Договірна відповідальність юридичних осіб у комерційному обігу: Автореф. дис… канд. юрид. наук / І.С. Канзафарова, Ін-т держави і права ім. В.М.Коре

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?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A. I. Ei?aoeueeiai

Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Eaicaoa?iaa ?eiia Noai?neaa?aia

OAeE 347.74

Aeiaia??ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue th?eaee/ieo in?a o eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12.00.03 — oeea?eueia i?aai ? oeea?eueiee i?ioean;
n?iaeia i?aai; i?aeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?. ?.
Ia/ieeiaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie *a?aiiee TH??e
Naiaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie
Oaa/aiei ss?ineaaia Ieeiea?aia, caa?aeoth/a a?aeae?eii oeea?eueiiai ?
o?oaeiaiai i?aaa ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio I?aeii?eai?a Ienaia Iiaian?aia,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea, eaoaae?a
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ? i?ioeano, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “12” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.50.24.02. ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo?
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A. I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith 252001 i. Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae
? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith 252001 i.Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “6” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaeeeaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe
Eo/a?aiei ?. I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i? ? nioe?aeuei?
i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o iei?oi?e /an a Oe?a?i?, aeicaieythoue
c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaoa aea?aeaaa ia?aaoaa? o noai? aeeaiei?
e?ece. Aeey iiaeieaiiy oe??? e?ece aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue aeaa
/eiieea:

1) noai?aiiy ? ?aoaeueia ?aae?caoe?y caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea aaeaeaaoii
a?aeia?aaea? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?;

2) i?aaeeueiee aea?? oi/ee i?eeeaaeaiiy aieiaieo coneeue.

Noa?ith oaeiai cina?aaeaeaiiy aieiaieo coneeue uiaei aeoiaeo c e?ece ?
aeiiii?ea, ? a ia?oo /a?ao, ?? ooiaeaiaio — ae?iaieoeoai. Oeaio?aeueiith
o?ao?ith o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?, oai?oeai ? iniiaiith ae?th/ith
iniaith aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iei?oi?e /an, ?
i?aei?e?ioe?.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c? no. 2 Caeiio Oe?a?ie a?ae 7 ethoiai 1991 ?. “I?i
i?aei?e?iieoeoai” noa’?eoaie i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? iiaeooue
aooe a?iiaaeyie Oe?a?ie, ?ioeo aea?aeaa, ia iaiaaeai? caeiiii a
i?aaicaeaoiino? aai ae??caeaoiino?; th?eaee/i? iniae an?o oi?i
aeaniino?, anoaiiaeaieo caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i aeani?noue”.

Noa’?eoe i?aei?e?iieoeoaa — th?eaee/i? iniae ? iniiaieie ae?iaieeaie
iaoa??aeueieo aeaa, iaiao?aeieo aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa noni?euenoaa.
Oiio aeiaia??i? a?aeiineie c ?oiueith o/anoth caeiathoue cia/ia i?noea a
on?e nenoai? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

A Oe?a?i? aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano a?eueo?noue aeiaiai??a i?ae noa’?eoaie
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? oeeaaeaeany c iaoith aeeiiaiiy ieaiiaeo
aeo?a. Aiey eiio?aaaio?a neeaaeaeany i?ae i?yiei aai iia?/iei aieeaii
caaaeaiue, ui aeoiaeeee a?ae aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, ine?eueee iaeaea an?
i?aaia? ii?ie, ui ae?yee o oe?e noa??, iineee ?iia?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?.

A oiiaao ia?aoiaeo iaoi? e?a?ie aei ?eieiai? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy
oae? iiiyooy, ye aeiaia??, aeiaia??ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ii/eiathoue
iaaoaaoe ?ioiai nooo?aiai ci?noo, oiio iaeiia? a?aeiineie eiia?oe?eiiai
ia?ao iio?aaothoue iiaiai ? aenieiai ??aiy ?aaeaiaioaoe??. A aeinyaoe
oaeiai ??aiy iiaeeeai eeoa c aeiiiiiaith aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
io?eiaieo a ?acoeueoao? oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co.

I?iaeaie aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? th?eaee/ieo in?a ina?oethaaeeny
a i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo?? a ??ciee /an aaaaoueia a/aieie. Iaeiae,
a?eueo?noue i?aoeue yaeyee niaith aeaae ? ia?aa?aoe i?ae?o/iee?a ?
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a ii oeea?eueiiio i?aao ? oiio noinoaaeenue eeoa
iaea?eueo caaaeueieo ieoaiue oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
acaaae? ? aeiaia??ii? cie?aia. Na?aae aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo
aaciina?aaeiuei aeiaia??i?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? th?eaee/ieo in?a, iiaeia
iacaaoe iiiia?ao?? A.N.Aioeiiiiaa “I?aenoaae aeiaia??ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? nioe?ae?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e” (1962 ?.) ? O. E.
?aaeiiae/a “Aeia ye i?aenoaaa aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa” (1975 ?.). ?icaeyaeaeinue oea ieoaiiy ? a eieaeoeai?e
iiiia?ao?? ss. I. Oaa/aiei, A. A. Nia/aea, A. A. Eooey, Ae. A. Aia?iai?,
I. E. Ooaoaia “I?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
a ioi?ii? i?aa oa caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi ? i?aai?caoe?e” (1988
?.), a i?aoeyo A. E. Iaoa??aa, I. ?. A?aa?inueeiai, A. A. A?o?yinueeiai
oa ?i.

I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe oie iiiaio, ui ia?aaaaeia e?euee?noue
i?aoeue a?aeiineoueny aei oae caaiiai “?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo” ?icaeoeo
oeea?e?noe/ii? aeoiee, ui, i?e?iaeii, ni?aaeei ?noioiee aieea ia
oa?aeoa? ? ci?no c?iaeaieo o ieo aeniiae?a. I?ioa, i?eeiyooy
Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, ?ic?iaea iiaiai Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno
coiiaeththoue iia? i?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeaiiy ?yaeo i?iaeai
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa.

I?iaeaiai a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue o
eiia?oe?ei?e i?aeoeoe? i?enay/aia iiiia?ao?y A.N. Eiia?iaa
“A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao” (1991), a ye?e aaoi?
aiae?co? caeiiiaeaanoai NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai??, O?I, O?aioe??, ii?ie
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, aaeeaath/e oa?i?i “eiia?oe?eiee ia?a” eeoa
a?aeiinii i?aai/ei?a, ui oeeaaeathoueny i?ae noa’?eoaie
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aeuacacia/aieo aea?aeaa, ine?eueee eiai
iiiia?ao?y aoea iaienaia ? iioae?eiaaia ua aei ?iciaaeo eieeoiueiai
N?N?.

