iayai?noue ?icaeiooiai aia?aoo «no?eioaaiue ?
i?ioeaaa» o Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie ? ?? i?aeoe/ia a?aenooi?noue o
Eiinoeoooe?? ?in?? na?ae/eoue , ona ae oaee, i?i a?eueo aenieee
nooi?iue aeaiie?aoe/iino? ia?oi? ? aaoi?eoa?iino? ae?oai?. I?e oiio a
iaio e?a?iao ?nio? iio?aaa o ceaaiaeaeaiiio ooieoe?iioaaii? on?o
a?eie aeaaee.

Ioaea a?aeoai?aiiy nenoaie iie?oe/iiai iaioaaiiy c canoinoaaiiyi
i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee c?oeioeinue c /eiaeeie o?oaeiiuaie ia
iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi??. A?o/eciyia ao?aeoac?y ia iaea eiieo?aio?a
ana?aaeei? e?a?ie ? oiio ia ciiaea ae?iaeoe eoeueoo?o iie?oe/iiai
eiii?ii?no. I?ioean aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo caaaeaee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
nioe?aeueiith iia?e?caoe??th, oiaoi ci?iith nioe?aeueiiai oa iaeiiaiai
noaiiaeua aaeeeeo a?oi ianaeaiiy. Ooai?ththoueny iia? a?oie ?ioa?an?a,
ye? iio?aaothoue aaeaeaaoiiai iie?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa.

Aacnoii?aii, ui ia aoai? aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iio??aii
iiaeieaoe ni?ioea ?aaeoe?iia??a oeyoii aeieoaaiiy ?oiuei? iie?oe/ii?
o/ano?. I?ioa aei e?ioey 90-o ?ie?a oeae i?ioean caeoia iano?eueee
aeaeaei, ui aoaeue-ye? aeueoa?iaoeai? ae?oai a?oie ?ioa?an?a caciathoue
na?eicieo oneeaaeiaiue noiniaii aeinooio aei i?eeiyooy iie?oe/ieo
??oaiue. Aiane?aeie oeueiai ia?eaiaioe noathoue ina?aaeeii iiiceoe?eieo
?aaeeiai nee, a ine?eueee ia?eaiaionueea aeaaea iaiaaeaia ?ieeth
caeiiiaeaa/i? iaoeie, aeiiae ia?eaiaioa??a ona a?eueoa
?aaeeeae?cothoueny. Aeiee noai, aeecueeee aei aioaaii?cio i?ae
ia?eaiaioaie e aaei?i?no?aoe?yie, yeee ae??oo?oueny aca?iiei oeneii
(iia?ica ?ii?/iaioo aai ?icioneo), caa?iaiiyi aaciina?aaeiuei aei
iie?oeaenueeeo aeoe?e oa iaoiaio.

Iane?aeeii iienaiiai noaio ? oa, ui aeoe aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee ia
aeioiaeyoue aei aeeiiaiiy o aaaeaiiio aeey aeaaeieo ae?o aeaeyae?: /anoi
aiie ?aii?othoueny, aeieothoueny, aee?eaeththoueny, aai iaei? ? o? ae
ethaee iiiiothoue iai?yiia? ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae ? aiaeii/an ?aae?cothoue
oeae iai?yi ye aea?aeaai? neoaeaiaoe?. Oiio aeina?ae canoinoaaiiy
iaoai?cio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee o e?a?iao Ni?aae?oaeiino? ia iiaeia iacaaoe
iiai?noth iiceoeaiei. sseui ia Caoiae? «?iciiae?e aeaaee» i?ieoia oeyo
a?ae oai?aoe/ii? eiioeaioe?? aei iie?oeei-eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio, oi
iie?oe/i? nenoaie a NIAe iiaeii? i?ieoe cai?ioiee oeyo. Oni?o
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, iane?eueee aaeaeei aeyaeoueny
ia?ao?ae a?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio aei iaiiaiaiiy eiai ?aaeueiei
ci?noii.

Eiie?aoia iiaeaeue ?iciiae?eo aeaaee a aoaeue-ye?e iie?oe/i?e nenoai?
aecia/a?oueny eiii?ii?nii caoe?eaaeaieo o oaeiio ?iciiae?e? iie?oe/ieo
nee. Ioaea, ? a e?a?iao Ni?aae?oaeiino? iaiao?aeii aeinyaiooe eiinainono
uiaei oi?i ? iaoiae?a cae?eniaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeaaee. Iiiceoe?y aeaae?,
aacia/ia iie?oe/ia eiieo?aioe?y – ii?iaeuei? yaeua o eiaei?e
aeaiie?aoe/i?e aea?aeaa?. sseui ae iiiceoe?y ?aii?o?oueny, oi aiia
ii/eia? aeei?enoiaoaaoe aoaeue-yeo iiaeeea?noue aieeiooe ia i?eeiyooy
iie?oe/ieo ??oaiue. O?eueee caaaeueia caiaea c’?aeia? an? a?eee aeaaee
nie?aea?iith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth; i?e oeueiio ae?oa ? eiio?ae?oa
aoaeooue eiieo?oaaoe o iaaeao iaei??? aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie, a ia i?ioe
ia?.

