Дія етиленпродуцентів на ріст, асиміляційний апарат, морозостійкість та продуктивність малини: Автореф. дис… канд. біол. наук / Т.М. Дабіжук, НАН Ук

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie

Aeaa?aeoe Oaoyia Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 577.171.7: 581.133

Ae?y aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia ??no, anei?eyoe?eiee aia?ao,

ii?icino?ee?noue oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaeeie

03.00.12- o?c?ieia?y ?ineei

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,i?ioani?,

EIAIA A?eoi? Iaaeiae/

?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei
oa aaiaoeee

IAI Oe?a?ie, caaaeoaa/
a?aeae?eo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaie: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IONAOAIEI Ethaeieea
?aai?aia

?inoeooo aioai?ee ?i.
I.A.Oieiaeiiai

IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe,

EO?*?E Aiaaeai Ieaen?eiae/

?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei
? aaiaoeee

IAI Oe?a?ie, n. iaoe.
ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?i. ?aaia O?aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «20» o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.212.01. ?inoeoooo
o?c?ieia?? ?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252022, i.
Ee?a-22, aoe. Aaneeuee?anueea, 31/17.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe?
?inoeoooo o?c?ieia?? ?ineei oa aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «19» ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
O?ooaiia A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Na?aae ya?aeieo eoeueoo? iaeeia iin?aea? i?ia?aeia
i?noea ca e?ea?nueeeie ? niaeiaeie yeinoyie ? ieiu? i?ae oe??th
eoeueoo?ith neeaaeathoue ii Oe?a?i? 6,5 oen. aa.

Ia?niaeoeai?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aoa?aeaio?a o ieiae?aieoeoai aeiaaaeaia
/eneaiieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, iaeiae oaoiieia?? ?o canoinoaaiiy
?ic?iaeyeeny a iniiaiiio aeey e?noi/eiaeo ? ca?iyoeiaeo eoeueoo?. Aeey
ya?aeieo eoeueoo? i?aeoe/ii iaia? aeinoaoiuei o?c?ieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaieo
oaoiieia?e aeei?enoaiiy neioaoe/ieo ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo ?aoa?aeaioiiai
oeio, cie?aia aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a (AI).

Iaiao?aei?noue ?aaoeyoe?? ?inoo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy iaeeie aeieeaa? c
oe?eiai ?yaeo ?? a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae: eou iaeeie neeaaea?oueny c
??ciia?eiaeo iaaii?a, ye? ?ici?uai? ia iaeiiio ei?aiaaeu?; iaaiie
cai?uaiiy iaeeie iathoue aenie? oaiie ?inoo naia a ia??iae ea?ooaaiiy oa
oi?ioaaiiy a?iaeath ia ieiaeiiinieo iaaiiao, ? na?aaeiy /anoeia iaaii?a
cai?uaiiy ia? eenoee oe?o?, i?ae ieaeiy. Ana oea noai?th? iani?eyoeeaee
na?oeiaee ?aaeei aeey i?ioeano caieeaiiy ea?oie ? oi?ioaaiiy ya?ae ia
ieiaeiiinieo iaaiiao, oneeaaeith? ca?? a?iaeath, iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny
ia i?iaeoeoeaiino? ianaaeaeaiue a oe?eiio ? yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? cie?aia;
ia??iae ieiaeiiioaiiy o iaeeie ?icoyaiooee o /an? ? ca?? oiaa?iiai
a?iaeath i?iaiaeyoue o 4-8 i?eeii?a, ui iicia/a?oueny ia aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe??; iaeeia ia? aeineoue aenieo ii?icino?ee?noue, i?ioa ??
o?eaae?noue iaiaaeaia ? a iani?eyoeea? ca oaiia?aoo?iei ?aaeeiii ?iee
iaaiie i?aeia?cathoue, iniaeeai o aa?oi?e /anoei?, a ?acoeueoao? /iai
a?iaeaei?noue eou?a cia/ii cieaeo?oueny.