Aeacai? aeua ianoaaeie iaoiiaeththoue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?inoeoooo
aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? th?eaee/ieo in?a o eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao
ia aeieo?eiaeueiiio ??ai? c iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?aeoeee eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith caaaeueii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe eaoaae?e aaeocaaeo i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i
ioae?/iiai ? i?eaaoiiai i?aaa Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
?.?.Ia/ieeiaa ca i?ia?aiith “I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
nenoaiiee aiae?c ?inoeoooo aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? th?eaee/ieo
in?a a oeea?eueiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie, ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ?icaeoie iaoee oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ? aaeineiiaeaiiy
a?a?o?aaeii? i?aeoeee.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith aecia/ai? ianooii? iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe iiiyooy eiia?oe?eiiai ia?ao ? aeaoe eiai caaaeueio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo;

— i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo i?iaeai aeiaia??ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? th?eaee/ieo in?a o aioo??oiueiio eiia?oe?eiiio
ia?ao;

— aecia/eoe oiiae ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaaeeiiaiiy ?
iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue o eiia?oe?ei?e i?aeoeoe? ?
aeaoe ?oith caaaeueio eeaneo?eaoe?th.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy, ui
i?noyoueny o i?aoe?, aacothoueny ia eiinoeoooe?eieo ii?iao, aiae?c?
oeea?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie ? caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeiaia??io
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ie?aieo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, aeinyaiaiiyo
oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? oa ?ioeo aaeocaaeo th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?aeoe/iiio
aeina?ae? canoinoaaiiy ii?i caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aeiaia??io
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue th?eaee/ieo in?a a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aoe? a?aeiieo
oe?a?inueeeo ? ?in?enueeeo a/aieo, oaeeo ye: ss. I. Oaa/aiei, I. N.
Eoci?oeiaa, A. I. Einnae, A. A Eooeue, I. A. I?aeii?eai?a, A. A. Iooe?i,
A. E. Ion?yea, TH. N. *a?aiiee, I. A. Aeca?a, A. I. Naiieeaiei, A. E.
Iaoa??a, A. O. Oa?oaiaae/, I. N. Eiooa, I. I. Aaa?eia, ?. I. Oaeo?ia, A.
N. Aioeiiiia, A. A. Oa?oia oa ?i. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe??
? ?noi?eei-i?aaiaee, nenoaiiee, ii??aiyeueii-i?aaiaee,
oi?iaeueii-eia?/iee oa ?io? caniae iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui aiii ? ii
noo? ia?oei a oe?a?inuee?e th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oe?e?niei
iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?inoeoooo aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
th?eaee/ieo in?a o oeea?eueiiio i?aa? Oe?a?ie. O iueiio oaeoe/ii aia?oa
ia aeena?oaoe?eiiio ??ai? aecia/aia iiiyooy eiia?oe?eiiai ia?ao ?
ca’ycie c iei aeiaiai?o; iieacaia cia/aiiy ?inoeoooo aeiaia??ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?aaiii?ooaiue o eiia?oe?eiiio
ia?ao oa o ca’yceo c oeei ?ieue aeiaiai?o a ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?; i?iaaaeaia oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiyooy
ooieoe?e oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?; aeaia caaaeueia
eeaneo?eaoe?y oiia ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaaeeiiaiiy ?
iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue o eiia?oe?ei?e i?aeoeoe?.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooii?
iieiaeaiiy:

1) I?aei?e?iieoeoai — oea neeaaeia aaaaoianiaeoia yaeua, yea iaiao?aeii
?icaeyaeaoe a ?aeiino? c aeiiii?/ii?, ineoieia?/ii? oa i?aaiai?
iiceoe?e.

2) Iiiyooy “ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue” ? a?eueo oe?ieei, i?ae iiiyooy
“i?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue”, iiiyooy “ainiiaea?nueeee ia?a” —
a?eueo oe?ieei, i?ae iiiyooy “eiia?oe?eiee ia?a”.

3) Oeea?eueii-i?aaiaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue — oea iaia’ycie
i?aaiii?ooieea caciaoe iaaea?aeieo iaeiiaeo iane?aee?a, ui i?iyaey?oueny
a aeieeiaii? aeiaeaoeiaeo iaeiiaeo iaoyaeoaaiue ? ui ?aae?co?oueny, ye
i?aaeei, oeyoii canoinoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai i?eiono aei i?aaiii?ooieea.

4) Eaoaai??y “ooieoe?y oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” ?
ocaaaeueiaiiyi eaoaai??e “iaoa”, “can?a” ? “?acoeueoao”. I?iaeaio
ooieoe?e oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iaeaaeeoue ?icaeyaeaoe
ia?aeaeueii c i?iaeaiith ooieoe?e oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ? ooieoe?e i?aaa a
oe?eiio, a ia o a?ae?ea? a?ae ieo.

5) Aecia/eoe oe?e? aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iiaeeeai eeoa c
aeiiiiiaith ia’?aeiaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai caniao a i?aaiciaanoa?
(i???ioiaaiiai ia a?aeoai?ai? o caeiiiaeaanoa? caniae) c caniaii
nioe?ieia?/iei (i???ioiaaiei ia oaeoe ?aaeueiiai aeeooy, o oiio /ene? ?
?acoeueoaoe ae?? i?aaa).

6) Oi?iaie iaonoieee ? oo?ao ? iaiy. Aeae?eaiiy ye ie?aii? oi?ie aeania
iaonoieee ? iaaeioe?eueiei: ii-ia?oa, oiio, ui a e?oa?aoo?? iaia
aecia/aiiy aeania iaonoieee, ui aeicaieeei a noaeeoe i?i ia?, ye i?i
ie?aio oi?io aai ??ciiaeae iaonoieee; ii-ae?oaa, i?aenoaae ??
anoaiiaeaiiy, caniae ?? aecia/aiiy ? ii?yaeie ?? ia?aooaaiiy oae? ae, ye
? oo?aoo.

7) C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aeioe?eueii cae??ieoe a
Oeea?eueiiio eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie iaia’ycie e?aaeeoi?a-noa’?eoa
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? iia?aoeaii ?aaaoaaoe ia ii?ooaiiy
aeiaia??iiai ciaia’ycaiiy eiai eiio?aaaioii ? anoaiiaeoe
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaaeeiiaiiy oeueiai iaia’yceo.

8) O oeea?eueiiio i?aa? aeioe?eueii ?iciaaeiaoaaoe ianoaaeie, ye?
aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ? ianoaaeie, ye? ia aeicaieythoue a
ia??iae eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aeaanoe ae?? iniae oi/a a i?ae iaeei c aeaiaio?a
neeaaeo i?aaiii?ooaiiy, ine?eueee ?o i?aaiaa i?e?iaea ??cia.

9) Aecia/a?oueny, ui aeiaaeie ? iaia?aai?ia neea ia ? ianoaaeiaie, ui
aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue acaaae?. Aiie iaaoaathoue oaei?
aeanoeaino? eeoa ii a?aeiioaiith aei iaaieo neeaae?a oa ianoaaei.

10) Caaaeueiiaeciaia aecia/aiiy: “aeiaaeie-aioeiiae aeie” ? noii?aiei,
ai iiiyooy aeiaaeeo aecia/a?oueny aeac?aeith ia o??? iciaee, yea ? aeey
iueiai aeanoeaith, a o??? iciaee, ui o iueiai a?aenooiy. Oea aecia/aiiy
ia ni?aiaaea? ca ianyaii: anyeee aeiaaeie — oea a?aenooi?noue aeie, aea
ia anyea a?aenooi?noue aeie — oea aeiaaeie. A?aenooi?noue aeie aeanoeaa
noiaeiio, aea ia oioiaeiiio c iiiyooyi aeiaaeeo, iiiyooth iaia?aai?ii?
neee.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oai?aoe/ia
cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui io?eiai? aeniiaee
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo a/aiiy i?i
oeea?eueii-i?aaiao a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie iaoee
oeea?eueiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui io?eiai?
aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aaeineiiaeaii?
ii?i aeiaia??iiai i?aaa, o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, o i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a aeiaia??ieo a?aeiinei oa i?aai?a, ui
?ica’ycothoue nii?e, ye? aeieeaathoue c aeiaiai??a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aeeth/ai? aei aeena?oaoe??, aoei ii?eethaeiaii ia 51-e (ea?oaiue 1997
?.), 52-e (ea?oaiue 1998 ?.), 53-e (eenoiiaae 1998 ?.) iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? iaoeiaeo
i?aoe?aiee?a Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. ?. Ia/ieeiaa,
a oaeiae o i?ioean? /eoaiiy eaeoe?e ? i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c
eo?n?a: “Aeiaia??ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue th?eaee/ieo in?a o
eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao” (1995-1997 ?. — aeey nooaeaio?a 3 eo?no
th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo IAeO); “Oeea?eueia ? oi?a?aaeueia i?aai
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i” (1997-1998 iaa/aeueiee ??e — aeey nooaeaio?a 5 eo?no
th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo IAeO); “I?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?” (1997-1998 iaa/aeueiee ??e — aeey nooaeaio?a 4 eo?no
th?eaee/iiai ?inoeoooo IAeO); “Oeea?eueia i?aai /. 2” (1997-1998
iaa/aeueiee ??e — aeey nooaeaio?a 3 eo?no aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaiai
oaeoeueoaoo IAeO).