Ocaaaeueithth/e iaoa??ae ae?oaiai ?icae?eo, aeena?oaio ae?eoia aeniiaeo,
ui i?iaeaia ?iciiae?eo aeaaee e ?ano?n?a iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith. Caaaeueieie oi?aa?naeueieie aeaiaioaie oe???
aeieo?eie, ye? canoiniaothoueny o an?o aeaiie?aoe/ieo nenoaiao, ?:

a) niaoe?ae?caoe?y a?eie aeaaee, ui caniiaaia ia i?eioeei? ?iciiae?eo
i?aoe?;

a) iaaeiioneaiiy oe?ai?? o aoaeue-ye?e oi?i?, ui cae?enith?oueny /a?ac
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th ? ?iccina?aaeaeaiiy ?ano?n?a iie?oe/ii? aeaaee.

Eiie?aoia iiaeaeue ?iciiae?eo aeaaee o o?e /e ?io?e e?a?i? caeaaeeoue
a?ae oace ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ao?aeoac?? ? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nee
ana?aaeei? aeaaeii? ae?oe. Ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii?
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny i?aaiai caeiiiaeaa/i? aeaaee,
i?ioa a i??o ci?oeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ao?aeoac?? cia/aiiy ia?eaiaio?a
ciaioo?oueny ia ei?enoue iineeaiiy aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee.

O aea?aeaaao, ye? iathoue o?eaaeee aeina?ae aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo,
iacaeaaeii a?ae iiaeae? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee, caaaeaee ? eiii?ii?niee
aa??aio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ano?n?a o?yaeoaaiiy, ? cia/aiiy ia?eaiaioo
i?eiee ia caiaeeoueny aei oaoi?/ii-i?aaiai? ?ie?, a aeeiiaa/a aeaaea ia
io?eio? aaoi?eoa?ieo iiaiiaaaeaiue.

O e?a?iao NIAe eoeueoo?a eiii?ii?no oa ae?aeiao i?ae iiaeie ae?oieie
a?oioaaiiyie a?aenooiy. Oiio ia no/aniiio aoai? iino?aaeyinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa iniiaiith i?iaeaiith ? iiooe caiaee,
?ioaa?aoe?y ci?noo an?o ?ioa?an?a, iai???a, ae?e iie?oe/ieo aeoi??a ?,
ia oe?e iniia?, — noai?aiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie iie?oe/iiai
iaioaaiiy.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui oa /e ?ioa iiaeaeue ?aae?caoe?? aeieo?eie
?iciiae?eo aeaaee aecia/a?oueny niaoeeo?eith a?aeiia?aeii? iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie. I?ioa nueiaiaei?, eiee «aaaa??anueeee» iioaioe?ae iniae aai
?aaeooeth?oueny, aai ia neeaaea?oueny, a ?ieue aea?aeaae iianthaeii
iineeth?oueny, ?inoeooo ?iciiae?eo aeaaee ? ? caeeoeoueny iaae?eiei
caniaii oieeiooe eiioeaio?aoe?? aeaaee a ?oeao aoaeue-yeiai aeeeoaoi?a
/e ie?aa?o??. Oey oi?aa?naeuei?noue ?iaeoue i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee
? eiai iaoai?cie ia niaoeeo?/ii-a?oiiaeie, a caaaeueiiethaenueeeie
oe?iiinoyie, ye? aeiaaathoue anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy ? caoenoo.

Ia cae?i/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aecia/aii aeaye? ia?niaeoeae
i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe ca aeaiith i?iaeaiaoeeith.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii ?ia?o ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Eaiaanueeee I.N. ?icaeoie oai??? ?iciiae?eo aeaaee. – Naaanoiiieue:
Aeae-ai NaaAeOO, 1999. – 48 n.

2. Eaiaanueeee I.N. I?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee a iaoai?ci? no/anii?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae.- Naaanoiiieue : Aeae-ai NaaAeOO, 1999. – 48 n.

3. Eaiaanueeee I.N. ?iciiae?e aeaaee a NOA: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue. –
Naaanoiiieue: Aeae-ai NaaAeOO, 1999. – 28n.

4. Eaiaaneee A.N. I?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e iaoaieci «naea?aeae e
i?ioeaiaania» a ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ia NOA // Aanoi. Naaanoiiieueneiai
ain. oaoi. oi-oa. Oeeinioey e iieeoieiaey. – Naaanoiiieue: Ecae-ai
NaaAOO. — 1998. – Aui. ? 13. – N. 81 – 85.