A oaoiieia?? ae?iuoaaiiy iaeeie aaea aoea ni?iaa ?aaoeyoe??
?ioaineaiino? ?inoo iaaii?a cai?uaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith a?aeiiiai
?aaoeyoi?a ?inoo — 1,2% ?ic/eio oei?oie?ioei?eaeo (NNN) (Eo?ueyoa e
ae?., 1985; Nieiaae, Aeeiianeee, 1986; Eo?ueyoa e ae?., 1988). Iaeiae
a?aeiii, ui canoinoaaiiy NNN o o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo
i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo oei?ic?a ? iiao??iiy eenoeiai? ieanoeiee,
?oeioaaiiy aioo??oiuei? aoaeiae oei?iieano?a (ss?ineaaoeaa e ae?., 1977;
Eo?ueyoa e ae?., 1985). Oaeiae a?i canoiniao?oueny ia iaeei? a ii??aiyii
aaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo, a oiio aeeeeea? caia?a/aiiy c aieo oieneeieia?a
uiaei eiai aeei?enoaiiy ia oe?e eoeueoo?? (Aeeiianeee e ae?., 1991),
ine?eueee yaiaee iaeeie iae/ano?oa aeei?enoiaothoueny o na?aeiio
aeaeyae? aac oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee. E??i oiai, canoinoaaiiy NNN ia iaeei? ia
ae??oo? i?iaeaie i?enei?aiiy aeic??aaiiy ya?ae. Ana oea ? iaoiiaeei
iiooe ?ioeo ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo, ye? a ia neeaaeaee oieneeieia?/ii?
caa?ice, iaee a?eueo i’yeo ae?th ia oioineioaoe/iee aia?ao, aenieo
?aoa?aeaioio aeoeai?noue ? ?aaoethaaee a i?ioeane aeic??aaiiy iaeeie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeaia ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany a iaaeao ieaiiai? iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e i?e?iaeie/eo
iaoe A?iieoeueeiai iaae?inoeoooo, aeiaiai??a i?i iaoeiao ni?ai?aoeth c
?inoeoooii i?aai?/ii? o?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Iiae?euenueeith ciiaeueiith
noaioe??th naae?aieoeoaa, a oaeiae ia caiiaeaiiy o?anoo
Aieiaieiaeaeii?iio O?N? ? ?aaeainio “A?iie//eia” — «Canoinoaaiiy
neioaoe/ieo ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo ?ineei aeey ?aaoeyoe?? ?inoiaeo i?ioean?a,
?icaeoeo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy ya?aeieo eoeueoo?», ?a?no?aoe?eiee

? 01.9.00 048418.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aoei
o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy AI aeey
?aaoeyoe?? ?inoo, ?icaeoeo oa ieiaeiiioaiiy iaeeie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

anoaiiaeoe i?i?iaeuei? o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeai? eiioeaio?aoe?? ?aoa?aeaio?a
?c a?oie AI aeey ?aaoeyoe?? ?inoo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy iaeeie ? aea?aoe
iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? c ieo;

aea/eoe ae?th iiaeo aeiii??a aoeeaio (AeA) ia ??no oa ieiaeiiioaiiy
iaeeie;

aea/eoe aieea AI ia no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueio i?aai?caoe?th
anei?eyoe?eiiai aia?aoo ?ineei iaeeie;

aea/eoe ae?th AeA ia ia??iae niieith, ii?icino?ee?noue oa i?ioeane
ieiaeiiioaiiy o iaeeie;