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ai?iaiaai? oaeiae i?ae /an
iaaiai?aiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa ie?aieo ?? ?icae?e?a ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
aaeocaaeo i?aaiaeo aeenoeeie?i ioae?/iiai ? i?eaaoiiai i?aaa Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a iaei?e
iiiia?ao??, iaeiiio iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo, iaei?e a?ioo?? ? aeaio
iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeaa’yoe oaaeeoeue ia 9-oe noi??ieao ? ia?ae?eo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia 15 noi??ieao (219 iaeiaioaaiue). Caaaeueiee
ianya aeine?aeaeaiiy — 168 noi??iie.

Ci?no ?iaioe

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, nooi?iue
iaoeiai? iiaecie, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iniaenoee aianie
aaoi?a a io?eiaiiy iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, aeeeaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe??.

?icae?e ia?oee “?ieue aeiaiai?o o eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao” i?enay/aiee
aeine?aeaeaiith iiiyooy eiia?oe?eiiai ia?ao ? aecia/aiith o??? ?ie?, yeo
a?ae?a?a? aeiaia?? o a?aeiineiao i?ae ae?iaieeaie ? niiaeeaa/aie oiaa??a
(?ia?o, iineoa), a oaeiae i?ae ae?iaieeaie ? iinoa/aeueieeaie
i?iaeoeoe??.

Eiia?oe?eiee ia?a o ia?aeeaae? c aiae?enueei? icia/a? aoeaaeueii —
oi?a?aaeueiee ia?a (commerce (aiae.) — oi?a?aey). sseui ainiiaea?nueeee
ia?a ? “noia an?o ca’yce?a, ui neeaaeathoueny o i?ioeanao
a?aeoai?thaaiiy”, oi eiia?oe?eiee ia?a — oea aca?iica’ycie oiaa?ieo ?
a?ioiaeo iioie?a o i?ioean? ?ooo i?iaeoeoe??, oiaa??a (?ia?o, iineoa),
noai?thaaieo noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? c iaoith io?eiaiiy
i?eaooeo.

A oiiaao ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ii? aeiiii?ee ?oo oiaa?ieo ?
a?ioiaeo iioie?a ?icaeyaeaany o ?aaeyinuee?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??
/a?ac i?ecio ieaiiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano a?aeoai?aiiy ? eiai /eiiee?a
— ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iciiae?eo, niiaeeaaiiy. ?eieiaei a?aeiineiai
i?eoaiaiiee a?eueiee ?oo oiaa??a ? iineoa, eai?oaeo, i?aoe? aei ?eie?a
i?iaeoeo?a ? ?ano?n?a.

Iiiyooy “eiia?oe?eiee ia?a” aoae/a ca iiiyooy “ainiiaea?nueeee ia?a”.
Aei oeueiai aeniiaeo aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue o ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ii?i, ui
i?noyoueny o Caeii? Oe?a?ie a?ae 16.04.91 ?. “I?i ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/io
ae?yeuei?noue” ? Caeiio Oe?a?ie a?ae 27 aa?aciy 1991 ?. “I?i
i?aei?e?inoaa a Oe?a?i?”.

Aecia/aiiy ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? aeaia a noaoo? 1 Caeiio Oe?a?ie
a?ae 16.04.91 ?. “I?i ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue”:
“Ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue — aoaeue-yea ae?yeuei?noue, o oiio /ene?
i?aei?e?iieoeueea, iia’ycaia c ae?iaieoeoaii ? iai?iii iaoa??aeueieo ?
iaiaoa??aeueieo aeaa, ui aenooiathoue o oi?i? oiaa?o”. sse aa/eii,
iiiyooy ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? ? a?eueo oe?ieei, i?ae iiiyooy
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. O no. 1 Caeiio “I?i i?aei?e?inoaa a
Oe?a?i?” aea?oueny ianooiia aecia/aiiy i?aei?e?inoaa: “I?aei?e?inoai —
naiino?eiee ainiiaea?thth/ee noaoooiee noa’?eo, ui aieiae?? i?aaaie
th?eaee/ii? iniae, yeee cae?enith? ae?iaie/o, iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ?
eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue c iaoith io?eiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai i?eaooeo
(aeioiaeo)”.

Ii-ia?oa, yeui i?aei?e?inoai — oea ainiiaea?thth/ee noa’?eo, oi any eiai
ae?yeuei?noue, ye i?aei?e?inoaa, ? ainiiaea?nueeith. Ii-ae?oaa, yeui any
ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa ? ainiiaea?nueeith, a aiii iiaea
cae?enithaaoe ae?iaie/o, iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ? eiia?oe?eio ae?yeuei?noue,
oi an? oe? aeaee ae?yeueiino? ioiieththoueny iiiyooyi ainiiaea?nueei?.
Cia/eoue, oaia? ie iiaeaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iiiyooy “eiia?oe?eia
ae?yeuei?noue” aoae/a iiiyooy “ainiiaea?nueea ae?yeuei?noue”. Ioaea,
iiiyooy “eiia?oe?eiee ia?a” aoae/a iiiyooy “ainiiaea?nueeee ia?a”.

Aeiaaee /an o a?o/eciyiiio oeea?eueiiio i?aa? an? aeiaiai?e iiae?eyeeny
ia aeaa oeie — caaaeueiioeea?euei? ? ainiiaea?nuee?. Iaeiae a no/aniee
ia??iae oaea eeaneo?eaoe?y aaea iaaaeaeaaoia ?nioth/ei noni?eueiei
a?aeiineiai. Aeey ainiiaea?nueeeo aeiaiai??a iaea?eueo niaoeeo?/i?i aoei
oa, ui a iniia? ?o eaaeaa ieaiiaee aeo, a o/anieeaie aeiaiai?o aenooiaee
nioe?ae?noe/i? i?aai?caoe??. Ca?ac aaea iaia? ieaiiaeo aeo?a, o oiio
?icoi?ii?, ye oea aoei a aei?aoi?iaiee ia??iae.

Iniiaieie canaaeaie iaoiai oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ? iaaeioi?eai?noue
aeaniino?, naiaiaea aeiaiai?o, iai?eionoei?noue aeia?eueiiai ao?o/aiiy o
i?eaaoi? ni?aae oa ?i. Io?eiaea oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue. Iaoith aeiaiai??a, iiina?aaeeiaoth/eo
i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue, ? nenoaiaoe/ia io?eiaiiy i?eaooeo a?ae
aeei?enoaiiy iaeia, i?iaeaaeo oiaa??a, aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o aai iaaeaiiy
iineoa. O/anieee oaeeo aeiaiai??a ae?thoue naiino?eii, ia na?e ?ecee.

