Діяльність ВЧК на Півдні України в період революції та громадянської війни. 1917-1922 рр.: Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / І.М. Шкляєв, Одес. держ.

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao ii. I.I.Ia/ieeiaa

Oeey?a Iai? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 947.77:342.518 «1917/1922»

Aeiyeueiinoue AE* ia iiaaeii Oe?a?ie a ia?iiae ?aaiethoei? oa
a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie. 1917-1922 ??.

07.00.02 — ananaioiy inoi?iy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaeana- 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? Iiai? oa iia?oiuei? ?noi???
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee –aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Eaeiaeai ?aai
Ee?eeiae/

Ia?oe?ei? iiiiaioe –aeieoi? ?noi?e/ie iaoe, Oea?ethe Naiai Aioiiiae/,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio??, ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa iie?oieia?? Iaeanueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?/iai ?inoeoooo

-eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, A?aaaiiee Aaiaae?e Iao?iae/, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa na?oiai? iie?oeee ?inoeoooo nioe?aeueieo iaoe
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y –Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 17 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. i 15 aiae. ia can?ae?ii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 05.01.13 i?e Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith :270057, i. Iaeana, aoe.Uaie?ia, 12, aoae 9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 15 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeioeaio EICIANUeEEE A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Eiaeia aea?aeaaa, yea aaaea? caa?aaoe naith
naiinoieiinoue, iieioe/io oa aeiiiii/io iacaeaaeiinoue, iiaeiia
oo?aoaaoeny i?i aeanio aaciaeo. Aeey oeueiai ooai?th?oueny ?icaaeoaeaia
no?oeoo?a i?aaiia ?icaiaeee, eiio??icaiaeee oa iieioe/ii? iieioei?.

Iieioe/ia iieioeiy — ? iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo o?yaeiaeo canioaaiue i iiyea
aea?aeaaa inioaaoe aac ia? ia iiaea. Iieioe/iee ?icooe aeiya, aei? i
aoaea aeiyoe a oiiaao noai?i? oa?iiinoi, iiaeoa aii ia aii?a?oueny c
aieiaiei nai?i caaaeaiiyi — caiiaiaaiiyi aea?aeaaieo (iieioe/ieo)
cei/eiia. Inoi?iy niaoeneoaea caaaeaee aeeeeea? iaaecae/aeiee iioa?an. O
aiaeiioaiii no/aniiai iieioe/iiai ?icooeo aii iiaea aooe caaeiaieaiee
eeoa /anoeiai — ciaeiinoaii c inoi?i?th ?inienueei? oa?iie/i? iieioei?
oa A*E.

O ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie A*E ia?aoai?eeany o no?oieo ea?aeueio
nenoaio, yea oaeaeei i iia?aoeaii ?aaaoaaea ia aoaeue-yeo
aioe?aaeyinueeo aeiyeueiinoue. I?iaeaia aea?aeaaiiai ianeeuenoaa a
inoi?i? iaoi? e?a?ie, aaeaeaaoiinoue «/a?aiiiai» oa «aieiai» oa?i?o,
?ieue A*E a ia?aiici aieueoiaecio — oei ieoaiiy iathoue aeooaeueiee
oa?aeoa? i a iao /an.

Aeooaeueiinoue aeaii? i?iaeaie aecia/a?oueny, aaaeeeainoth oi?ioaaiiy,
ia no/aniiio aoaii aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?ii, iiaiioeiiii? nenoaie
i?aaiia aea?aeaaii? aaciaee; aea/aiiy inoi?i? aeiyeueiinoi A*E, aiaeicii
no?oeoo?e, eiiiaoaioei? oa ooieoeiiioaaiiy i?aaiia iaaecae/aeieo eiiinie
— ?ai?aneaii? nenoaie aieueoiaecio, yea ia ?aaiiiaeueiiio ?iaii Iiaaeiy
Oe?a?ie iaea nai? iniaeeainoi.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoeiy ia?
ca’ycie c iiaeeaoaae?aeueiith iaoeiaith eiiieaeniith oaiith «Iiaaeaiue
Oe?a?ie a OIO-OO noieiooyo. Inoi?iy. Inoi?iia?aoiy. Aeaea?aea.» eaoaae?
inoi?i? Oe?a?ie i Iiai? oa iiaioiuei? inoi?i? inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo ii.I.I.Ia/ieeiaa. Aeineiaeaeaiiy
oaeiae aiineoue iaaiee aeeaae a ?aaeicaoeith aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie
«?aaaieioiaaii inoi?i?th», iaoa yei? — iiaa?iaiiy caaooeo iiai oa
?aaaieioaoeiy aea?oa ?ai?anie 20-50 ?ieia.

Iaoa i caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy
? anaai/iee eiiieaeniee aiaeic ?ai?aneaii? aeiyeueiinoi Ana?inienueei?
iaaecae/aeii? eiiini? ii ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th, ?? ?ieue a
ia?aiici aieueoiaecio a niaoeeoi/ieo oiiaao iiaaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai
?aaiiio. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aecia/aii neiaeoth/e
caaaeaiiy:

— ii?iaiyoe aeiyeueiinoue iaaecae/aeieo eiiinie Iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie o
oeaio?aeueieie i?aaiaie A*E i AO*E, iaoiaee ?o ?iaioe ia eiie?aoiiio
i?eeeaaei iinoeaaiai cia/aiiy;

— i?iaiaeicoaaoe no?aoaaith i oaeoeeo ai?ioueae Iaeanueei? aoaa?inueei?
*E, ye iaeaieueoi? a ?aaiiii, c aioe?aaeyinueeei iiaeiieeyi, ica?i?iei
naeyinueeei ?ooii, ea?iith cei/eiiinoth, ?? ?icaiaeoaaeueio i
eiio?a?icaiaeoaaeueio aeiyeueiinoue;

— aeaoe ioeiieo iieioe/iie neooaoei? ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie a ?iee
?aaiethoei? oa a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie, aeyaeoe ?? iniiaii oaiaeaioei? oa
niaoeeoieo ciiie iieioe/ii? aeaaee a ?aaiiii;

— noi?ioethaaoe i?aeoe/ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? i i?iiiceoei?, ni?yiiaaii ia
noai?aiiy iiaiioeiiii? nenoaie i?aaiia aea?aeaaii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie c
o?aooaaiiyi iiceoeaiiai i iaaaoeaiiai aeinaiaeo aeiyeueiinoi A*E.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoei?. A aeineiaeaeaiii aia?oa ia iniiai oe?ieiai
eiea a?oiaieo i iioaeieiaaieo aeaea?ae c?iaeaia ni?iaa aiaeoiaeo aiae
aeiiiioth/eo ?aiio a ?aaeyinueei? inoi?e/ii? iaooei ni?iuaieo
oi?ioethaaiue oa noa?aioeiia i?i iinoea i ?ieue A*E a inoi?i?
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. O oie aea /an, caia?a/o?oueny i oa?aeoa?iee aeey
aaaaoueio no/anieo ioaeieaoeie iaeneiaeinonueeee iiaeoiae aaniethoiiai
iani?eeiaiiy oa caiia/oaaiiy aeiyeueiinoi A*E a ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei?
aieie.

A aeena?oaoei? aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi iaoaiicie i niiniae ?aaeicaoei?
aieueoiaeoeueei? no?aoaai? ai?ioueae c eiio??aaiethoei?th, eiie?aoii
iaoiaee ia?aneiaeoaaiue i cieuaiiy iieioe/ii? iiiceoei? ea?aeueieie
i?aaiaie.

Ia iniiai cia?aiiai, ocaaaeueiaiiai oa ai?iaiaaiiai inoi?e/iiai
iaoa?iaeo aaoi? aia?oa aea? ?icai?iooo ea?oeio iieioe/ii?, aienueeiai?
oa ea?aeueii? aeiyeueiinoi iinoeaaeo iaaecae/aeieo eiiinie oa ?o
ica?i?ieo oi?ioaaiue, aeaeiey? ?? niaoeeoi/ii ?ene oei?? aeiyeueiinoi,
ooi/ith? inioth/i ioeiiee inoi?e/ieo oaeoia oa iiaeie. ?aaiiiaeueiee
oa?aeoa? aeineiaeaeaiiy aeiiiiaaa? aieueo aeeaiei ?ice?eoe oei yaeua.