?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th canoinoaaiiy AI aeey ?aaoeyoe?? ?inoo ?
ieiaeiiioaiiy iaeeie c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ??
ianaaeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ai?oa eiiieaenia ae?y AI ia
iaeei? ia aea/aeany acaaae?, ? ie?ai? aeai? i?i aieea ia
ii?icino?ee?noue ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ye? ia iaa?oioiaai? a?io?i?/ieie
iieacieeaie. Iaie aia?oa aea/aii eiiieaeniee aieea ??cieo i?aia?aoeaieo
oi?i 2-oei?aoeeoinoiiiai? eeneioe (2-OAOE) ia aeaio ni?oao iaeeie ?
i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeei?enoaii AI —
iioiaeii oao?aaiae?ioiioaiaeiieneaeo: i?aia?aoe 3984 oa 4093 aeey
?aaoeyoei? ?inoo i ieiaeiiioaiiy iaeeie oa anoaiiaeaii ?o iiiiiaeueii
oiciieiai/ii aeoeaii eiioeaio?aoei?. Aeyaeaii, ui ?aoa?aeaioiee aoaeo AI
ia iaeeii ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iioiauaiiyi noaaea, a aa?oiaea acaaaei
ia cacia? ciii, ui iia’ycaii c /anii ?iceeaaeaiiy AeA ? aiieiai/ieie
iniaeeainoyie iaeeie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae aei?th AI ciaioaiiy ia’?iia
iaaeeaoceia a iniiai oa na?aaeiie /anoeii iaaiiia iaeeie, ui aec??ee, ia
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi aiinoo ?aca?aieo niieoe (oeoe?ia,
e?ioiaeth) i cieaeaiiyi ii?icinoieeinoi ? iia’ycaia ci caieueoaiiyi
niiaaiaeiioaiiy nooi? iane eenoeia aei nooi? iane noaaea. Iieacaii, ui
aieea AeA iicia/aany ia ?icieo ?iaiyo i?aaiicaoei? oioineioaoe/iiai
aia?aoo iaeeie. Aeyaeaii, ui ia?iaea oeeie i?aia?aoaie aeeeeeaea
caieueoaiiy ia’?io ee?oeie iacio?eo, ui i?eiaaea? ia iaeei oei?iieano.
Aia?oa canoiniaaii cinoaaeaiiy a?eiaeo ciii oioio?i?/ii? aeoeaiino?
oei?iieanoia c ?inoiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeey aea/aiiy ?aoa?aeaioii?
aei? AeA ? iieacaii a?aenooi?noue caeaaeiino? i?ae oeeie i?ioeanaie.
Iieacaii iiaeeoieoth/o ?ieue iiaei, ui iinoeoueny a eaiiicaii I, o
aeyaeaiii aieueo aeniei? ?aoa?aeaioii? aei? ia iaaiiao oa eenoeao
iaeeie, a oaeiae a aeoeaicaoei? oioio?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? (OOA)
oei?iieanoia iacio?eo. Iieacaii, ui ciiie a ai?iiiaeueiiio eiiieaeni
ceioth/eo a?oiueie iaeeie aeeeeeaii ia aaciina?aaeiuei ia?iaeith AeA, a
ciiiaie ii?oieiai/ii? aoaeiae, ye? ca iaoaiiciaie cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo
aeeeeeathoue oei ciiie. Cai?iiiiiaaii oaoiieiaith aeei?enoaiiy
aeaeno?aeo aeey ?aaoeyoei? ?inoiaeo i?ioeania i oaeaeeinoi aeic?iaaiiy,
iiaeaeuaiiy ii?icinoieeinoi oa i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ianaaeaeaiue iaeeie c
aacia?a?aiei oeeeeii ieiaeiiioaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaii 3 aa??aioe canoinoaaiiy aeaeno?aeo ia
iaeei?: 1) aeey ?aaoeyoe?? ?inoo iaaii?a cai?uaiiy c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ianaaeaeaiue; 2) aeey ?aaoeyoe?? ieiaeiiioaiiy iaeeie;
3) eiiieaenia ia?iaea aeey ?aaoeyoe?? ? ?inoo, ? ieiaeiiioaiiy iaeeie.
Ia?oa ?ic?iaea i?ieoea ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy ia i?iieneiaeo
ianaaeaeaiiyo iaeeie ni?oo Iiaieeoa?anueea Iiae?euenueei? ciiaeueii?
noaioe?? naae?aieoeoaa (n. Iaaeaaaea Aooei), ?? noaaeeea Aea?aeeii?n?y c
o?i?/ieo cania?a ai?ioueae c? oe?aeieeaie, oai?iaaie ?ineei oa ao?’yiaie
? aianea iaeeio aei nieneo n?eueainieoeueoo?, ia yeeo aeicaieaii
ae?iaie/a aeei?enoaiiy aeaeno?aeo (aeo ae?iaie/eo aei?iaoaaiue oa aeoya
c i?ioieieo can?aeaiiy eieaa?? Aea?aeeii?n?? iiaeaii a aeiaeaoeao
aeena?oaoe??). Cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia?? iiai?noth aioia? aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? aeathoue iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey iaoai?ciaaiiai niiniao
cae?aiiy a?iaeath iaeeie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaio iniaenoi ii?aoethaaea
a?aeiia?aeio e?oa?aoo?o oa iaieiae?ea iaiao?aeieie iaoiaeeeaie
aeine?aeaeaiue, a?aea o/anoue o ieaioaaii? oa i?iaaaeaii?
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??ae?a aei ae?oeo a iaoeiaeo
aeaeaiiyo, i?iaaea ae??aiiae?eyieia? iieueia? aeine?aee oa ae?iaie/?
aei?iaoaaiiy. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye?
iaaaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, iaea?aeai? caeiaoaa/ai naiino?eii.
Caeeoeia? e?eueeino? aeaeno?aeo aecia/aee a ONAA (i. Iineaa) a
i?iaeaii?e eaai?aoi??? ?aaoeyoi??a ?inoo ?ineei; ai?iiiaeueiee noaoon
ceioth/eo a?oiueie iaeeie aecia/aee a ?inoeooo? aioai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ia Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c oai?aoe/ii?
? i?eeeaaeii? ea?iieia?? (i.Eeoei?a, 1989), ia ?iai/?e ia?aae? ca
i?ia?aiith «?aaoeyoi?e ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ?ineei» (i.Iineaa, 1991) oa ia
ui??/ieo ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo A?iieoeueeiai iaae?inoeoooo
(1986-1992 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 noaoae o
iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao oa 2 oac.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c ia?ae?eo
oiiaieo iicia/aiue, anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iieno iaoa??ae?a oa
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie,
ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e ae?iaieoeoao, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 171 noi??ioe?
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, c ieo 26 noi??iie caeiathoue oaaeeoe?, 21 —
?enoiee ? 5 noi??iie —

4 aeiaeaoee. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 254 iaeiaioaaiiy ? caeia?

26 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo.