Oiio a?eueo aeioe?eueii oa?i?i “ainiiaea?nueeee aeiaia??” cai?ieoe
oa?i?iii “i?aei?e?iieoeueeee aeiaia??” aai “aeiaia?? o noa??
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa”.

Ie iiaeaii noi?ioethaaoe eiai ye aecia/aia a onoaiiaeaiiio ii?yaeeo a
iaeaaei?e oi?i? aca?iia aieaaeyaeaiiy (oaiaea) noi??i, ye? ? noa’?eoaie
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? (aai c o/anoth noi?iie-i?aei?e?ioey) i?i
anoaiiaeaiiy, ci?io aai i?eieiaiiy i?aa ? iaia’yce?a, iia’ycaieo ?c
cae?eniaiiyi i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Io?eiaiiy i?eaooeo — oea iaoa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Aea cene ca?aaee
i?eaooeo i?e iaeneiaeueii iiaeeea?e eiai aaee/ei? ? iaoith
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa eeoa a oiiaao ia?icaeiooiai ?eieo. Oiio, aiai?y/e i?i
iaoo iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo ye i?i iniiaiee iioea i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, iaiao?aeii aeae?eeoe ? aeinyaiaiiy nioe?aeueiiai aoaeoo ye
iaeiiai c iai?yie?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

O oae?e ?aeiino? c iaoith io?eiaiiy i?eaooeo ia?aaoaa? i?eioeei
iniaenoi? aeiiii?/ii? caoe?eaaeaiino?. Aeania aeaiaea ? i?ia?aeiei
/eiieeii i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. A oiiaao oiaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa
i?aei?e?iaoeue, ia?ane?aeoth/e aeani? ?ioa?ane, “iaaeaeeiith ?oeith”
ni?yiiao?oueny aei noni?eueieo oe?eae, i?aoeth? ia noni?euei? ?ioa?ane.

?icae?e ae?oaee “Aeiaia??ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue th?eaee/ieo in?a ye
aeae oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” i?enay/aiee aeaoaeueiiio
aiae?co ?inoeoooo aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? th?eaee/ieo in?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1 “Iiiyooy ? aeaee oeea?eueii-i?aaiai?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” ia i?aenoaa? ?nioth/eo a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??
oi/ie ci?o ?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i oa, ui oeea?eueii-i?aaiao
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue a?eueo i?aaeeueiei aoaea aecia/eoe ye iaia’ycie
i?aaiii?ooieea caciaoe iaaea?aeieo iaeiiaeo iane?aee?a, yeee
i?iyaey?oueny o aeieeiaii? aeiaeaoeiaeo iaeiiaeo iaoyaeoaaiue ?
?aae?co?oueny, ye i?aaeei, oeyoii canoinoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai i?eiono aei
ii?ooieea.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2 “I?aenoaae oa oiiae aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?”
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeiaia??ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?eiee ia ia?
iaei??? i?aenoaae, ?o aeiaaa?oueny, ye i?i?ioi aea?:

1) ?nioaaiiy aeiaia??iiai ciaia’ycaiiy, oi?iaeueii ae?eniiai ? ii noo?
ia noia?a/iiai caeiio;

2) ii?ooaiiy oeueiai ciaia’ycaiiy, a naia iaaeeiiaiiy eiai aai
iaiaeaaeia eiai aeeiiaiiy — ii e?eueeino?, yeino?, oa?i?io oa ?i.

Ii?ooaiiy th?eaee/iith iniaith aeiaia??iiai ciaia’ycaiiy ? oeea?eueiei
i?aaiii?ooaiiyi. I?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a a th?eaee/i?e iaooe? iaio?
aeoiea, ca?aeii ye?e oeea?eueia i?aaiii?ooaiiy ia? iaaiee neeaae.

I?ae neeaaeii oeea?eueiiai i?aaiii?ooaiiy, ye i?aaeei, ?icoi?thoue
noeoii?noue iaaieo iciae i?aaiii?ooaiiy, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue eiai ye
aeinoaoith i?aenoaao a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Oea ianooii? iciaee (aai oiiae):

— i?ioei?aaia ii?ooaiiy iniaith iieeaaeaieo ia ia? iaia’yce?a ?
noa’?eoeaieo i?aa ?ioeo in?a;

— iayai?noue oeiaee aai caeoe?a;

— iayai?noue i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo i?ae i?ioei?aaiith iiaaae?ieith
i?aaiii?ooieea ? oe?aeeeaeie iane?aeeaie, ui ianoaee;

— iayai?noue aeie i?aaiii?ooieea.

Iaeiei c naieo aaaeeeo ieoaiue iaoee oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ? i?iaeaia aeie
th?eaee/ii? iniae.

O ?aaeyinuee?e oeea?eueii-i?aaia?e aeieo?ei? caoaa?aeeeiny iiiyooy aeie,
ye ineo?/iiai a?aeiioaiiy iniae aei nai?? i?ioei?aaii? iiaaae?iee oa ??
?acoeueoaoo. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei iiiyooy aeie o ??cieo aa??aioao
cono??/a?oueny o i?aoeyo aaaaoueio o/aieo-i?aaiciaaoe?a.

*eiiee Oeea?eueiee eiaeaen O?N? ia aea? aecia/aiiy aeie, iaiaaeoth/enue
eeoa aeac?aeith ia oa, ui aeia iiaea i?iyaeyoeny o oi?i? oieneo aai
iaiaa?aaeiino?. O oeea?eueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? aeia th?eaee/ieo in?a ?
a?iiaaeyi oaeiae ia ?ic??ciy?oueny. Oea noaei iaei??th c ia?aaeoiia
aaeeaaiiy iiiyooy aeie “ye ineo?/iiai noaaeaiiy” a?aeiinii ye o?ce/ieo,
oae ? th?eaee/ieo in?a. ? io naia ooo na?aeiii-aieueiaa eiioeaioe?y
iiiyooy aeie ye ineo?/iiai noaaeaiiy ii?ooieea aei nai?? iiaaae?iee oa
?? iane?aee?a aeeeeeaea iaea?eueo? aeeneon??. ?aaeyinuee?
a/ai?-oeea?e?noe o nai?o i?aoeyo aeneiaethaaee ??ci? oi/ee ci?o: a?ae
iiyniaiue iiiyooy aeie th?eaee/ii? iniae /a?ac “ineo?/ia noaaeaiiy” aei
aeiiouaieo ii?ooaiue c aieo eiai i?aoe?aiee?a aai eiai i?aai?a aei
eaoaai?e/iiai iani?eyooy eiioeaioe?? “ineo?/iiai noaaeaiiy” aei
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? th?eaee/ii? iniae.

Ia iao iiaeyae, i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiiy i?i aeio th?eaee/ii? iniae
iaiao?aeii aeoiaeeoe c oiai, ui aeia th?eaee/ii? iniae caaaeaee
ciaoiaeeoue nai? a?aeoai?aiiy o aei? ie?aieo in?a, ai any ae?yeuei?noue
th?eaee/ii? iniae, i?aaii??ia ? iai?aaii??ia, ? ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae.

O oeea?eueiiio i?aa? ae?yie th?eaee/ii? iniae aeciathoueny:

1) ae?? eiai i?aaio;

2) ae?? eiai i?aaenoaaiee?a;

3) ae?? eiai /eai?a aai ?ioeo o/aniee?a (?ia?oiee?a ? neoaeaiaoe?a).