Aeena?oaioii aia?oa aei iaoeiaiai ianyao aaaaeaii cia/io eieueeinoue
aeaea?ae, a oiio /enei ?aiioa iaaeinooiieo aeineiaeieeai iaoa?iaeia
oiiaeia niaoecaa?iaaiiy. Aieiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei?, yei
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— ?aaeyinueea aeaaea oeieeii naiaeiii ooai?eea A*E, ?icoiith/e ui
oieueee iiaeiaii ?ai?aneaii i?aaie iiaeooue caa?aaoe iaeiiia?oieio
aeeeoaoo?o. AEiaeia c i?ioenoaaeaieo o a?iiaaeyinueeie aieii nee ia
ciiaea ooai?eoe aiaeiai/io i?aaiicaoeith, yea a eiio?iethaaea i?aeoe/ii
oni noa?e ethaenueei? aeiyeueiinoi. Oea ni?eyei ia?aiici aieueoiaecio ia
oa?eoi?i? eieeoiuei? ?inienueei? iiia?i?;

— iaaecae/aeii eiiini? noaee /anoeiith ?aaeyinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aia?aoo. Aiie iaee ooieoei? iicanoaeiai? ?ai?ani?, iaaecae/aeieie ye ii
?aaeeio nai?? aeiyeueiinoi, oae i ii noai?inoi canoinoaaiiy naieoeie;

— o ia?iiae «/a?aiiiai oa?i?o» a aeiyeueiinoi *E iaa ia?aaaao i?aaiaee
iiaieici, ianiai ?icno?iee ie?iiai ianaeaiiy, iinoieii ii?ooaiiy i?aaee
i?iaaaeaiiy a?aooia, iaooeia oa eiioineaoeie. O oie aea /an, A*E
aoaeoeaii ai?ieanue c ea?iith cei/eiiinoth, noai?eea ?icaiaeoaaeueiee i
eiio?a?icaiaeoaaeueiee aia?ao, yeee i?ioenoiya aiaeiai/iei i?aaiai
?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa;

— ia ?aaiiiaeueiiio ?iaii a oiiaao aino?i? iieioe/ii? ai?ioueae
ooai?aiiy iaaecae/aeieo eiiinie iaei nai? iniaeeainoi. ?aaeyinueea
aeaaea iaaecae/aeio eiiinith ii ai?ioueai eiio??aaiethoei?th ooai?eea
eeoa a eaioii 1919 ?ieo, a aei oiai /ano ooieoeiiioaaea ia i?ioyci iaio
aeaio iinyoeia a 1918 ?ioei caaoaeueiaaia «aaoiiiiia eieaaiy ii
ai?ioueai c ?oioinueeith oa oe?a?inueeith eiio??aaiethoei?th».
Iiaiioeiiia *E, yea iaea nai? ica?i?ii oi?ioaaiiy i aoaeoeaii i?eaeooeea
aioe?aaeyinueea iieioe/ia iiaeiieey oa ica?i?iee naeyinueeee ?oo noaea
aeiyoe eeoa c ethoiai 1920 ?ieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aei iaoeiaiai ianyao
aaaaeaii aaeeeo eieueeinoue iaoa?iaeia c ?inienueeeo oa iaoeiiiaeueieo
a?oiaia. Oei iaoa?iaee, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoaii iaoeiaoeyie aeey iiaeaeueoeo ?ic?iaie i?iaeaie, i?e
iaienaiii i?aoeue c inoi?i? ?ini? oa Oe?a?ie ia?iiaeo a?iiaaeyinueei?
aieie. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii i?e iiaeaioiaoei
eaeoeieieo eo?nia, niaoeeo?nia c e?a?ciaa/i? oaiaoeee, a oaeiae a
eaeoeieii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueei? oa iocaeii? ?iaioi.

Iniaenoei aianeii aaoi?a ? iaa?oioiaaia iieiaeaiiy i?i niaoeeoieo
iieioe/ii? ai?ioueae ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie a 1917-1922 ?ieao, ?ieue i
iinoea i?aaiia A*E a a?iiaaeyinueeie aieii, aeineiaeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
aca?iiaiaeiioaiue ea?aeueieo i?aaiia ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee oeaio?o oa
?aaiiio, inoi?e/ieo oiia noai?aiiy iaaecae/aeieo eiiinie, ?o no?oeoo?e
oa eiie?aoii? aeiyeueiinoi.

Iniaenoa o/anoue aaoi?a a io?eiaiii iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoaoia aeiaaaeaia
eiai ia?niiaeueieie ?ic?iaeaie, yei ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo
noaooyo, aenooiao c aeiiiaiaeyie ia iiaeia?iaeieo oa anaoe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo, niaoeeo?nao aeey nooaeaioia
inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeoiiaa?neoaoo,
iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo ?iaioao a iinoeaai? i?ani.

Ai?iaaoeiy aeena?oaoei?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy i aeniiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia caniaeaiiyo eaoaae?e Iiai? oa iiaioiuei? inoi?i?
inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo
ii.I.I.Ia/ieeiaa, ciaeoee aiaeia?aaeaiiy a aeiiiaiaeyo ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioeiyo «Enoi?ey e a?oaieiaey Ieaeiaai Iiaeoiaauey» (1989 ?ie),
«I?iaeaiu enoi?ee e a?oaieiaee Ieaeiaai Iiaeiano?iauey» (1990 ?ie),
«No/ania aoiieoeueoo?ia oa aoiiiieioe/ia neooaoeiy ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie i
aeooaeueii i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aaeiiiy» (1996 ?ie), «Oaa?aeueneay
?aaiethoeey e noaeueau aeaiie?aoee a ?innee» (1997 ?ie), a oaeiae o
ioaeieaoeiyo aeena?oaioa: «Ieoei ssiii/ee» (Oe?a?inueeee inoi?e/iee
aeo?iae, 1991, ue2), «Ieoea ssiii/ee (i?eiaiaiea iaoiaea n?aaieoaeueiiai
aiaeeca a enoi?e/aneie aeia?aoenoeea)» (Caienee inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo.
Aei.2, Iaeana, 1996), «Iyoaae» (Aeea?iaineea ae?aaiinoe,
Aaeai?iae-Aeiano?ianeee, 1997), «Iaeanneay Aoa/aea eae i?aai
aianoaeaaiie ?ai?annee» (Caienee inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, Aei.5, Iaeana,
1997), o niiaaaoi?nueeie i?aoei «Enoi?ey EINN: Eaeoeee. 1918-1941» (I.,
1989), a aaaaoueio aacaoieo iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoeieiiai aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icaeieia, aeniiaeo oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i
eioa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoei? noaiiaeoue 163 noi?iiee, c ieo — nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (190 iaeiaioaaiue) — 15 noi?iiie.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

O anooii iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeueiinoue oaie, aecia/a?oueny iaoa i
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, aecia/aii
o?iiieiai/ii oa aaia?aoi/ii ?aiee aeineiaeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny
ai?iaaoeiy aeena?oaoei?.

Ia?oee ?icaeie «Inoi?iia?aoi/iee iaeyae oa aeaea?aeueia aaca
aeineiaeaeaiiy» i?enay/aiee aiaeico aeaea?ae oa eioa?aoo?e c aecia/aii?
oaie aeena?oaoei?. Ooo ?ice?eaa?oueny ?iaaiue inoi?iia?aoi/ii? ?ic?iaee
oaie, ie?aneaii ?? aeaea?aeueio aaco, iaaaaeaii iaoiaeieiaith oa
iaoiaeeeo aeineiaeaeaiiy.