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aeaa
iaea?eueo iioe?ai? a Oe?a?i? i?iieneia? ni?oe iaeeie: Iiaieeoa?anueea ?
Iiainoue Eocuei?ia. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny a iieueiaeo oiiaao
ae??aiiae?eyieiaei iaoiaeii ia i?iieneiaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo iaeeie
?aaeainio «A?iie//eia» oa Iiae?euenueei? ciiaeueii? noaioe??
naae?aieoeoaa. Iiaoi?i?noue an?o aeine?aeieo ae?eyiie i’yoee?aoia. Aoee
aei?iaoaai? AeA: 2-OAOE, eaiiicai I, aeaeno?ae oa iio?aei?
oao?aa?ae?io?ioaiae?ieneaeo (i?aia?aoe 4093 oa 3984). Eiioeaio?aoe?th AI
?ic?aoiaoaaee ca i?aia?aoeaiith oi?iith. Ia?iaeo iaaii?a cai?uaiiy c
iaoith ?aaoeyoe?? ?o ?inoo i?iaiaeeee oeyoii iai?eneoaaiiy 0,1-0,4%
?ic/eiaie AI ?aioeaaei iai?eneoaa/ai aea?/? aai o?e/? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
iiaiaeieo oiia. ssaiaee iaeeie c iaoith oi?niaaiiai ?o aeic??aaiiy
iai?eneoaaee 0,1% ?ic/eiaie AI ca 4-5 aei?a aei ia?oiai cai?o a?iaeath.
A oiae? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe aecia/aee 16 ii?oieia?/ieo oa 10 a?io?i?/ieo
iieaciee?a. A?eueo?noue c ieo aecia/aeeny a aeeiai?oe? ia i?ioyc? o?ueio
aaaaoaoe?eieo ia??iae?a. Iiaoi?i?noue aei???a ii?oieia?/ieo iieaciee?a
neeaaeaea 10, a aeey a?io?i?/ieo (ye a?ieia?/ia, oae ? aiae?oe/ia) — ia
iaioa o?ueio. Ai?no o?oiai?iii?a aecia/aee ca ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie ?inoeoooo
aioai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie (Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ii?aaeaeaieth
oeoiai?iiiia, 1988). Ai?no ai?iieeneio o yaiaeao ? a?oiueeao aecia/aee
ia ai?iieeneioiiio aiae?caoi?? AAA-881 i?ney iiaiiai eeneioiiai
a?ae?ie?co (E?euaiei, 1983). Ai?no oei?io?eo «a» ? «a», noie oei?io?e?a,
ea?ioeii?ae?a i?iaiaeeee niaeo?ioioiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii ia
niaeo?ioioiiao?? NO-18 (Aaa?eeaiei e ae?., 1984). Iacino?oeoo?o eenoe?a
aecia/aee ca iaoiaeii Iie?iiiniaa ? Ai?caieiai? (1978). Oioineioaoe/io
aeoeai?noue ?cieueiaaieo oei?iieano?a aecia/aee ca iaoiaeeeith
Aaa?eeaiei oa ?i. (1984). ?inoia? i?ioeane ioe?ithaaee ca iaoiaeeeith
A?iaec?inueeeo (1973). Ieoiio iiaa?oiaao u?euei?noue eenoe?a
?ic?aoiaoaaee o aeaeyae? a?aeiioaiiy nooi? iane eenoeiai? ieanoeiee aei
?? ieiu? (?iaa/aiei e ae?., 1988). Ai?no aoaeaaiae?a aecia/aee
eiaeoeo?e/iei iaoiaeii (Ii/eiie, 1976). A?noieia?/ia ioe?iea
iioeiaeaeaiue ??cieo oeaiei iaaiia i?ney i?iii?iaeoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeany ca
5-aaeueiith oeaeith (Nieiaueaaa, 1967). Aecia/aiiy aeeaeie niieith
iaaii?a i?iaiaeeeiny oeyoii a?ieia?/iiai oanooaaiiy (Oaiiaiuey, 1983).
Caaaeueio eeneioi?noue ya?ae aecia/aee oeyoii oeo?oaaiiy (E?euaiei,
1983). Ai?no anei?a?iiai? eeneioe aecia/aee ca aeiiiiiaith
aaenaoe?aiioa?eoo eae?th (Ueia?aa, 1978). Caeeoeia? e?eueeino?
aeaeno?aeo a yaiaeao aecia/aee iaoiaeii aaciai? o?iiaoia?ao??
(E?aeoeaa?a e ae?., 1983). ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaeyee noaoenoe/ii ca
caaaeueiii?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith (Eaeei, 1990). ??aaiue cia/ouino?
i?eeiaee ca 0,05, iioeaee aei??thaaiue ia ia?aaeuoaaee 5%.

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

??no oa ii?oiaaiac iaeeie i?ae aieeaii aeiii??a aoeeaio. ?acoeueoaoe
iieacaee, ui an? aei?iaoaai? AeA iathoue /?oei ae?aaeaiee ?aoa?aeaioiee
aoaeo (oaae. 1). Iaea?eueoa aaeueioaaa ??no iaaii?a cai?uaiiy eaiiicai
I. Iiae?aiith aoaeoeai?noth oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny i?aia?aoe 4093 ? 3984.
Caaaeueia e?euee?noue aoce?a ia iaaii? aeinoia??ii ia ci?ithaaeany. 0,4%
?ic/ei eaiiicaio I aeeeeeaa aiiiaeueia aei?i/aiiy ? aeaoi?iaoe?th
aa?oi?o iaaeeaoce?a, ui ? iaaaaeaiei, a oiio aeey iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaee 0,3% ?ic/ei eaiiicaio I.