5. Eaiaaneee A.N., *aioeo A.A. Enoiee eiioeaioeee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae //
Aanoi. Naaanoiiieueneiai ain. oaoi. oi-oa. Oeeinioey e iieeoieiaey.
Naaaoiiieue: Ecae-ai NaaAOO. – 1998. – Aui. ? 13. – N. 144 – 152.

6. Eaiaanueeee I.N. Ia?eaiaioa?eci ? ?iciiae?e aeaae // Aanoi.
Naaanoiiieueneiai ain. oaoi. oi-oa. Oeeinioey e iieeoieiaey.
Naaanoiiieue : Ecae-ai NaaAOO. – 1999. – Aui. ? 17. – N.86 – 92.

7. Eaiaanueeee I.N., *aioeo I.I. Eeane/ia oai??y ?iciiae?eo aeaae //
Aanoi. Naaanoiiieueneiai ain.oaoi. oi-oa. Oeeinioey e iieeoieiaey.
Naaanoiiieue : Ecae-ai NaaAOO. – 1999. – Aui. ? 17. – N. 148 – 155.

8. Eaiaanueeee A.N. Oeeinioey i?aaa // Oeeinioey: o/aaiia iiniaea /iiae
?aae. A.N. Aeooaea, TH.O. Naoiiiaa, A.A. *aioeoa. – Eeaa. : Oe?aeineee
oeaio? aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u, 1999. — N. 309 – 332.

Aiioaoe?y

Eaiaanueeee I.N. Aeieo?eia ?iciiae?eo aeaaee: a?ae oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae?
aei iie?oeei-eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02 – iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane.
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? eiiieaenii aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo aeaaee o
eiai oai?aoe/iiio ? iie?oeei-i?eeeaaeiiio aniaeoao. Canoiniao?oueny
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c eeane/ieo iiaeaeae ?iciiae?eo aeaaee.
Aena?oeththoueny ?o caaaeuei? oa niaoeeo?/i? neeaaeia?. Aiae?cothoueny
i?ioean ?iciiae?eo ?ano?n?a iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? oa iaoai?ci
«no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa» o iie?oe/ieo nenoaiao Caoiaeo. ?icaeyaeathoueny
aeina?ae canoinoaaiiy i?eioeeio ?iciiae?eo aeaaee o NIAe oa iniiai?
o?oaeiiu? oi?ioaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie a Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeieo?eia ?iciiae?eo aeaaee, Eiinoeoooe?y, a?oia
?ioa?an?a, iaoai?ci «no?eioaaiue ? i?ioeaaa», iie?oe/ia nenoaia.

Summary

Kanevsky A.S. The Doctrine of separation of power: from theoretical
model to political constitutional principle.

Tha thesis for seeking degree of the candidate of Political Snience
specialized in 23.00.02- political institutions and processes. Lviv
State University named after Ivan Franko, Lviv, 1999.

The presented thesis is dedicated to the complex reseach of the
principle of separation of powers in its theoretical aspect and as
applied to politics. The theoretical and methodological analysis of
classical models of the separation of powers is undertaken. Their
general and specific constituents (components) of that models are
introduced. The process of separation of resources of political activity
and the system of «checks and balances» in Western political system is
analysed. The attempts of aplying the principle of separation of powers
in the CIS are examined. The principal difficulties in forming the
democratic political system in Ukraine are pointed out.

The key words: the doctrine of separation of powers, the constitution,
a group of interests, the system of checks and ballances, the political
system.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eaiaaneee A.N. Aeieo?eia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae: io oai?aoe/aneie
eiioeaioeee e iieeoeei-eiinoeoooeeiiiiio i?eioeeio. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02 – iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeanu.
Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio enneaaeiaaieth i?eioeeia
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a aai oai?aoe/aneii e iieeoeei-i?eeeaaeiii aniaeoao.

Aiaeece?oaony aaiacen, nouiinoue e niaea?aeaiea oai?ee ?acaeaeaiey
aeanoae e aa i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea. Auyaeaiu iauea e niaoeeoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey eeanne/aneie iiaeaee ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a nayce n
ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeeie a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, NOA , ?innee e Oe?aeia.

Oieaa?naeueiuie yeaiaioaie, eioi?ua eiatho ianoi ai anao iiaeaeyo
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae yaeythony: 1) ?aoeeiiaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea a
?aieao aaeeiie nenoaiu i?aaiia, iaoiaeyueony a ecaanoiii niioiioaiee e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii iainiaeaiiuo; 2) ?acaeaeaiea aeanoae eae oneiaea
iaaeiiouaiey ceioiio?aaeaiey aeanoueth e aa oco?iaoeee; 3) n?aaenoaa
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iaeiiiaoaioiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a
aeaea ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe, iniaaiii ni noi?iiu aioenenoaiiuo e
?aaeoeeiiiuo iieeoe/aneeo nee.