Aea/aiiy inoi?i? A*E oyaey? niaith aeooaeueio i iaeiaeineiaeaeaio
i?iaeaio, ye a caaaeueii?inienueeiio ianooaai, oae i ia ?aaiiiaeueiiio
?iaii Iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie. O aea/aiii inoi?i? A*E, ia iao iiaeyae, iiaeeeai
aecia/eoe ianooiii aoaie: 1917 — ia?oa iieiaeia 20-o ?ieia, eiee a i?ani
ioaeieothoueny eiie?aoii aeieoiaioe oa iinoaiiae A*E, c’yaeythoueny
ia?oi iaioa?e ye ia?oieieo ooieoeiiia?ia, i?aoethth/eo a iaaecae/aeieo
eiiiniyo ii ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th, oae i iaioa?e aiia?aioia,
yei iiaoaaee o eaoiaiyo *E; ae?oaa iieiaeia 20-o — na?aaeeia 50-o ?ieia,
eiee i?aeoe/ii inoi?iy i?aaiia aea?aeaaii? aaciaee ?iciiai/ii oa aeeaiei
ia aeineiaeaeo?oueny i ia ocaaaeueith?oueny; ae?oaa iieiaeia 50-o — 1985
?ie, /an iaaii? eiaa?aeicaoei? oa noai?i aeiciaaii? iioi?iaoei? i?i
aeiyeueiinoue A*E; 1985 ?ie th aei oaia?ioiueiai /ano, eiee
aeei?enoiaoth/e ?aiioa iaaeinooiii a?oiaii aeieoiaioe c oe?a?inueeeo oa
?inienueeeo a?oiaia, i?aoei caoiaeieo aaoi?ia, c’yaeeanue iiaeeeainoue
iaaeaoe ia’?eoeaiee aiaeic eiie?aoii? ?iaioe oeueiai i?aaio.

Inoi?iia?aoiy inoi?i? A*E aa?a naie ii/aoie c 20-o ?ieia. A oei ?iee
aeineiaeieee caeienithaaee ni?iae i?iaiaeicoaaoe aeiyeueiinoue A*E oa
iiaee?aneeoe eiioeaaee ?acoeueoao: ?ica?ii aioe?aaeyinueeeo iianoaiue oa
caeieioia, naeyinueeeo aenooiia, aee?eooy aeiyeueiinoi aioe?aaeyinueeeo
ia?oie oa i?aaiicaoeie, a oaeiae noaee iaae ieie. Iaeaieueo oa?aeoa?ii
ooo i?aoei A.O.Aeaaeeie?iai? oa A.Aoeneiai, a yeeo, c ia?enenonueeeo
iiceoeie nenoaiaoeciaaii iaea?aeaiee inoi?e/iee iaoa?iae.1
Caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao oaeiae ?iaioe A?ieaea N. i I., O.I.Nainiiiaa, a
yeeo cia?aii aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa?iae ii eiie?aoiei aioe?aaeyinueeei
aenooiai. 2

O ae?oaie iieiaeii 30-o — ii/aoeo 50-o ?ieia a aeieoiaioaeueieo
ioaeieaoeiyo, eieaao oa iaoeiaeo noaooyo c’yaeythoueny iiaiaeiieaiiy i?i
o/anoue /aeinoia o eieaiaeaoei? aioe?aaeyinueeeo aenooiia oa caeieioia.
Iaeaieueo oa?aeoa?ii aeey oeueiai /ano i?aoei A.I.Aeaena?aa,
I.A.Ei?iaoianueeiai, E.Ae/eiaa, A.Iaioa?iaa.3 Iaeiae aiaeic ?icaeoeo
i?aaiicaoeieii-i?aaiai? no?oeoo?e ?ai?aneaieo i?aaiia a ?icii ia?iiaee
a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie oei aeaeaiiy ia aeaaaee. Iaoeiaa a?aoiaioaoeiy a
ieo /e acaaaei aoea aiaenooiy, /e iaea aeaeea?aoeaiee oa?aeoa?, ui aoei,
i/aaeaeii, iia’ycaii c eoeueoii iniae E.A.Noaeiia.

O ia?iiae o?ouianueei? aiaeeeae (ae?oaa iieiaeia 50-o — ii/aoie 60-o
?ieia) ii/eiathoue iaii/aoeny oi iai?yiee aea/aiiy inoi?i? A*E,
?icai?iooa aeineiaeaeaiiy yeeo aoaea caeienithaaoeny o iiaeaeueoi ?iee.
Iniiaiith oaiith noathoue ieoaiiy, iia’ycaii c ia?oieiei
ea?iaieoeoaii aeiyeueiinoi A*E oa ?ieeth A.I.Eaiiia o aecia/aiii
caaaeaiue, i?aaiicaoeieii? no?oeoo?e, eiiiaoaioei? *E, i?eioeeiia
iiaeai?o i ?iciiuaiiy /aeinonueeeo eaae?ia, i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoei?
?oiuei? ?iaioe oa eiio?ieth iaae iath. Ia iaio ia?niaeoeaiith noa?
oaiaoeea, yea aoea i?enay/aia iaeaieueo aeaeaoiei iia?aoeiyi oa
iia?aoeaiei ?ic?iaeai A*E a ia?oi ?iee ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. A oeueiio
ca’yceo neiae aiaecia/eoe ocaaaeueithth/e iiiia?aoi? I.A.Nioiiiaa i
Ae.E.Aieiieiaa, cai?eo noaoae iiae ?aaeaeoei?th A.I.Ieeiea?aa. 4

Iiaei yaeuai a inoi?iia?aoi? oeueiai ia?iiaeo noaee aeineiaeaeaiiy i?i
aeiyeueiinoue iinoeaaeo iaaecae/aeieo eiiinie. Aoa noai?aiee ?yae ?iaio
i?i inoi?ith *E nithcieo ?anioaeie, o oiio /enei i Oe?a?ie. Oa?eianueei
a/aii E.I.Iaeianeoeia, A.E.?iaiaeei, A.A.Noaoen ooai?eee
ooiaeaiaioaeueio i?aoeth, i?enay/aio Anaoe?a?inueei? iaaecae/aeii?
eiiini?. I.ss.Iieueooaei i I.N.Noaoeaae/ aeineiaeoaaee aeiyeueiinoue
/aeinoia Aiei?oni? oa Oo?eanoaia.5 Cia/iee aei?iaie c aea/aiiy
ai?ioueae *a?aiii? a?ii? i?ioe iioa?aaioia oa aieiaaa?aeieoeia a ?iee
a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie a Oe?a?ii, aaioaoeieii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueei? ?iaioe
aieueoiaeeia, ii?acee ica?i?ii? aioo?ioiuei? eiio??aaiethoei? aianee
iiiia?aoi? I.O.Eaoeiaa, A.A.Eo/a?a, A.A.Ieaeieeiaa, oi/a inoi?e/iee
iaoa?iae, cia?aiee i ocaaaeueiaiee a ieo, iaaea?oueny c iaeiinoi?iiiio
i?i?aaeyinueeeo iiceoeie.6 Iiaei aoaiii o aea/aiii inoi?i? A*E iiaeia
aaaaeaoe ia?iiae, yeee ii/aany o 1985 ?ioei. Ioaeieaoeiy iiaeo
aeieoiaioia, aeeneoniy a noniieuenoai cioneea ?aaiiiaeueii oi?aaeiiiy
EAA iioaeieoaaoe cai?ee noaoae, i?enay/aieo 70-?i//th A*E-EAA. Aoee
iaae?oeiaaii ia’?iii ?iaioe, i?enay/aii Iineianueeiio oa
Eaiiia?aaenueeiio iaeaniei oi?aaeiiiyi EAA. A Oe?a?ii aoee iioaeieiaaii
cai?ee noaoae, i?enay/aieo inoi?i? iaaecae/aeieo eiiinie Iaeaueie,
Aiiie//eie, Ieeiea?aueie oa AO*E a oeieiio.7

Iaaeaeue, oei i?aoei iathoue, a iniiaiiio, iaoeiai-iiioey?iee oa?aeoa?
i ia iiaeooue i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia iiaia aenaioeaiiy aeiyeueiinoi iinoeaaeo
*E oa ocaaaeueiaiiy inoi?e/iiai iaoa?iaeo.