Ia i?ioyc? oeeo aea ?ie?a aecia/aee ci?ie ieiu? eenoeiaiai aia?aoo i?ae
aieeaii AeA. ?acoeueoaoe iieacaee, ui an? aei?iaoaai? AI aeeeeeathoue
nooo?aa ciaioaiiy ieiu? een* — ?icieoey aeinoiai?ia i?e ? = 0,95oe?a ia
iaaiiao cai?uaiiy iaeeie. Iaeiaio? iieacieee ieiu? eenoe?a, ye ?
aeiaaeeie iaaii?a cai?uaiiy iaeeie, aoee i?ae aieeaii eaiiicaio I (oaae.
1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea aoeeaii?iaeooeaioia ia ii?oieiai/io aoaeiao aec?ieeo iaaiiia
iaeeie

* — ?icieoey aeinoiai?ia i?e ? = 0,95

O 1987 ? 1988 ?ieao ia?iaea AeA iaaii?a cai?uaiiy iaeeie i?iaiaeeeany
aea?/?, a 1989 ?. — o?e/?, aea caeaaeiino? ?aoa?aeaioiiai aoaeoo a?ae
e?eueeino? ia?iaie ye ia iaaiiao, oae ? ia ieiu? eenoe?a ia aeyaeaii.

I?aia?aoe — iio?aei? oao?aa?ae?io?ioaiae?ieneaeo (4093 ? 3984) ia iaeei?
aei?iaoaai? aia?oa ? iieacaee aeia?a ae?aaeaiee ?aoa?aeaioiee aoaeo
(oaae. 1), a?aenooi?noue o?oioiene/ii? ae?? a aeaieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo ?
oiio iathoue ia?niaeoeao i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?aaoeyoe??
?inoiaeo i?ioean?a.

Iaei??th c a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iaeeie ? iiaaeaiiy eenoe?a ieaei?o
y?on?a ia iaaiiao cai?uaiiy, iniaeeai i?ae /an caaouaiiy ianaaeaeaiue. A
?acoeueoao? ia?iaee iieaciee eenoiiaaeo ciaiooaaany ? neeaaeaa o
aa??aio? c eaiiicaiii I 27,43%, c aeaeno?aeii — 15,2 %, a o eiio?ieueieo
?ineei — 35,76% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? eenoeiaeo y?on?a. Ca?eueoaiiy
o?eaaeino? aeeooy eenoe?a ieaei?o y?on?a i?ae aieeaii AeA na?ae/eoue i?i
iie?auaiiy ?o aeeaeaiiy ? na?oeiaiai ?aaeeio, ui iiceoeaii iicia/aeiny
ye ia i?ioeanao aec??aaiiy iaaii?a, ?o cei?ae?, oae ? ia i?iaeoeoeaiino?
o ianooiiiio ?ioe?.

O?e??/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui eaiiicai I ? aeaeno?ae a
eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,3% iaeiicia/ii ciaioothoue aieiao ? nooo iano ye
eenoe?a, oae ? noaaea. A?aeiioaiiy nooi? iane eenoe?a aei nooi? iane
noaaea o aa??aioao c AI cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaei eiio?ieue, iniaeeai a
ia??iae oace i?neyae??. Oeae iieaciee aoa iaeaeuei o aa??aio? c
eaiiicaiii I. Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui aeciaaiia ?aaoeyoe?y ?inoiaeo
i?ioean?a aiineoue ci?ie a ei?aeyoeai? ca’ycee o nenoai? eenoeiaee
aia?ao — c?inoath/ee iaa?i. Ia iaoo aeoieo, ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiioaiiy nooa
iana eenoe?a/nooa iana noaaea ca ?aoa?aeaioii? ae?? aeaieo AI na?ae/eoue
i?i e?aua caaacia/aiiy iaaiia ieanoe/ieie ?a/iaeiaie a ia??iae
?ioaineaiiai ?inoo ? i?aeaioiaee aei cei?ae?.

E?oa?aoo?i? aeai? iieacothoue, ui i?ae aieeaii ?aoa?aeaioo NNN o iaeeie
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ieiaeiiinii? /anoeie iaaiia i?e nei?i/aii?
eiai caaaeueii? aeiaaeeie (Nieiaae, Aeeiianeee, 1986). Iao? aeai?
iieacothoue, ui oea yaeua ia? ni?oiao niaoeeo?eo: ia?iaea AeA ni?oo
Iiaieeoa?anueea aeeeeeaea ca?eueoaiiy ieiaeiiinii? /anoeie, o ni?oo
Iiainoue Eocuei?ia oaeiai ia niinoa??aaeiny (oaae. 1). Ca?eueoaiiy
ieiaeiiinii? /anoeie iaaiia iaeeie ia? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

A ?acoeueoao? a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo ??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e iaaaioaaeaiiy
a?iaeath ii iaaiio, ui caaacia/o? eiai aa?oeeaeueia iieiaeaiiy aac
i?aea’ycoaaiiy aei oiaea?e. Oea iniaeeai aaaeeeai i?ae /an ae?iuoaaiiy
iaeeie c ia?a?eaenoei oeeeeii ieiaeiiioaiiy.