I?aai th?eaee/ii? iniae a?aeia?aaea? ? ?aae?co? eiai ae??caeaoi?noue.
TH?eaee/ia iniaa a?aeiia?aea? ca ae?? nai?o i?aai?a, yeui oe? ae??
a/eiythoueny a?ae ?iai? th?eaee/ii? iniae, ca ?? ?aooiie ? a ??
?ioa?anao. O oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee ae?? a/eiythoueny i?aaiii c ii?ooaiiyi
eiai eiiiaoaioe??, th?eaee/ia iniaa ia iiaea aooe aeciaia
a?aeiia?aeaeueiith ca ae?? naiai i?aaio.

Eiiiaoaioe?y i?aaio, i?aaeiao ? iaoa eiai ae?yeueiino? aecia/athoueny o
noaooo? th?eaee/ii? iniae. Ae?yoe a ?ioa?anao th?eaee/ii? iniae,
cia/eoue, ae?yoe aeey aeinyaiaiiy ?? noaoooieo oe?eae ? caaaeaiue. O
aeiaaeeo, eiee ae?y a/eiy?oueny i?aaiii, i?aaenoaaieeii aai i?aoe?aieeii
o nai?o aeanieo ?ioa?anao, a ia a ?ioa?anao th?eaee/ii? iniae, icia/ai?
noa’?eoe ia?aoai?ththoueny ia i?eaaoi? iniae, a yeui i?aai eieaa?aeueiee
— ia a?oio i?eaaoieo in?a.

I?e oeueiio aoaea iiieeeiai aaaaeaoe, ui aeia th?eaee/ii? iniae iiaea
i?iyaeoeny eeoa o ae?yo ie?aieo in?a, aea ia a ae?yo eieaeoeao, iaiiaae
oiio, ui iiaiaeaeaiiy aieue o/aniee?a eieaeoeao iiaea iaoe i?noea eeoa
i?e i?aaii??i?e ae?yeueiino?, aea ia i?e i?aaiii?ooaiiyo. Iai?aaii??ia,
iacaeiiia ??oaiiy aoaeue-yeiai eieaa?aeueiiai i?aaio iiaea aooe i?eeiyoa
ye oeyoii iiaiaeaeaiiy ii iaiaa?aaeiino? o aeiaaeeo iaciaiiy caeiio, oae
? iaaienia, eiee i?eeiath/ee iacaeiiia ??oaiiy i?aai ia?ane?aeo? yeonue
iaeiiao aeaiaeo aeey th?eaee/ii? iniae a oe?eiio aai aeey ie?aieo eiai
o/aniee?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 “Ooieoe?? aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” aaoi? aea?
nai? aa/aiiy i?iaeaie ooieoe?e oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
acaaae? ? aeiaia??ii? cie?aia.

Aiae?c oi/ie ci?o, aeneiaeaieo a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? c oeueiai
ieoaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a?eueo?noue aaoi??a
i?enooia? aei aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo ooieoe?e oeea?eueii-i?aaiai?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ia aeath/e aeiaeiiai caaaeueiiai aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
“ooieoe?y”, ye oaeiai.

Aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui a?eueo aeioe?eueiei aoaea cai?ieoe eaoaai??th
“ooieoe?y” eaoaai??yie “iaoa”, “can?a” ? “?acoeueoao”.

Nooue oeeo eaoaai??e iaoiiaeth?oueny ianooiiei:

Iaoa. I?ae iaoith ?icoi??oueny a?eueii noi?iiaaia noa’?eoeaia oyaeaiiy
i?i aaaeaiee, ua ia cae?eniaiee noai aoaeue-yeiai ia’?eoo ae?eniino?
(a?aenooi?noue aai iayai?noue oaeiai ia’?eoo, acaaae? eaaeo/e,
aoaeue-yei? ci?ie iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo), ? oeyoe eiai aeinyaiaiiy. Naia
iaoa ia?oueny ia oaac?, eiee aiai?eoueny, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
th?eno?a, oae aai ?iaeoa, aecia/athoue ooieoe?th i?aaa, ye eiai
i?ecia/aiiy aeey iaaieo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

Iane?aeie — oea cae?eniaia iaoa, oea caaaeaee oaeo ia’?eoeaii?
ae?eniino?, ui ieaioaaany ? aoa aeinyaiooee iaaiei oeyoii.

Can?a. Iaaaaeei iii?oeoe, ui o aecia/aii? iaoe i?eoiaaiee oaeee aeoeaiee
ae?yeueiee ii/aoie — iane?aeie aeinyaa?oueny, a ia cacaeaeaa?aeue ?nio?
aaea aeaiei. Iaoa, ye ?aeay, ia iiaea aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/eoe
iane?aeie. Aiia ?iaeoue oea iiina?aaeeiaaii, /a?ac ?io? ia’?eoeai?
yaeua, ui aeeiiothoue neoaeaiao ?ieue caniao.

A?eueo?noue aecia/aiue ooieoe?e i?aaa na?aeiii ?icaeyaeathoue ?o a
yeino? cania?a ?aae?caoe?? oe?eae, ui noiyoue ia?aae i?aaii oa eiai
?inoeoooaie.

Eiaeia c o?ueio aeuacacia/aieo eaoaai??e aecia/a?oueny /a?ac aea? ?io?.

Iaoa ia ?nio? aac iane?aeeo (ia aoaa? oe?eae, i? ia ui ia ni?yiiaaieo) ?
i?eiee ia ?aae?co?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei. Noaoon iane?aeeo ie i?eieno?ii
yeiionue ia’?eoeaiiio yaeuo, eeoa eiee a?i ? aeinyaiaiiyi ia’?eoeaii?
iaoe (o i?ioeaiiio aeiaaeeo a?i caeeoa?oueny i?inoi yaeuai). O oie aea
/an iane?aeie ? i?iyaii /eiiino? cania?a (a?i ia ?nio? aei ieo, ye
aaciina?aaeiuei aeaiee, a ?ioiio aeiaaeeo iao? i? aei /iai aoei a
i?aaiooe, ye aiia iiaeiia oea ?iaeoe ii aecia/aiith).

Oaeei /eiii, aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aaoi? ae?eoia aei aeniiaeo,
ui iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeiii cina?aaeeoenue ia iao?
oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ine?eueee aea/aiiy cania?a
?aae?caoe?? iaoe i?aaa — oaia naiino?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ioaea, ia?oa, ui eeaea?oueny o a?/? i?e aiae?c? ??ciiiai?oieo aeoiie
a?aeiinii ci?noo oe?eae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa ?oiuei? e?eueeino?, oea
ci?ooaaiiy aeaio oei?a ooaa?aeaeaiiy:

1) ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ye? oe?e? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ?aae?ciaai? a
aeaiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?;

2) ooaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, yeeie iiaeii? aooe oe?e? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

Ooaa?aeaeaiiy ia?oiai oeio ie iaea?aeo?ii i?e iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii?
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ooaa?aeaeaiiy aea ae?oaiai oeio aeieeathoue c ioe?iee
caeiiiaeaanoaa c iiceoe?e aoeee, caei?iaiai naino oa ?ioeo e?eoa???a. A
i?ae iienii oaeoo oa eiai ioe?ieith ? i?eioeeiiaa ??cieoey.