A iineyia?aaoaeiaiee ia?iiae noaea iiaeeeaei ioaeieaoeiy i?aoei
aiaeienueeiai oaoiaoey c oa?iii? aieie E?enoioa?a Aiae?th oa aiaeiiiai
ia?aaiae/eea, a ieioeiio iieeiaieea EAA I.Ai?aei?anueeiai. Oeiiiinoue
oeueiai aeineiaeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c aeei?enoaiiy ?iaeeinii?
iioi?iaoei? Ai?aei?anueeiai, eio?ee ia i?ioyci 20 ?ieia neoaeea a EAA,
aiooaaa ?yae aeaeaiue aioo?ioiueiai ei?enooaaiiy oa iaa aeinooi
nae?aoieo ?icaiaeoaaeueieo iaoa?iaeia.8 Aieueo na?eiciith ?iaioith,
iia’ycaiith c oa?iiith aeeaa?nieiith aeiyeueiinoth ?aaeyinueei?
?icaiaeee, noaee niiieie aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioa IEAAe I.Noaeiieaoiaa, yeee
eiie?aoecoaaa oeieee ?yae iaeaaaeueieo iia?aoeie oa ?ice?ea iaoiaeeeo
?iaioe niaoeneoaea aiae A*E aei EAA.9 C i?eaeaaiiyi iacaeaaeiinoi, a
Oe?a?ii c’yaeeany iiaeeeainoue oe?iei? ioaeieaoei? inoi?e/ieo
aeineiaeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo ?ai?aniyi yei aeeiioaaee /aeinoe a ?iee
a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie. O Ee?ai aeeoei aeaa iiia?e niaoeiaeueiiai
aeo?iaeo «C a?oiaia AO*E-AIO-IEAAe-EAA». Oa?eianueei aeineiaeieee
c?iaeee ni?iao ocaaaeueieoe ia no/aniiio ?iaii aeiyeueiinoue AO*E.
Cai?ea «I?iaeioeeaeueiay *E» iiaeieia? i?iaeaio /aeinonueeiai oa?i?o ia
oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?ie, iaeiae aaoi?e /anoi naiaeiii iiaeiiiththoue iieioe/ii
i?iaeaie iaoeiiiaeueiei ieoaiiyi.10

A oeieiio, aiaeic aeineiaeaeaiue inoi?i? A*E i?eaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo,
ui eieaiaeaoeieia no?aoaaiy i oaeoeea aieueoiaecio, ?ai?ani? i?ioe
iieioe/ieo ai?iaia, iai?yiee oa iaoiaee ea?aeueieo i?aaiia
aenaioethaaeenue a ieo aeineoue aiiciaee/ii i ia aeinoaee iaeaaeii?
ioeiiee.

Aeey ae?ioaiiy caaaeaiue aeineiaeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aoei ii?aoeueiaaii
cia/io eieueeinoue aeaea?ae. A aeena?oaoei? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
iioaeieiaaii iaoa?iaee: ie?aii neiae/i aeieoiaioe, ?aciethoei?
eiioa?aioeie oa caioe i?i aeiyeueiinoue iinoeaaeo iaaecae/aeieo
eiiinie.11 Ie?aiee aeie aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue /eneaiii cai?ee
aeieoiaioia oa iaoa?iaeia i?i aeiyeueiinoue A*E, iniaenoeo aiaeaeieia,
aienuee A*E, i?eei?aeiiii? ioi?iie, iieioei?. Ia aeaeue, oei cai?ee
aeieoiaioia ni?yiiaaii ia?aaaaeii aeey oeaio?aeueieo ?aaiiiia N?N?, oiio
aaeeeee ianya oaeoe/iiai iaoa?iaeo, aiaeiinii iiaaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai
?aaiiio, aea/aiie iaaeinoaoiuei oa iiaeai? aeieoiaioia iaaeaiie c oi/ee
ci?o iiaeaiiy eeoa iiceoeaiiai iaoa?iaeo.12

Iaaaoeaii aeieoiaioe cia?aa oa iioaeieoaaa aiaeiiee aiia?aionueeee
aeineiaeiee TH.Oaeueooeinueeee.13 Iaoa?iaee oa aeieoiaioe i?aaiia A*E,
yei ciaoiaeyoueny a a?oiaao ?inienueei? Oaaea?aoei? i Oe?a?ie, iathoue
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aea/aiiy ye inoi?i? iiaaeaiiioe?a?inueeiai
?aaiiio, oae i ieioeiai N?N? a oeieiio. Aiie aeathoue aeiaeaoeiao
iiaeeeainoue aeey i?aaaeeaiai inieneaiiy iieioe/ii? oa aeiiiii/ii?
neooaoei?, aiaeiioaiiy ianaeaiiy aei ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee oa
eiioiinoe/ii? ia?oi?, aeiyeueiinoi i?aaiia aea?aeaaciaee.

Aei iaoeiaiai iaiao aaoi?ii caeo/aii iaoa?iaee aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao
Iaeanueei? (AeAII) iaeanoi, Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?oiao aeueo
i?aaiia aeaaee Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?oiao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie),
Oeaio?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?oeaa Niaaoneie a?iee (OeAANA ?innee),
Oeaio?aeueiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaiii-enoi?e/aneiai a?oeaa ?innee
(OeAAEA ?innee), Ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?oeaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (AA?O),
a oaeiae aeayei aeieoiaioe a?oiao neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie a Iaeanueei?
iaeanoi.

Aeey aea/aiiy eiioaenoo iiaeie aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaioa?e aiaeiieo
/aeinonueeeo aeiy/ia ieioeiai: I.Eaoeena, ss.Iaoa?na, A.Iaeeoeeiai,
N.Aeoeaeueneiai oa iioeo.14 O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei «Noai?aiiy i
aeiyeueiinoue A*E o ia?iiae noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? aea?aeaaiinoi
Oe?a?ie» aiaeicothoueny ianoaaeie i oaeoi?e aeieeiaiiy A*E, ye
?ai?aneaii? nenoaie aieueoiaeoeueei? aeeeoaoo?e. Iiney aeiaoiaaiai
ia?aai?ioo, aaea o a?oaeii 1920 ?ieo iii? aieueoiaeeai o ana?inienueeiio
ianooaai iineeeany. Ia?aae ?aaeith Ia?iaeieo Eiiina?ia iinoaei ieoaiiy
i?i noai?aiiy niaoeiaeueiiai, iia?aoeaiiai, iiaieueiiai i?aaio, yeee
iiaeiai aoa caeiaoeny ioi?iiith aea?aeaaii? aaciaee. Ia?aaeith ?IE 7
a?oaeiy 1917 ?ieo aoea noai?aia Ana?inienueea iaaecae/aeia eiiiniy i?e
?aaei Ia?iaeieo Eiiina?ia ii ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th oa
naaioaaeai (aieiaa O.A.Aeca?aeeinueeee). A*E caeiaeany i?eieiaiiyi oa
eieaiaeaoei?th eiio??aaiethoei? i naaioaaeo, ii?aie ai?ioueae c oeeie
cei/eiaie (eiioineaoeiy iaeia, iicaaaeaiiyi i?iaeiaieue/eo eaeoeia oa
iioi), iiia?aaei? neiaenoai oa aiaeaeaiiy aeiieo aei noaeo
Aienueeiai-?aaiethoeieiiai o?eaoiaeo. Aiaeiiaiaeii aia?ao A*E aoa
noai?aiee c o?ueio aiaeaeieia: iioi?iaoeieiiai, i?aaiicaoeieiiai ( c
aa?aciy 1918 ?ieo — iaiinoeaaee) oa aiaeaeieo ai?ioueae. O iiaeaeueoiio
aoee noai?aii aiaeaeiee ii ai?ioueai c niaeoeyoei?th oa cei/eiaie ca
iinaaeith. Ia iniiai aeae?aoo ?IE «Nioeeaeenoe/aneia Ioa/anoai a
iianiinoe» (21 ethoiai 1918 ?ieo) A*E iiynith?, ui aoaea canoiniaoaaoe
iaaecae/aeii ii?e ( aae aei ?icno?ieo) ii aiaeiioaiith aei
eiio??aaiethoeiiia?ia, oieaoiia, naaioaaeieeia, niaeoeyioia oa iioeo
ai?iaia ?aaiethoei?.