?aoa?aeaioia ae?y AeA ia iaeei? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi ye
aeiaaeeie, oae ? oiaueie, a ioaea ? ia’?io ieaeiuei? ? na?aaeiuei?
/anoeie noaaea. O aa?oi?e /anoei? oaeeo ci?i ia a?aei?/aii (oaae. 1).
Oea iiynith?oueny a?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie ?inoo iaaii?a cai?uaiiy
iaeeie, a oaeiae /anii, yeee i?ioiaeeoue a?ae iiiaioo ia?iaee aei
ooai?aiiy aa?o?aee. Iaeeia eeoa ia ii/aoeo ?inoa an?ia iaaeeaoceyie, a
i?ney ooai?aiiy 16-17 aoce?a ?inoa o?eueee aa?o?aeith. Ca oeae /an
a?eueoa /anoeia AeA ?iceeaaea?oueny, ? ia?enoaia aa?o?aee ia cacia?
aieeao aeciaaiiiai aoeeaio.

Ia iniia? aiae?co io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
nei?i/aiiy e?i?eieo ?ici???a iaaeeaoce?a ? a?aeiia?aeia ciaioaiiy ?o
ia’?io, a yeiio eieae?ciaai? ?aca?ai? ?a/iaeie, ia aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iaaii?a i? i?ae /an cei?ae?, i? i?ae /an
ieiaeiiioaiiy a ianooiiiio ?ioe?.

Ae?y aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia anei?eyoe?eiee aia?ao iaeeie. Ani
i?aia?aoeaii oi?ie 2-OAOE, aeei?enoaii iaie, iieacaee iaeiicia/ia
ciaioaiiy aiinoo oei?ioieo a ia?a?aooieo ia 1 a aieiai? iane eenoe?a o
iaio ni?oia iaeeie ia i?ioyci 30 aeiia iiney ia?oi? ia?iaee. Ae?oaa i
ianooii? ia?iaee aaea ia aeeeeeaee oaeiai cia/iiai cieaeaiiy aiinoo
oei?ioieo ia iaeeieoeth aieiai? iane eenoea, ui naiae/eoue i?i aieiai
iniaeeainoi ?aaeoei? oei?ioieneioacoth/i? nenoaie ia ia?iaeo AI.

O ia?a?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth ieiu? eenoea cieaeaiiy noie oei?ioieia
niinoa?iaaeiny eeoa iiney ae?oai? ia?iaee, a a iiaeaeueoiio aiaeaoaaeiny
caieueoaiiy, yea caeeoaeiny aei eiioey niinoa?aaeaiiy (oaae. 2).

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue iieacaee, ui iiae aieeaii ?icieo
i?aia?aoeaieo oi?i 2-OAOE aiaeaoaa?oueny iiaeaeuaiiy OOA oei?iieanoia
ia?iaeaieo ?ineei. Iaeneioie aeoeaiinoi i?eiaaeathoue ia 9-10 aeaiue
iiney eiaeii? ianooiii? ia?iaee. Aieea ?icieo i?aia?aoeaieo oi?i 2-OAOE
aoa iaiaeiaeiaei. Eaiiicai I aeeeeeaa iaeaieueoo aeoeaicaoeith ye
?aaeoei? Oieea,

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea aoeeaii?iaeooeaioia ia iiaiaioiee eiiieaen eenoeia iaeeie ni?oo
Iiaieeoa?anueea (1987 ?.)

?en. 1. Aieea aoeeaii?iaeooeaioia ia ooieoe?iiaeueio aeoeaiinoue
oei?iieanoia eenoe?a iaeeie ni?oo Iiaieeoa?anueea.

oae i oioioinoi?eethaaiiy (?en. 1). Iiaeeeaith i?e/eiith i?aeaeuaii?
aeoeaiino? oei?iieano?a o oeueiio aa??aio? ii?yae c? ci?iaie a
iacino?oeoo?? eenoea ? iayai?noue a i?aia?ao? ?ii?a i?ae?. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui i?aeue a neeaae? ieanoioe?ai?io aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaa? ia oioineioac
? ? iae?aaoiei ia?aiinieeii aeaeo?ii?a a nenoai? ?o o?ainii?oo
(Oeieueiee, 1970).