Ioe?ii/ia cia/aiiy aeoiaeeoue c ??ciiiai?oiiai ?iaeo e?eoa???a ioe?iee,
ui caaaeaee aa??ththoueny a?ae ethaeeie aei ethaeeie, a?ae eoeueoo?e aei
eoeueoo?e. “Iaoeiaa aea cia/aiiy aaeaeoaea aei naino, oe?eae, oe?iiinoae
oa ?ioa?an?a ethaeeie”.

A?aoiaoth/e aeeeaaeaia aeua, aaoi? c?iaea aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aeey
ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaiiai caaaeaiiy iai ia oieeiooe ci?noiaiiai aiae?co
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Oaeei aea oeyoii ?aeooue e ?io? aaoi?e, ui aea/athoue
oe?e? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Iaeiae, ye oea ia ia?aaeienaeueii, o
e?oa?aoo?? ia aoei aeyaeaii aeac?aie ia can?a ae/eaiaiiy oe?eae.

O ca’yceo c oeei aaoi? aaeea ni?iao eia?ei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai aiae?co oiai
caniao, yeei ?ioo?oeaii ei?enoothoueny a?eueo?noue aaoi??a aeey
ae/eaiaiiy iaoe, ? aeia?a, ui oeae can?a caniiaaiee ia ?ioo?oeaiiio,
i?/ei ia iaa?oioiaaiiio i?eiouaii?.

Oe?e? o caeiiiaeaanoa? iai aaciina?aaeiuei ia aeai? (a onyeiio aeiaaeeo,
a?aeiinii ?inoeoooo oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?). Ui ae iai
aeaia aaciina?aaeiuei, ia iniia? /iai ie iiaee a noaeeoe i?i iaoo?
Ia?oa, ui eeaea?oueny a i/? i?e aea/aii? ?inoeoooo a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
aoaeue-yei? aaeoc? i?aaa — oea aeieeaaeia ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ??ciiiai?oieo
naieoe?e, oiia ? i?aenoaa ?oiueiai canoinoaaiiy, ?iaeoa eaaeo/e,
i?aaiaeo cania?a ?aae?caoe?? oe?eae.

Aea /e iiaeaii ie noaeeoe i?i oe?e? ii caniaao ?oiuei? ?aae?caoe???
A.O.Aacee?a ye?ac ? aeneiaeth? (aea ia iaa?oioiao?) oaea i?eiouaiiy:
“Iaoa aecia/a? caniae, oa?aeoa? ae?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?? aeinyaiaiiy…
Oe?e? ?inoeoooo th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aecia/athoue eiai
ooieoe??”.

O oiae? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? i?eeoia aei aeniiaeo, ui
iaoa oi?io?oueny noa’?eoeaii. Ioaea, a yeino? ?acoeueoaoo iiaea
aenooiaoe aoaeue-yea yaeua ae?eniino?, e??i oiai, ?acoeueoao aeoaea
/anoi ia ocaiaeaeo?oueny c iaoith aai acaaae? ia ianoa?. Oea aeicaiey?
i?eionoeoe, ui a?aeiioaiiy i?ae ?acoeueoaoii ? iaoith ia
ooieoe?iiaeueia. Aiii ia ? iaiao?aeiei aeey iaoe ? ?acoeueoaoo. O
a?aeiioaii? iaoe ? caniao ieoaiiy a?eueo neeaaeia. Aeaiee ?acoeueoao
iiaea noaoe iane?aeeii o?eueee oe?eeii iaaieo ? aeiaeieo ?ioeo cania?a,
oi/a ? aeiionea?oueny, ui oe? caniae iiaeooue aca?iicai?ithaaoe iaeei
iaeiiai. Oaeei /eiii, yeui iaoa aeinyaea ?acoeueoaoo, oi /a?ac iueiai
aiia ca’ycaia iaaieie caniaaie, a, ciath/e iaoo ? ?acoeueoao, iaaooue,
iiaeia noaeeoe ? i?i iaoo, oiio ui iaeaeaa aiie aecia/athoue ??. Iaeiae
ia?oee ?ac c ?icaeyiooeo i?eiouaiue aeoiaeeii o?eueee c cania?a, a ia
cania?a ? ?acoeueoaoo.

Aeoiaey/e c aeuacaaaeaiiai, iiaeia aenoiooe a?iioaco i?i nooue caniao, c
aeiiiiiaith na?aeiiiai canoinoaaiiy yeiai (a ii?yaeeo iaoiaeieia?/iiai
aenia?eiaioo) iiaeia ni?iaoaaoe ae/eaieoe oe?e? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.
Aoaeaii aeoiaeeoe c oiai, ui aenoioo? aeiiouaiiy, eiaeiee nai ii nia?,
iaiao?aei?, aea ia aeinoaoi? aeey ae/eaiaiiy. Iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaiiy
“eiiieaeniiai aeiiouaiiy”. Aea ia oeyoo eiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeieea? ?yae
o?oaeiiu?a. Ii-ia?oa, aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ia’?aeiaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai
iaoiaeo a i?aaiciaanoa? (i???ioiaaiiai ia aeneiaeai? a caeiiiaeaanoa?
caniae) c iaoiaeii nioe?ieia?/iei (ui i???ioo?oueny ia oaeoe ?aaeueiiai
aeeooy, a oiio /ene? ?acoeueoaoe ae?? i?aaa). Ii-ae?oaa, iio?aao?
aea/aiiy ua iaeia a?aeiioaiiy — i?ae caniaii ? ?acoeueoaoii (?iaeoa ie
ia ciiaeeii iaa?oiooaaoe, ui aeaiee ?acoeueoao ? iane?aeeii naia aeaieo
cania?a, a ia a?ith aeiaaeeiaeo ? iaa?aeiieo iai i?e/ei). Neeaaei?noue
ooo o oiio, ui oaea a?aeiioaiiy ? aioo??oi?i, a o i?aaiciaanoaa iaia?
cania?a aiae?co oaeiai oeio a?aeiinei.

Aei oeo i??, aeiee o ian aoaeooue a?aenooi? iaiao?aei? caniae ae/eaiaiiy
oe?eae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ie ia ciiaeaii c iaai?noth aecia/eoe oi/iee
neeaae oeeo oe?eae. O e?oa?aoo?? aeae?eythoueny ianooii? oe?e? ?inoeoooo
aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?:

1. ?aaoeyoeaia.

2. Caiia?aeia (i?aaaioeaia).

3. Aeoiaia.

4. Noeioethth/a.

5. Ioi?iiia (caoenia).

6. Oo?aoia (ooieoe?y iiea?aiiy).

7. Eiiiainaoe?eia.

8. ?ioi?iaoe?eia.

9. Ooieoe?y oi?aae?iiy “ii ai?eciioae?” ae?iaieoeoaii eiio?aaaioa.

10. Ooieoe?y eiio?ieth ca aeeiiaiiyi ciaia’ycaiue.

Aa?oi iaaaaeaoe, ui oeae nienie ia ? ?acoeueoaoii eia?/iiai iiae?eo ia
aeaee yeiainue aecia/aiiai iiiyooy iaoe a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Eiaeia c
ieo aeae?eaia ie?aiei aaoi?ii, iac?icoi?eei caniaii.

I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiie aeeeaaeaiiio aeua, iaeaaeeoue a?aecia/eoe, ui
i?iaeaia ooieoe?e th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? acaaae? ?
oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? cie?aia ? iano?eueee neeaaeiith ? aaaaoia?aiiith, ui
iiaea noaoe i?aaeiaoii naiino?eiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “I??e aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” aaoi?
aecia/a? eiei i?? aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? th?eaee/ieo in?a o
eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao ? i?iaiaeeoue aiae?c ?oiueiai canoinoaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 “Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?? oeea?eueii-i?aaiai?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaaeeiiaiiy ? iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo
ciaia’ycaiue o eiia?oe?ei?e i?aeoeoe?” aeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea
i?? oeea?eueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaaeeiiaiiy ? iaiaeaaeia
aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue.