Iieiaeaiiy i?i iinoeaai *E aoei aeaeaii 28 aeiaoiy 1918 ?ieo, eiee
Iao?ia?aaenueea oa Iineianueea *E iieacaee naith aoaeoeaiinoue a
ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th i?e iiaii? aiaenooiinoi caeiiia oa
iiaecaeiiieo aeoia, ?aaeaiaiooth/eo aeiyeueiinoue *E. Aei eiioey 1918
?ieo aoei noai?aii 40 aoaa?inueeeo oa 356 iiaioiaeo *E.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aei a?oaeiy 1918 ?ieo ?aaeyinueea ?iniy aeciaaaea
iacaeaaeiinoue Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, A.I.Eaiii aaea 5 eeiiy 1918 ?ieo
aiaeaea? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ss.I.Naa?aeeiao ii i?aaiicaoei? *E aeey
Oe?a?ie. Anaoe?a?inueea iaaecae/aeia eiiiniy ii ai?ioueai c
eiio??aaiethoei?th, niaeoeyoei?th oa cei/eiaie ii iinaaei aoea noai?aia
3 a?oaeiy 1918 ?ieo. C o?aaiy 1919 ?ieo iaaecae/aeii eiiini? aeiyee o
anio aoaa?iiyo i aieinoyo Oe?a?ie. Eioii 1919 ?ieo aieueoa /anoeia
Oe?a?ie ia?aeoea iiae aeaaeo Aeia?iaieue/i? a?ii? aaia?aea A.I.Aeaiieiia
oa Aee?aeoi?i?, a ca’yceo c /ei AO*E aoea «?anneane?iaaia».

Oieueee iiney aienueeiai? ia?aiiae iaae Aeia?iaieue/ith a?ii?th a
Oe?a?io iiaa?ioeenue /aeinoe. 17 aa?aciy 1920 ?ieo caiinoue AO*E aoei
noai?aii Oeaio?aeueia oi?aaeiiiy iaaecae/aeieie eiiiniyie Oe?a?ie
(Oeoi?/?aceii).

Ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie iaea nai? oa?aeoa?ii iniaeeainoi.
Aaaeeeaa no?aoaai/ia noaiiaeua, iiooaeia i?iieneiainoue, iaoeiiiaeueia
no?ieaoinoue, aeaiaeia aaia?aoi/ia iieiaeaiiy — ana oea aecia/aei
iniaeeao caaino?aiinoue iieioe/ii? ai?ioueae. Iiia?aaeieeii
iaaecae/aeii? eiiini? ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie noaea Aeua aaoiiiiia eieaaiy ii
ai?ioueai c ?oioinueeith oa oe?a?inueeith eiio??aaiethoei?th, yea aoea
noai?aia o no?oeoo?i iaeanueeiai ?aaeia?eiio a aa?acii 1918 ?ieo. Aea ca
iaiiaii aeaa iinyoei naiai inioaaiiy oeae i?aai iaiaaeeany eeoa
iioi?iaoeieiith aeiyeueiinoth.

A oiiaao aano?i-aa?iainueei? ieoiaoei? a iiaaeaiiioe?a?inueeiio ?aaiiii
aoea noai?aia aoaeoeaii aeith/a nenoaia caeiaoooy aienueeiai?
iioi?iaoei?, yea aeinoaea iacao — iiaeiieueia *E. Aoee iiaeaioiaeaii
aieiai aeeaa?nieii caaiie, neeaaee ci ca?i?th, i?aoethaaee iiaeiieueii
oeiia?aoi?. Ana oea aeicaieeei, ia /aeath/e /anoei *a?aiii? a?ii?, aaea
5 eaioiy 1919 ?ieo caoiieoe aeaaeo a Iaeani — ?aaiiiaeueiiio oeaio?i.

O o?aoueiio ?icaeiei «Noai?aiiy Iaeanueei? iaaecae/aeii? eiiini? oa ??
ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue a eaioii-na?iii 1919 ?ieo» eaea iiaa i?i ea?aeueio
iieioeeo aieueoiaeeia oa ia?oi i?iyae iieioeee «/a?aiiiai oa?i?o» a
iiaaeaiiioe?a?inueeiio ?aaiiii. Iaeanueea iaaecae/aeia eiiiniy ii
ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th, niaeoeyoei?th oa naaioaaeai aoea
noai?aia 5 eaioiy 1919 ?ieo ia caniaeaiii ?aaee ?iaioie/eo aeaiooaoia.
Ia?oei aieiaith I*E noaa ea?iaiee iiaeiieueii? eiio??icaiaeee iaeanoeiio
EI(a)O I.I.Iieuaiei. A Oe?a?ii i?e aoaa?inueeeo *E ooai?thaaeeny
aiaeaeiee: oa?iii-iia?aoeaiee, th?eaee/iee, iino?oeoi?nueeee,
eiiaiaeaoo?a oa aeiiiiiaeii iiae?icaeiee.

Aeey ciioeiaiiy iiceoeie I*E eieaaiy A*E iai?aaeea aei Iaeane 79
i?ioanieieo niia?iaioieeia ia /iei c nae?aoa?ai O.A.Aeca?aeeinueeiai
N.O.?aaeainii. Aii ii/aa aei?noei aeeiioaaoe iinoaiiae ia?oieieo i?aaiia
i?i «/a?aiiee oa?i?», ?icii/aeeny ianiai ?icno?iee «ai?iaia ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee» oa «ao?aeoaciiai aeaiaioo».

Iaaecae/aeii neeaaeia ianoaiiaea, yea ooai?eeanue aeioeo 1919 ?ieo a
?aaiiii (caeieioe ioaiaia I.A.A?eai?ue?aa oa iiioeia-eieiiinoia),
ni?eyea ?iceiio iineeaiith ?ai?aneaii? iieioeee, yeo caeienithaaea I*E.
A iinoi aoea noai?aia ?aaea iai?iie ie?oao i i?e iueiio caniiaaii
iaaecae/aeiee ?aaiethoeieiee o?eaoiae, ii/aeeny ianiai iaooee, ?icno?iee
aeaca?oe?ia, iieioe/ieo oa ea?ieo cei/eioeia.

Iaeiae ?acoeueoaoe iieioeee «/a?aiiiai oa?i?o» aeyaeeenue i?yii
i?ioeeaaeieie: ?iceth/aii i?iae?icaa?noeith oa ianeeueiith
iiaieicaoei?th a *a?aiio a?iith, naeyie acyeeny aei ca?i?, a iinoao ia
Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie ii/aee aeoeaii aeiyoe oa eiinieiaeoaaoe nai? neee
aioe?aaeyinueei i?aaiicaoei? ?iciiai iieioe/iiai iai?yieo. Aeoeaia
aeiyeueiinoue aioe?aaeyinueeeo i?aaiicaoeie, iacaaeiaieaiinoue naeyinoaa
Iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie iieioeeith i?iae?icaa?noee, ei?oioeiy na?aae ?icaeooiai
ath?ie?aoe/iiai aia?aoo ?aaeyinueeeo i?aaiia aeaaee cia/ii iineaaeee
iiceoei? aieueoiaecio o ?aaiiii. ?acii c iiaei aeia?a iiaeaioiaeaiei
ianooiii Aeia?iaieue/i? a?ii?, ana oea i?eaaei aei eieaiaeaoei?
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icaeiei «Iaaecae/aeii eiiini? Iiaaeiy Oe?a?ie a ia?iiae
caeii/aiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie» ?icaeyaea?oueny ?icaiaeoaaeueia
aeiyeueiinoue /aeinoia o aieueoiaeoeueeiio iiaeiieei iiae /an
ciaoiaeaeaiiy a ?aaiiii Aeia?iaieue/i? a?ii?, i?aaiicaoeiy iiaiioeiiii?
Iaeanueei? aoaa?inueei? iaaecae/aeii? eiiini? oa ??
eiio?a?icaiaeoaaeueia ?iaioa, ai?ioueaa IA*E i?ioe aioe?aaeyinueeiai
iieioe/iiai iiaeiieey, naeyinueeiai ca?ieiiai ?ooo oa ea?ii?
cei/eiiinoi.

Aia?ao iinoeaaeo *E aeineoue aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaany aieueoiaeeaie
aeey aaaeaiiy iiaeiieueii-aeeaa?nieii? oa ?icaiaeoaaeueii? ?iaioe, aeey
/iai Cao?iioath?i aneaioaaei cia/ii eiooe. Oaeei /eiii aoee a?aoiaaii
iaaeieiee aeiyeueiinoi aieueoiaeoeueeiai iiaeiieey ia?iiaeo
aano?i-aa?iainueei? ieoiaoei?, eiee aeoaea aiae/oaaeany ianoa/a
iaoa?iaeueieo eiooia oa i?ioaniiiaeia, niaoeiaeueii iiaeaioiaeaieo aeey
aeie a oiiaao aaeeeiai iinoa.