Io?eiaii iaie aeaii iaeiicia/ii naiae/aoue, ui ia?iaea AI i?ecaiaeeoue
aei caieueoaiiy eiiieieo ?icii?ia eeioei iacioieo i ?o ia’?io ia i?ioyci
anueiai ia?iiaeo aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aaaeeeai aiaeiioeoe, ui caieueoaiiy
ia’?io eeioei iacioieo iiae aieeaii AeA ia noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny
aaeaeaaoiei caieueoaiiyi eieueeinoi oei?iieanoia, ? o aa??aioao c AeA ?o
aoei iaioa, iiae a eiio?iei. ?acii c oei, ia’?i eeioeie, ui i?eiaaea?
ia iaeei oei?iieano, o aa?iaioao c AeA ia i?ioyci anueiai ia?iiaeo
aeineiaeaeaiue aoa cia/ii aeuei o ii?iaiyiii c eiio?ieueieie ?ineeiaie
(oaae. 3). Oea naiae/eoue i?i cia/ii iaoaaiei/ii, aia?aaoe/ii oa
iioi?iaoeieii ciiie o aca?iiaiaeiineiao iiae ieanoiiii i aaiiiii eeioei.

Aeniea OOA oei?iieanoia o aa?iaioao c AeA naiae/eoue i?i iayaiinoue,
e??i ai?eaeueieo, iioeo ao?aaoth/eo oeaio?ia. Iiaeaeuaia aeoeaiinoue
oei?iieanoia iiaeo?eio?oueny aeoeaiei iiaeeiaiiyi aneiieyoia naiith
eeioeiith, ia’?i yei? cia/ii c?in, aai iioeie aeoeaioi?aie, yei ia iiaee
eiieo?oaaoe c ao?aaoth/ith aeoeaiinoth oi/ie ?inoo (noaaiieaeueii? oa
ia?a?iaeueii? ia?enoai). Iioeie aeineoue aeoeaieie aeoeaioi?aie iiaeooue
aooe ieiaeiai a?oiueee, ui naia caeeaaeathoueny ia iaaiiao caiiuaiiy. Ia
aeeeth/aii, ui ao?aaoth/eie oeaio?aie aenooiathoue ? ieiaeiiini? iaaiie,
ia yeeo naia oi?io?oueny a?iaeae, ine?eueee no?aoaa?y ?ineeie iai?aaeaia
ia i?aeo?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiiaeaiiy, oi ? iio?e
ieanoe/ieo ?a/iaei iai?aaey?oueny aei ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aai?a (Ee?ecee,
1995).

Aieea aeiii??a aoeeaio ia ia??iae niieith oa ii?icino?ee?noue iaeeie.
Aeaii, io?eiaii iaie a ia?iiae ceiiaei 1986-1987 ?ieia, iieacothoue, ui
ia?iaea iaaii?a cai?uaiiy ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?o ?icaeoeo eaiiicaiii I ia
aeeeeeaea aeinoiai?ieo ciii o aeeaeii niieith ceioth/eo

Oaaeeoey 3

Iacino?oeoo?ii oa?aeoa?enoeee eenoeia iaeeie ni?oo Iiaieeoa?anueea iiae
aieeaii aoeeaii?iaeooeaioia (1989 ?.)

* — ?icieoey aeinoiai?ia i?e ? = 0,95

iaaiiia iaeeie. ?acoeueoaoe ianooiiiai ?ieo aeyaeee, ui o aa??aio? c
aeaeno?aeii oaeaeeinoue i?i?inoaiiy a?oiueie a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao aoea
cia/ii aeuith o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai.

?acoeueoaoe i?yiiai i?iii?iaeoaaiiy iaaiiia iaeeie a ia?iiae aeeaieiai i
aeiooaiiai niieith iieacaee, ui iaaiie ia?iaeai? AeA, iniaeeai o
aa??aio? c aeaeno?aeii, iioeiaeaeothoueny cia/ii iaioa, iiae a eiio?iei
(?en. 2). Ii?oieiai/ii /anoeie noaaea iaiaeiaeiai ?aaaoaaee ia
i?iii?iaeoaaiiy: aa?oiaee caciaaaee aieueoeo ooeiaeaeaiue, iiae
na?aaeeia i iniiaa, ui naiae/eoue i?i iaiaeiaeiaee nooiiiue aec?iaaiiy
oeaiei noaaea.

Ii?icinoieeinoue aaaaoueio ?ineei a cia/iie ii?i aecia/a?oueny aiinoii
?aca?aieo aoaeaaiaeia oa aca?iiei ia?aoai?aiiyi e?ioiaeth i oeoe?ia.
Aiaeic ?acoeueoaoia ?iciiaeieo

?en. 2. Aieea aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia ii?icino?ee?noue iaaii?a iaeeie
ni?oo Iiaieeoa?anueea (1987-1988 ??.)

aoaeaaiaeia ii ii?oieiai/ieo /anoeiao noaaea, ye? aec??ee, iieacaa, ui
iaia? aeinoiai?ieo aiaeiii o oi?iao aoaeaaiaeia o aea?aaeii iiae
aa?iaioaie ca aeiyoeii naoa?ice, eieueeinoue yei? ciaiooaaeany iiae
aieeaii eaiiicaio I. A ei?i aiaeii/aii caieueoaiiy e?ioiaeth i noie
oeoe?ia o iai?yieo aiae iniiae aei aa?oiaee, ui ? i?e/eiith iiaeaeuaiiy
ii?icinoieeinoi i oea iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie i?yiiai
i?iii?iaeoaaiiy.