Cie?aia, a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iniiaieie i??aie aeiaia??ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? noyaiaiiy caeoe?a ? iaonoieea (oo?ao, iaiy).

Iicaaaeaiiy noa’?eoeaiiai i?aaa, ye i??a aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
th?eaee/ieo in?a o eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao canoiniao?oueny eeoa a ??aeeeo,
aeineoue niaoeeo?/ieo aeiaaeeao, iai?eeeaae, yeui aei i?aai/eio
th?eaee/ii? iniae, noia?a/iiai eiai oe?e? (no. 50 OeE), canoiniaothoueny
iieiaeaiiy noaoo? 49 OeE.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 “Noyaiaiiy caeoe?a ye i??a aeiaia??ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” i?iaiaeeoueny aeeaieee aiae?c /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? oi/ie ci?o, aeneiaeaieo a th?eaee/i?e e?oa?aoo??,
a?aeiinii noyaiaiiy caeoe?a ye i??e aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeoaea /anoi caeoee aeieeathoue a ?acoeueoao?
iaa??ii ? iaiaa?oioiaaii ia?aii? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ianooaa ? aeae yei? coiiaeth? nooi?iue i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai
?eceeo. Oaeiae aaoi? aea? aeieeaaeio oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaeai aeiaia??ieo
caeoe?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.3 “Noyaiaiiy iaonoieee ye i??a aeiaia??ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy i?i iaonoieeo ye i??o
aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Cie?aia aeaco?oueny, ui o a?aeiineiao i?ae th?eaee/ieie iniaaie
iaonoieea ? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiith i??ith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. ??
i?aeoe/i? ia?aaaae aacnoii?ai?:

1) aiia canoiniao?oueny iacaeaaeii a?ae caiiae?yiiy caeoe?a;

2) ia aeiaaa?oueny, ye i?aaeei, iaaeaiiy iiceaa/ai ?ioeo aeieac?a, ie??i
aeieaco oaeoo ii?ooaiiy aeiaiai?o;

3) ?ici?? iaonoieee o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao aeicaiey? a?aeiiaeoe iaeiia?
ao?aoe, yeui aiie iaee i?noea;

4) iaonoieea cae/aeii canoiniao?oueny a oiae? aeeiiaiiy aeiaiai?o ca
ii?ooaiiy eiaeiiai iaia’yceo, eiaeii? oiiae, a ia ca iaaeeiiaiiy
aeiaiai?o a oe?eiio, ui ? aeey e?aaeeoi?a iaaiith ia?aaaaith, ai a?i
aaea a iiiaio i?aaiii?ooaiiy aieiae?? caniaii, aeinoaoiuei iia?aoeaiei,
uia niiioeaoe ai?aeieea aei aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui o noaooyo 179 ? 204 Oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno O?N?
caaaeothoueny, ie??i iaonoieee, ua oo?ao ? iaiy. Oiio aeieea? ieoaiiy
i?i ?oi? i?aaiaa cia/aiiy. O e?oa?aoo?? ?nio? aeoiea (I. N. Eiooa,
I. ?. Eiaaeaiei), ui ??ciiaeaeaie iaonoieee yaeythoueny: aeania
iaonoieea, oo?ao ? iaiy, eiaeai ?c oeeo aeae?a ia? nai? iniaeeaino?.

Iaeiae o nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui
c aeaiith aeoieith iiaiaeeoenue ia iiaeia. Ii-ia?oa, oiio, ui a
e?oa?aoo?? ia cono??/a?oueny aeiaeiiai aecia/aiiy aeania iaonoieee, ui
aeicaieeei a noaeeoe i?i ia?, ye i?i ie?aio oi?io aai ??ciiaeae;
ii-ae?oaa, i?aenoaae ?? anoaiiaeaiiy, caniae ?? aecia/aiiy ? ii?yaeie ??
ia?aooaaiiy oae? ae, ye o oo?aoo.

Oaeei /eiii, oyaey?oueny, ui a noaooyo 179, 204 OeE caeiiiaeaaaoeue
i?inoi i???ioo?oueny ia ??ciiiai?oi? aa??aioe iacae iaonoieee, ?
iaonoieea iiaea aenooiaoe a aeaio oi?iao: o oi?i? oo?aoo ? a oi?i? iai?.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e ieoaiiy i?i canoinoaaiiy i?? aeiaia??ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui a oe?eyo
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? aeioe?eueii cae??ieoe o Oeea?eueiiio
eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie iaia’ycie e?aaeeoi?a-noa’?eoa i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? iia?aoeaii ?aaaoaaoe ia ii?ooaiiy aeiaia??iiai ciaia’ycaiiy
eiai eiio?aaaioii ? anoaiiaeoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaaeeiiaiiy
oeueiai iaia’yceo.

?icae?e /aoaa?oee “Oiiae ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
iaaeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue o eiia?oe?ei?e i?aeoeoe?”
i?enay/aiee anaa?/iiio aiae?co ieoaiiy i?i oiiae ca?eueiaiiy a?ae
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaaeeiiaiiy ? iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo
ciaia’ycaiue o eiia?oe?ei?e i?aeoeoe?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.1 “Aei aecia/aiiy i?aaeiaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy” aaoi?
i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui iaeaaeeoue ?ic??ciyoe oiiae ca?eueiaiiy
a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, anoaiiaeai? caeiiiaeaanoaii, ? aeiaia??i?
oiiae ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Oaeiae aaoi? a?aecia/a?, ui i?aaiaiiy aei aecia/aiino? o
i?aaia?aeiineiao i?ae noi?iiaie aeiaiai?o, c iaeiiai aieo, ? ia caaaeaee
/?oea ?aaoethaaiiy ii?iaie i?aaa ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
i?e iaiiaeeeaino? aeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiiy, c ?ioiai aieo, i?ecaaee aei
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy, iniaeeai o eiia?oe?ei?e i?aeoeoe?, aeiaia??ieo
oiia i?i ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?e iaaeeiiaii? aeiaiai?o
— oae caaieo “oi?n-iaaei?ieo canoa?aaeaiue”.

I?aeoe/ii a on?o e?a?iao i?aai i?eionea? iiaiaeaeaiiy eiio?aaaioaie
oaeeo oiia, ui iiaeooue ye iioe?thaaoe, oae ? caoaeoaaoe canoinoaaiiy a
eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo eiioeaioe?e ca?eueiaiiy a?ae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?,
ui aeieeaathoue c ii?i ae?th/iai i?aaa.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui
oeea?e?noe cia/io /anoeio nai?o oyaeaiue i?i neeaae i?aaiii?ooaiiy ?
ianoaaeie, ui aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, caiice/athoue c
iaea?eueo ?ic?iaeaiiai a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa. I?ae
oei ianoaaeie, ui aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, a e?ei?iaeueiiio ?
oeea?eueiiio i?aa? ?icoi?thoueny ii-??ciiio. O e?ei?iaeueiiio i?aa?
ieoaiiy i?i ianoaaeie, ui aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, iinoa?
oiae?, eiee o ae?yo iniae ? an? iciaee neeaaeo cei/eio o iiaiiio ianyc?.
A naia, yeui aeoiaeeoe eeoa c iaei??? iayaiino? iciae neeaaeo cei/eio,
oi a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iiaeiia ianoaoe, aea i?e aeaieo ianoaaeiao
aeeeth/a?oueny. sseui ae ? ianoaaeie, ui ia aeicaieythoue a oiae?
eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aeaanoe ae?? iniae oi/a a i?ae iaeei c aeaiaio?a
neeaaeo, oi a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia ianoa? ia ca a?aenooi?noth neeaaeo
cei/eio, a oiio ui ? ianoaaeie, ye? aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