C ethoiai 1920 ?ieo a iiaaeaiiioe?a?inueeiio ?aaiiii ?aaeyinueea aeaaea
canioaaea ?ai?aneaio nenoaio, a yeo aoiaeeee Iaeanueea aoaa?inueea
iaaecae/aeia eiiiniy, iniaeeaee aiaeaeie A*E ocaa?aaeaey *i?iiai oa
Acianueeiai ii?ia, i?aaie aienueeiaiai ?aaiethoeieiiai o?eaoiaeo,
aoaeiiaeaca?oe?, eiioeaio?aoeieiee oaai?. Aeey iineeaiiy aei?noeeo
caoiaeia a oiiaao aieie Oeoi?/?aceii oa IA*E ia?oeie a Oe?a?ii
canoinoaaee nenoaio iaaecae/aeieo noaeiaeo o?ieie. Aaaaoi oaaae
i?eaeieyeiny IA*E ai?ioueai c ?oioinueeith oa iieuenueeith ?icaiaeeaie.
Ia i?ioyci 1920-1921 ?ieia aoei i?iaaaeaii oeieee ?yae aieiaeo iia?aoeie
i?ioe aaaioo?e oeeo aea?aeaa. ?ai?aneaii ii?e canoiniaoaaeenue aei
oaeiae iaoeiiiaeueiiai oe?a?inueeiai oa aaeeei?inienueeiai iiaeiieey. A
Iaeani aoee caa?aooiaaii oa ?icno?ieyii iieeiaiee Aonae-Aona/aiei,
ioaiai Oni?ae/, nae?aoa? iinoeaai? «I?inaioe» E?aaaoeue, ioioea? a?ii?
OAA Eeeiiae/, a Yeenaaaoa?aaei iieeiaiee Aaee/aiei oa ioaiai Ionee.
Eieaiaeiaaia e?aua a ?iee a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie ?icaiaeoaaeueia
i?aaiicaoeiy Aeia?iaieue/i? a?ii? — «Acaoea», ia /iei yei? ciaoiaeeany
aiaeiiee a ?ini? iieioe/iee aeiy/ A.A.Ooeueaii. Aeey ai?ioueae c
naeyinueeei ca?ieiei ?ooii o?yae ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie ooai?ea Iinoieio
ia?aaeo ii ai?ioueai c aaiaeeoeciii, yea canoiniaoaaea ia oieueee
aienueeiai, a oaeiae ?ai?aneaii ii?e ii aiaeiioaiith aei ie?iiai
ianaeaiiy. Oieueee c aaaaeaiiyi iiai? aeiiiii/ii? iieioeee ?icei
ciaioeeanue nioeiaeueia aaca aioe?aaeyinueeiai naeyinueeiai ?ooo. O
i?aaiia oa aienuee A*E noaei iaioa iia?aoeaii? ?iaioe. Ia Iiaaeii
Oe?a?ie aoee ?icaeoi oi?ioaaiiy ioaiaiia Eioiaiai oa Caaieioiiai, iioia
ia niaae iaoiianueeee ?oo.

Anoaiiaeaiiy iaeiiia?oieii? nenoaie i?aeoe/ii ooai?eei iieioe/io
aeeeoaoo?o a aea?aeaai i c?iaeei iaiio?iaieie aiaeiioaiiy c eiaeie
iieioe/ieie ia?oiyie. A ca’yceo c /ei aoee i?aaiiciaaii ca aeiiiiiaith
i?aaiia *E iieioe/ii i?iaieaoei?, yei iinoaaeee oei ia?oi? iica
?aaeyinueeei caeiiii.

A ia?iiae caeii/aiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie ?aaeyinueea aeaaea
ai?iaoaaea nai? caniae ai?ioueae c ea?iith cei/eiiinoth. Ea?iee ?icooe
oa iniaeeaa a?oia AO*E ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie o 1920-1922 ?ieao aac noaeiaeo
ni?aa oice/ii cieueee eieueea oeny/ ea?ieo cei/eioeia. Oeae iaoiae
aeei?enoiaoaaee oioaeioa?ii ?aaeeie i o ianooiiee /an.

AENIIAEE

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeaiaey/e iiaenoiee aeineiaeaeaiiy, iiaeia aiaecia/eoe,
ui ia?oi ni?iae ooai?eoe ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueii i?aaie ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee
a ?aaiiii aiaeiinyoueny aei iinoei?iieianueeeo iiaeie, eiee ia inioaaei
?aaeueii? iieioe/ii? aeaaee. A Iaeani c eiioey aa?aniy 1917 ?ieo ii/eia?
ooieoeiiioaaoe «Ath?i ii ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th», yea iaei
i?yiee ca’ycie c Iao?ia?aaeii oa iinoaaeyei iioi?iaoeith i?i iieioe/ia
noaiiaeua a ?aaiiii aaciina?aaeiuei o iao?ia?aaenueeee A?E, a c a?oaeiy
o A*E. Ianooiia ni?iaa iaea iinoea iiney ni/iaaeo iiaeie 1918 ?ieo. A
no?oeoo?i iaeanueeiai ?aaeia?eiio aoea noai?aia «aaoiiiiia eieaaiy ii
ai?ioueai c ?oioinueeith oa oe?a?inueeith eiio??aaiethoei?th». Oey
eieaaiy iaiaaeeea nai? aei? cae?eooyi ao?aeoacieo aacao oa a?aooaie
i?aaenoaaieeia aaeeeiai eaiioaeo.

Aia?oa, iaeaieueoa a ?aaiiii Iaeanueea iaaecae/aeia eiiiniy ii
ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th (I*E) aoea noai?aia 5 eaioiy 1919 ?ieo ia
?? /iei noaa I.I.Iieuaiei. Ca iiaaio ?iaioo aii ia ii/aoeo /a?aiy aoa
ciyoee c iinaaee i aieiaith I*E noaa E.N.Naaeaeay, yeiio ia aeiiiiiao
aoa iai?aaeaiee nae?aoa? O.A.Aeca?aeeinueeiai N.O.?aaeain c 79
i?ioanieieie niia?iaioieeaie iineianueei? *E. Aeeiioth/e ?ioaiiy
ia?oieieo i?aaiia, iaaecae/aeii eiiini? ?aaiiio ii/aee ianiai ?icno?iee
«ao?aeoaciiai aeaiaioo».

A na?iii 1919 ?ieo niia?iaioieee oa aaoaeueeii iaeanueei? *E iaii/ii
aoieathoue c iinoa, iaaioue ia c?iaeaoe ni?iao iii?o /anoeiai
Aeia?iaieue/i? a?ii?. I?e/iio aaaii c a?oiaaie oa aeieoiaioaie *E cai?ia
ia caeicie/iiio aiecaei.

7 ethoiai 1920 ?ieo a Iaeano ciia oaieoee /anoeie *a?aiii? a?ii?. A
aaea 8 ethoiai a iinoi aoea ooai?aia iaeanueea aoaa?inueea
iaaecae/aeii-neiae/a eiiiniy ii ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th (IA*NE)
ia /iei c A.Naaa?iei. Iiney iiniaeoei? i?aaenoaaieeaie Oeoi?/?aceiia
Aaeeoeeiai oa AEoeiaa, yei ciaeoee iano iaaeieieia oa ii?ooaiue, IA*NE
aoea ia?aoai?aia a iaeanueeo aoaa?inueeo iaaecae/aeio eiiinith (IA*E).
I/ieea ??, ciiao c’yaeaoeeny a Iaeani N.O.?aaeain. Aeioeo 1920 ?ieo
IA*E i/ieea I.Aeae/, i?e yeiio aia?oa a Oe?a?ii aoea aeei?enoaia nenoaia
i?aaiicaoei? iaaecae/aeieo noaeiaeo o?ieie, o eiiaa??iiio ii?yaeeo
canoaeaeoth/a a?aooiaaieo aei ?icno?ieo.