Ioia/aaony, /oi a ie?iaie iieeoe/aneie i?aeoeea ?aaeecoaony aeaa
iiaeaee ?acaeaea iieeoe/aneie aeanoe, ioee/athueany ii i?eioeeio
aeaeeiinoe eee iaaeaeeiinoe ia?iaeiiai noaa?aieoaoa ( «aeanoeay» e
«aeaeay» niioaaonoaaiii).

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eiie?aoiay iiaeaeue a oie eee eiie no?aia caaeneo io
oacu ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiie ao?aeoacee, a oaeaea niioiioaiea nee
iaaeaeo ainoiaeyuae e ienoiaeyuae yeeoaie e oi?ie?oaony eae ?acoeueoao
eiii?iienna iaaeaeo ieie:

1. Anee ao?aeoacey nouanoaaiii neeueiaa a?enoie?aoee, a eiaeeaeaeoaeeci
aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeo, ?aaeecoaony «aeanoeay» iiaeaeue;

2. A neo/aa ?aaainoaa yoeo nee (a oaeaea a neo/aa iaaieueoiai ia?aaana
ienoiaeyuae yeeou) eiaao ianoi «aeaeay» iiaeaeue;

3. Ia yoaia noaiiaeaiey eeaa?aeueii — aeaiie?aoe/aneie iieeoe/aneie
nenoaiu i?aeiouanoai ioaeaaony i?aaiai caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe. Ii
ia?a oe?aieaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie ieeaa?oee yoa ?ieue ia?eaiaioia
nieaeaaony.

Aiaeece?oaony naycue ia?eaiaioneie nenoaiu caiaaeiuo aeaiie?aoee n
i?eioeeiii ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e ethaie iiaeaee
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae eiatho ianoi neaaeothuea oaiaeaioeee:

1. Aeanoiua iieiiii/ey ana aieaa eiioeaio?e?othony a ainoaea?noaaiiie
aiia?aoa; aiia?ao i?aiuea?-ieieno?a i?aa?auaaony a iniaue
ainoaea?noaaiiue i?aai. Eieeaaeaeueiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoa
nieaeaaony aieioue aei iiyaeaiey iaeiinoeoooeeiiiuo eniieieoaeueiuo
einoeoooia.

2. Ia?aie/aiey ooieoeee ia?eaiaioia eiaao i?aaeae e ia icia/aao ioeaca
io ia?eaiaioa?ecia e ia?auaiey e aaoi?eoa?iui iaoiaeai aeanoaiaaiey. A
ethaii neo/aa ca ia?eaiaioii nio?aiythony ooieoeee eiio?iey e
ei??aeoe?iaee iieeoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

3. A no?aiao, eiathueo iiuo aeeeoaeueiiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ?acaeoey
aeey ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo aaoayie aeanoe anaaaea iaoiaeeony
eiii?iienniue aa?eaio niioiioaiey ?ano?nia iieeoe/aneiai ainiiaenoaa.

?anniao?eaaaony iiuo eniieueciaaiey i?eioeeia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a
iinoniaaoneeo Oe?aeia e ?innee.

Ioia/aaony, /oi a aeaiiuo no?aiao eoeueoo?a eiii?iienna e aeeaeiaa
iaaeaeo eiiiiiaioaie yeeo aua ia ?acaeoa. Oaeia iieiaeaiea aicieeei a
neeo i?aeoe/aneiai oiaeaeanoaa ainoiaeyuae e ienoiaeyuae yeeo.
Ia?aoiaeiue yoai ?acaeoey iieeoe/aneeo nenoai Oe?aeiu e ?innee
oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiyaeaieai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo a?oii eioa?ania,
i?aoaiaeothueo ia o/anoea a i?eiyoee e ?aaeecaoeee iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee.
A nayce n yoei aeaaiie i?iaeaiie noaiiaeony iiene niaeaney, eioaa?aoeey
niaea?aeaiey eioa?ania, iaia?aiee, aeaenoaee anao iieeoe/aneeo aeoi?ia
e, ia yoie iniiaa, nicaeaiea yooaeoeaiie aeaiie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu
iieeoe/aneiai ainiiaenoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeieo?eia ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae, Eiinoeoooeey, a?oiia
eioa?ania, iaoaieci «naea?aeae e i?ioeaiaania», iieeoe/aneay nenoaia.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 25.08.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o84/16

Ianya 1.0 oi.-ae?oe. a?e. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Cai. 97.

AEN «E?EINUeEEE IIE?A?AO?*IEE OeAIO?»

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