O oeea?eueiiio i?aa? aeaa oaeeo oeia ianoaaei ia??aeei ci?oothoueny,
iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?acoeueoao ae?? oeeo oei?a ianoaaei iaeiaeiaee —
a?aenooi?noue a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Aea, icia/ai? aeaee ianoaaei
iaiao?aeii a?aeiaaeiaoaaoe, ine?eueee ?o i?aaiaa i?e?iaea ??cia.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.2. “Niaoeeo?ea iaaaoeaii? eiino?oeoe?? neeaae?a.
I?iaeaia anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiaio?a neeaae?a” a?aecia/a?oueny, ui o
oeea?e?noeoe? ?nio? oaeee niaoeeo?/iee niin?a oi?ioaaiiy aeaiaio?a
neeaaeo i?aaiii?ooaiiy, eiee aeacothoueny ia o? ianoaaeie, i?e iayaiino?
yeeo ianoa? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, a o?, i?e yeeo aiia ia ianoa?. Oiio
aeey oiai, uia ?aoaeueii aea/eoe i?aenoaae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?,
iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aenoaa ca?eueiaiiy a?ae ia?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.3. “Iiiyooy i?aenoaa, ye? iaoiiaeththoue ? ye?
aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. ?o caaaeueia eeaneo?eaoe?y”
aea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea oeeo i?aenoaa ? i?iaiaeeoueny ?o
eeaneo?eaoe?y.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.4. “Aeaee oiia” aaoi? c?iaea aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ia
iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i aeiaaeie ? iaia?aai?io neeo ye ianoaaeie, ui
aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue acaaae?. Aiie iaaoaathoue oaei?
aeanoeaino? eeoa a?aeiinii aei iaaieo neeaae?a. A ?ioeo aea ianoaaeiao
aeiaaeie aai iaia?aai?ia neea aeanoea?noth aeiyoeo aieiae?oe ia aoaeooue
(iaa?oue iaia?aai?ia neea, oi/a ? a aeoaea ??aeeeo aeiaaeeao, aea
aenooia? oiiaith a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?).

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy (i?aei?e?iieoeoai — oea neeaaeia aaaaoianiaeoia yaeua,
yea iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe a ?aeiino? c aeiiii?/ii?, ineoieia?/ii? oa
i?aaiai? iiceoe?e; eaoaai??y “ooieoe?y oeea?eueii-i?aaiai?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi eaoaai??e “iaoa”, “can?a”,
“?acoeueoao”; oe?e? aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iiaeeeai aecia/eoe
eeoa c aeiiiiiaith ia’?aeiaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai caniao a i?aaiciaanoa? c
caniaii nioe?ieia?/iei; aeiaaeie ? iaia?aai?ia neea ia ? ianoaaeiaie, ui
aeeeth/athoue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue acaaae?, aiie iaaoaathoue oaei?
aeanoeaino? eeoa a?aeiinii iaaieo neeaae?a ? ianoaaei oa ?io?),
iaea?eueo cia/i? c yeeo aeeeaaeai? o oaeno? aaoi?aoa?aoo, a oaeiae
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith ii?i aeiaia??iiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ii oai? aeena?oaoe??:

1. Eaicaoa?iaa E. N. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue (iniiaiua
iieiaeaiey). — Iaeanna: Ano?ii?eio, 1998. — 76 n.

2. Iei/aiei ?. I., Eaicaoa?iaa E. N. ?an/aoiua i?aaiioiioaiey a
oicyenoaaiiii iai?ioa Oe?aeiu: O/aaiia iiniaea. — Iaeanna: Aaoaa, 1997.
— 84 n.

3. Ei?/aaiay E. A., O?oaa A. E., Eaicaoa?iaa E. N. Aiciauaiea
ii?aeueiiai a?aaea e eiua aeooaeueiua aii?inu nia?aiaiiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa. — Iaeanna: Ano?ii?eio, 1998. — 44 n.

4. Eaicaoa?iaa E. N. Aeiaiai? a noa?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa //
Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: Na. iao/. o?. IAO. — Iaeanna:
Ano?ii?eio, 1998. — N. 66-73.

5. Eaicaoa?iaa E. N. I?e/eiiay naycue eae oneiaea aeiaiai?iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa: Na. iao/.
o?. IAO. — Iaeanna: Ano?ii?eio, 1998. — N. 93-100.

Eaicaoa?iaa ?. N. Aeiaia??ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue th?eaee/ieo in?a o
eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.03. — oeea?eueia i?aai ? oeea?eueiee i?ioean;
n?iaeia i?aai; i?aeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai. — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
?i. A. I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,
1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeaia iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy cia/aiiy ?inoeoooo
aeiaia??ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeey iiia?aaeaeaiiy i?aaiii?ooaiue o
eiia?oe?eiiio ia?ao oa oa’yceo c oeei ?ieue eiia?oe?eiiai ia?ao a
?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

Noi?ioeueiaai? eiie?aoi? iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa, yeei ?aaoeth?oueny eiiieaen a?aeiinei o eiia?oe?eiiio
ia?ao; aianai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy eaoaai??aeueiiai aia?aoo
iaoee oeea?eueiiai i?aaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue, th?eaee/i? iniae,
aeiaia??, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Eaicaoa?iaa E. N. Aeiaiai?iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue th?eaee/aneeo eeoe a
eiiia?/aneii iai?ioa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.03. — a?aaeaeaineia i?aai e a?aaeaeaineee
i?ioeann; naiaeiia i?aai; iaaeaeoia?iaeiia /anoiia i?aai. — Einoeooo
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ei. A. I. Ei?aoeeiai Iaoeeiiaeueiie Aeaaeaiee iaoe
Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeaii iao/iia iainiiaaiea cia/aiey einoeoooa aeiaiai?iie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey i?aaiia?ooaiee a eiiia?/aneii
iai?ioa e a nayce n yoei ?ieue eiiia?/aneiai iai?ioa a ?acaeoee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a Oe?aeia.

Noi?ioee?iaaiu eiie?aoiua iao/iua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ?aaoee?othuaai eiiieaen ioiioaiee a eiiia?/aneii
iai?ioa; aianaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth eaoaai?eaeueiiai
aiia?aoa iaoee a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, th?eaee/aneea
eeoea, aeiaiai?, ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

Kanzafarova I.S. Contractual responsibility of juridical persons in
turnover. — Manuscript.

The dissertation is aimed to get a candidate’s degree of law with the
speciality 12.00.03 — civil law and lawsuit; family law; international
private law. — V. M. Koretski Institute of State and Law of Ukraine
National Academy of Science, Kiev, 1999.

The meaning of contractual responsibility Institute, which has to
prevent the breaking of the law in commercial turnover, and is this
connection the role of commercial turnover in the development of
undertaking activities in Ukraine, are scientifically shown in the
thesis.

Special scientific recommendations, concerning legislation improvement,
regulating a complex of relations in commercial turnover were
formulated. Proposals concerning perfection of category apparatus of
civil law science were put forward.

Key words: undertaking activity, juridical persons, contract,
responsibility.

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