A ethoiio 1922 ?ieo A*E aoea ?ai?aaiiciaaia a AIO, yea aaea canioaaei
?icaaeoaeaio nenoaio oa?iii-inaiaeii/iai aia?aoo oa oice/io
eieaiaeaoeith aiaee?eoeo i?ioeaieeia ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. A aeaiiio
aeineiaeaeaiii, ia iniiai ia?aaaaeii aia?oa aaaaeaieo o iaoeiaee iaia
a?oiaieo aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa?iaeia, aaoi?ii aiaeoai?aia inoi?iy
?ai?aneaieo i?aaiia ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a Iaeanueeie aoaa?ii? oa ia
?aaiiiaeueiiio ?iaii. AEi?noea iiceoeiy aieueoiaeoeueeiai o?yaeo o
aioo?ioiie iieioeoei, yea caeienithaaeanue i?aaiaie iaaecae/aeieo
eiiinie ii ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th, iaaeaea iiaeeeainoue
aieueoiaeeai iaea?aeaoe ia?aiiao a oiaei a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie.
Ae?iaeaia nenoaia ianiaiai oa?i?o, yea ioiieea i?aeoe/ii ani noa?e
ethaenueei? aeiyeueiinoi, aia?oa aoea ai?iaiaaia A*E oa ?? i?aaiaie ia
iinoeyo (a Oe?a?ii AO*E). Iiaeaeueoa inoi?iy i?aaiia IAIO-IEAAe-IAA-EAA
eeoa iiaeoaa?aeaeo? oeae aeniiaie.

NIENIE IIOAEIEIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOeI? Oeeyaa E.I.
Iaeanneay Aoa/aea eae i?aai aianoaeaaiie ?ai?annee // Caienee
inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. Aei.5. — Iaeana, 1997. — N.271-283.

Oeeyaa E.I. Iyoaae // Aeea?iaineea ae?aaiinoe. Aui.1. —
Aaeai?iae-Aeiano?ianeee, 1997. -N.204-208.

Oeeyaa E.I., Iao?iaa I.A. Iniaaiiinoe iaioaeeoaoa ianaeaiey Iaeannu a
1917 aiaeo // Oaa?aeueneay ?aaiethoeey e noaeueau aeaiie?aoee a ?innee.
Oacenu aeieeaaeia e niiauaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. —
Noaa?iiieue, 1997. — N.92-94. Oeeyaa E.I. Ieoea ssiii/ee (i?eiaiaiea
iaoiaea n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca a enoi?e/aneie aeia?aoenoeea) // Caienee
inoi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. Aei.2. — Iaeana, 1996. — N.97-106.

Oeeyaa E.I. E i?iaeaia yoiiineoieiaee ianaeaiey Iaeannu ia?eiaea
?aaiethoeee e a?aaeaeaineie aieiu // No/ania aoiieoeueoo?ia oa
aoiiiieioe/ia neooaoeiy ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie i aeooaeueii i?iaeaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aaeiiiy. Iaoa?iaee ?aaiiiaeueii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioei?. — Iaeana, 1996. — N.75-76.

Oeey?a I.I. Ieoei ssiii/ee // Oe?a?inueee inoi?e/iee aeo?iae. — ue 2. —
1991. N.112-115. Oeeyaa E.I. I.A.Io?aaueaa a Iaeanna // Oacenu aoi?ie
enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneie, iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie
200-eaoeth iniiaaiey Iaeannu. th Iaeanna, 1991. th N.227-229.

Oeeyaa E.I. E ioeaiea iyoaaea a iaiaoeeeo eieiieyo thaeiiai
Iiaeiano?iauey // I?iaeaiu enoi?ee e a?oaieiaee Ieaeiaai Iiaeiano?iauey.
Oacenu aeieeaaeia e niiauaiee iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneie eiioa?aioeee. — Aaeai?iae-Aeiano?ianeee, 1990. —
N.32-33.

Enoi?ey EINN: Eaeoeee. 1918-1941 aa. /Naaa?aa E.I., Aiooeye A.A.,
Aea?aaiaa I.A., Eaeiaeai E.E., Oeeyaa E.I. th I.: Ecae. II NNN?, 1989.
th N.5-45.

Oeeyaa E.I. E iaeioi?ui aii?inai enoi?ee AO*E (?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe
nicaeaiey Iaeanneie aoa*E) //Oacenu 23-e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
eiioa?aioeee. th Iaica: Ecae. IAAEO,1989. th N.16-18.

Oeeyaa E.I. Aeieoiaiou e enoi?ee ei?ieeianeiai iyoaaea 1917 a. // Oacenu
ia?aie iaeanoiie enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneie, iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie 200-eaoeth Iaeannu «Ainieoaiea enoi?eae». th
Iaeanna, 1989. th N.87-88.

Oeeyaa E.I. Iiaeiieueiay eiio??acaaaeea Iaeanneiai iaeanoiiai eiieoaoa
EI(a)O ai a?aiy aanoi?i-aa?iaineie ieeoiaoeee e aiaei-o?aioeocneie
eioa?aaioeee // Oacenu ia?aie iaeanoiie enoi?eei-e?aaaaae/aneie,
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie 200-eaoeth Iaeannu
«Ainieoaiea enoi?eae». th Iaeanna, 1989. th N. 53-54.

Oeeyaa E.I. Aeayoaeueiinoue Iaeanneie Aoa/aea ia a?aiaiii ieeoie?iaaiiuo
oa??eoi?eyo Aanna?aaee (1920-1922 aa.) // Enoi?ey e a?oaieiaey Ieaeiaai
Iiaeoiaauey. Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. — ?aie,
1989. — N.138-139.

AIIOAOeI?

Oeey?a I.I. Aeiyeueiinoue A*E ia Iiaaeii Oe?a?ie a ia?iiae ?aaiethoei?
oa a?iiaaeyinueei? aieie. 1917-1922 ??. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa inoi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 07.00.02 — ananaioiy inoi?iy — Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao , Iaeana, 1998.

Aeena?oaoeith i?enay/aii i?iaeaii canioaaiiy oa aeiyeueiinoi i?aaiia
iaaecae/aeieo eiiinie ii ai?ioueai c eiio??aaiethoei?th ia Iiaaeii
Oe?a?ie. A ?iaioi i?iaiaeiciaaii no?oeoo?a, eiiiaoaioeiy oa
ooieoeiiioaaiiy i?aaiia A*E — ?ai?aneaii? nenoaie aieueoiaecio, yea ia
?aaiiiaeueiiio ?iaii iaea nai? iniaeeainoi. ?icaeyaea?oueny
aeiyeueiinoue i?aaiia IA*E i?ioe ca?ieiiai naeyinueeiai ?ooo,
aioe?aaeyinueeiai iieioe/iiai iiaeiieey, ea?ii? cei/eiiinoi, a oaeiae
eiio?a?icaiaeoaaeueii aei? i?ioe ?icaiaeie Iieueui oa ?oioii?.

Eeth/iai neiaa: A*E, ?ai?aneaia nenoaia, ia?oiy, ?icaiaeea,
eiio?a?icaiaeea, iieioe/ia iiaeiieey.

Oeeyaa E.I Aeayoaeueiinoue A*E ia THaa Oe?aeiu a ia?eiae ?aaiethoeee e
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. 1917- 1922 aa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 — anaie?iay enoi?ey — Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Iaeanna, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia iniiaaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe
/?acau/aeiuo eiiennee ii ai?ueaa n eiio??aaiethoeeae ia THaa Oe?aeiu. A
?aaioa i?iaiaeece?iaaia no?oeoo?a, eiiiaoaioeey, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
i?aaiia A*E — ?ai?anneaiie nenoaiu aieueoaaecia, eioi?ay ia
?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia eiaea naie iniaaiiinoe. ?anniao?eaaaony
aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiia IA*E i?ioea aii?oaeaiiiai e?anoueyineiai
aeaeaeaiey, aioeniaaoneiai iieeoe/aneiai iiaeiieuey, oaieiaiie
i?anooiiinoe, a oaeaea eiio??acaaaeuaaoaeueiua aeaenoaey i?ioea
?acaaaeie Iieueoe e ?oiuiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: A*E, ?ai?anneaiay nenoaia, ia?oey, ?acaaaeea,
eiio??acaaaeea, iieeoe/aneia iiaeiieuea.

Shclayev I.N. VChC activity in the South of Ukraine in the period of
revolution and civil war. 1917- 1922 years.

The dissertation is submitted for scientific degree of candidate of
historical science in speciality 07.00.02 — peace history — Odessa State
University, Odessa, 1998.

Dissertation is dedicated to the problem of foundation and activity of
VChC (All-Russian Special Commission for Combatinq Counter-revolution
and Sabotage) in the South of Ukraine.

In this Thesis a thorough analysis is given to the structure,
competence and functioning of VChC organs, a repressive system of
Bolshevism, which had its local peculiarities in different regions.

Activity of Special Commission in Odessa against armed peasant
movement, anti-Soviet political secret underground organization,
criminal acts as well as counter-espionage against intelligence service
of Poland and Romania are examined in this Thesis.

Key-words: VChC, repressive system, party, intelligence service,
counter-espionage, political secret underground organization.

1 Aeaaeeie?iaa A.O. Aiae neoaeau «nioeeaeenoia» eaieoaeenoai. I/a?ee ii
enoi?ee eiio??aaiethoeee a 1918 a. — I.-E.: Ainecaeao, 1927; Aoeneee A.
E?aniay a?iey ia aioo?aiiai o?iioa. Ai?ueaa n aaeiaaa?aeaeneeie
ainnoaieyie, iianoai/anoaii e aaiaeeoeciii. — I.-E.: Ainecaeao, 1927.

2 A?ieaea N., A?ieaea I. ss?ineaaneee iyoaae. — I.: Ainecaeao, 1930;
Nainiiia O.I. Aienea A*E a a?aaeaeaineie aieia. — I.: Ainecaeao, 1928.

3 Aeaenaaa A.I. Ainnoaiea aeaaeiia Io?aaueaaa. — Noaeeia?aae: Ainecaeao,
1936; Ei?iaoianeee I.A. Caaiai? i?ioea nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?iaeeiu //
E?aniay eaoiienue. — 1937. — ue3; Au/eia E. A*E a aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie
aieiu.- I.: Aiaiecaeao, 1940; Iaioa?ia A. ?aca?ii «eaauo» yna?ia. — I.:
Aiaiecaeao, 1940. 4 Nioeiia I.A. I/a?ee enoi?ee Ana?inneeneie
/?acau/aeiie eiiennee. (1917-1922 aa.) — I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1960; *aeenou:
Nai?iee / Nino. A.I.Ieeieaaa. — I.: Iieiaeay aaa?aeey, 1987; Aieeieia
Ae.E. E?ooaiea aioeniaaoneiai iiaeiieuey a NNN?. (1917-1925). — I.:
Iieeoecaeao, 1986.

5 Iaeianeoeia E.I., ?iaiaeei A.E., Noaoen A.A. Anaoe?aeineay
/?acau/aeiay eiienney (1918-1922). — Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa, 1990; Ieeueooaei
I.ss. Ec enoi?ee Oo?eanoaineie *E. — Oaoeaio: Iieeoecaeao, 1965;
Noaoeaae/ I.N. I?eaiai? ?aaiethoeee. E?ooaiea aioeniaaoneiai aeaeaeaiey
a Aaei?onnee. 1917-1925 aa. — Ieine: Iieeoecaeao, 1985.

6 Eaoeia I.O. Aaeoaoeeiiii-i?iiaaaiaeenoneay ?aaioa aieueoaaeeia a
aieneao e oueo aaeiaaa?aeaeoeaa a ia?eiae 1918-1920 aa. — E.: Ecae.EAO,
1977; Eo/a? I.I. ?ica?ii ca?ieii? aioo?ioiuei? eiio??aaiethoei? ia
Oe?a?ii a 1921-1923 ??. — Oa?eia: Aeae.OAeO, 1971; Ieaeieeeia A.A.
Ai?ueaa o?oaeyueony Oe?aeiu i?ioea eioa?aaioia e aaeiaaa?aeaeoeaa a
aiaeu a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. — E.: Aeua oeiea, 1988.

7 *aeenou Iao?ia?aaea ia no?aaea ?aaiethoeee / Eooocia A.A., Eaiaothoei
A.O., Naaeia A.O. e ae?. — E.: Eaiecaeao, 1989; A aeaaiia — aa?iinoue:
I/a?ee, noaouee, ainiiieiaiey i /aeenoao Iaeanueiu. / Nino.
A.A.Aeiaaeaiei, A.N.I?aouea. — Iaeanna: Iaye, 1987; ?acaeaoaieth ia
iiaeeaaeeo: I/a?ee, noaouee, ainiiieiaiey i /aeenoao Aeiie/eiu / Nino.
TH.A.Aieiae/aiei, E.E.Eaiaoeei. — Iaeanna: Iaye, 1989; ?annae?aoeoue —
iioaeeeiaaoue…: I/a?ee, noaouee. Ainiiieiaiey i /aeenoao Ieeieaaaueiu
/ Nino. A.A.Eaaaiaoe. — Iaeanna: Iaye, 1989; Oeyoaie /aeinonueei? aeiei:
Cai?iee / Oii?yae. A.A.Iiiee. — E.: Iieioaeaeaa Oe?a?ie, 1988.

8 Yiae?th E., Ai?aeeaaneee I. EAA: enoi?ey aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo iia?aoeee
io Eaieia aei Ai?aa/aaa. — I.: Nota bene, 1992.

9 Noaeiieaoia I.A. Niaoeiia?aoeee. Eoayiea e E?aieue. 1930-1950 aiaeu. —
I.: IEIA-I?ANN, 1997.

10 I?iaeioeeaeueiay *E: Nai?iee noaoae. — Oa?ueeia, 1994.

11 I?aaiecaoeeiiiue io/ao A*E ca 4 aiaea aa aeayoaeueiinoe. — I.:
Ecae.A*E, 1921; Io/ao Iaeanneie *?acau/aeiie Eiiennee e IY Aoaa?ineiio
nuacaeo Niaaoia. — Iaeanna: Ecae.aoa/aea, 1921; Io/ao Oeaio?aeueiiai
oi?aaeaiey *?acau/aeiuo Eiiennee i?e Niaia?eiia Oe?aeiu ca 1920 aiae. E
5-io Anaoe?aeineiio Nuacaeo Niaaoia. — Oa?ueeia: Ecae.Oeoi?/?aceiia,
1921; ?aciethoeee 1-e eiioa?aioeee ?aaioieeia /?acau/aeiuo eiiennee ii
ai?ueaa n eiio??aaiethoeeae e niaeoeyoeeae. — I.,1918.

12 A.E.Eaiei, EINN i ai?ueaa n eiio??aaiethoeeae: Nai?iee aeieoiaioia /
Nino. A.N.Oioethe. — I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1978; A.E.Eaiei i caueoa
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai Ioa/anoaa: Nai?iee aeieoiaioia e iaoa?eaeia. — I.:
Aiaiecaeao,1975; A.E.Eaiei e A*E: Nai?iee aeieoiaioia (1917-1922 aa.)
2-a ecae., aeii. — I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1987: Aioo?aiiea aienea Niaaoneie
?anioaeeee (1917-1922 aa.). Aeieoiaiou e iaoa?eaeu / Nino.
A.A.Aeooaiueeei. — I.: TH?eae. Eeo., 1972; Ec enoi?ee aiene iia?aie/iie
io?aiu. 1917-1918 aa. — I.: Ainecaeao, 1958; Ia caueoa ?aaiethoeee. Ec
enoi?ee Anaoe?aeineie *?acau/aeiie eiiennee. 1917-1922 aa. Nai?iee
aeieoiaioia / Nino. I.I.Aa/eineee. — E.: Iieeoecaeao, 1971.

13 A*E-IAIO: Nai?iee aeieoiaioia / Nino. TH.Oaeueooeineee. — Aa?iiio,
1989.

14 Iaeeoeeee A. *aea e AIO. — Oa?ueeia, 1923; Eaoeen I.E. Aeaa aiaea
ai?ueau ia aioo?aiiai o?iioa: Iiioey?iue iaci? aeaooaiaee/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe /?acau/aeiuo eiiennee ii ai?ueaa n eiio??aaiethoeeae. —
I., 1920; Eaoeen I.E. *?acau/aeiua eiiennee ii ai?ueaa n
eiio??aaiethoeeae. — I.: Ainecaeao, 1921; Iaoa?n ss. Ainiiieiaiey i
?aaioa A*E a ia?aue aiae ?aaiethoeee // I?ieaoa?neay ?aaiethoeey. — ue
10. — 1924; Aeoeaeueneee N. *E-AIO. — Oa?ueeia, 1930.17

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