Niiaaiaeiioaiiy oeoe?e/e?ioiaeue o anio aa?iaioao c AeA ciaiooaaeiny, ui
caiaeii c no/anieie oyaeaiiyie ? iaaeieiei iieacieeii aieueo iiaiiai
aec?iaaiiy iaaiiia, a cia/eoue i aieueo aeniei? ii?icinoieeinoi. Oaeei
/eiii, aiaeiioaiiy aiinoo oeoe?ia aei e?ioiaeth a ia?iaeaieo AeA
?ineeiao iiaeia aeaeieeoe ye oiciieiai/ii aaaeeeaee iieaciee, yeee ia?
i?e/aoi?noue aei iaoaiiciia aei? AI.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie aeeiaiiea aiinoo iniiaieo oi?i aoaeaaiaeia a ceioth/eo
a?oiueeao iaeeie iieacaea, ui aeinoia??ia ??cieoey aoea o?eueee a
ia??iae cei?ae? 1986-1987 ?ie?a ? eeoa a e?ioe? a?oaeiy, ui
a?aeiia?aeaei iaeieae/ei oaiia?aoo?ai a?oaeiy-n?/iy iaoeiiai oieiaeii?
ceie oiai ia??iaeo. Ianooiii? ceie a?aei?i i?ae aa??aioaie ia aeyaeaii,
i?ioa ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui ? ceia aoea iaoeiiai i’yeith.

Ai?no anei?aiiiai? eeneioe o aa??aioao c AeA c?inoaa ia i?ioyc? cei?ae?
i iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy aiaeiiaiaeaee iaeieae/ei oaiia?aoo?ai.

A oiae? in?iiuei-ceiiaiai niieith a aeeiai?oe? aecia/aee ai?iieeneioiee
neeaae a?oiueie iaeeie. Aiaeic ?acoeueoaoia iieacaa, ui a iniiaiiio
ciiie noinoaaeeny aieueieo aiiiieeneio i a oiaei ceiiaei aiaeaoaaeiny ?o
cia/ia caieueoaiiy c 1,54% aei 2,97% a eiio?iei, a o aa?iaioi c
aeaeno?aeii — c 1,79% aei 3,34%. Caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao iniaeeaa
ca?eueoaiiy a oiae? cei?ae? a?eueieo e?ceio oa ania?aa?iiai? eeneioe ye
a eiio?ie?, oae ? o aa??aio? c aeaeno?aeii.

Oaeei /eiii, ia?iaea iaeeie AeA cia/ii iiaeaeuo? ii?icinoieeinoue
iaaiiia, aea ia ca ?aooiie aieeao ia ia?iiae niieith, a ca ?aooiie
aeeaieeo ciii ii?oieiai/ii? aoaeiae ? ciii oioineioaoe/iiai aia?aoo a
ia?oee ?ie aaaaoaoei?, a oaeiae ia?aaoaeiae aoaeaaiaeiaaiai i
aiiiieeneioiiai iaiiiia oa iiaeaeuaiiy aiinoo e?ioiaeth i anei?aiiiai?
eeneioe, ui aeieeathoue iiae aieeaii ciiiaiiai ai?iiiaeueiiai noaoono
iaeeie, aeeeeeaiiai ia?iaeith.

Ae?y aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia a?iaeaei?noue iaeeie oa ye?noue i?iaeoeoe??.
sse iieacaee iao? ?acoeueoaoe, aiane?aeie aaeueioaaiiy oaii?a ?inoo
iaaii?a cai?uaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith 0,3% ?ic/ei?a AI, ianaaeaeaiiy iaeeie
iaee a na?aaeiueiio ia 9,1% aeuo i?iaeoeoeai?noue o ii??aiyii? c
eiio?ieai (oaae. 4). Ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeaeiino? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny
iie?auaiiyi yeino? i?iaeoeoe??. A yaiaeao iaeeie c?inoaa ai?no noie
oeoe??a ? anei?a?iiai? eeneioe, ciaiooaaeany caaaeueia eeneioi?noue.

I?e/eiaie e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo ci?i iieaciee?a a?iaeath ? cieaeaiiy
eiieo?aioe?? i?ae ??ciia?eiaeie iaaiiaie ? ia?a?iciiae?e anei?eyo?a ia
ei?enoue ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo i?aai?a, ine?eueee no?aoaa?y ?ineei iai?aaeaia
ia i?aeo?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioo ?iciiiaeaiiy.

Iioei?caoe?y na?oeiaiai ?aaeeio ieiaeiiinieo iaaii?a ni?eyea
ca?eueoaiith ia 15,7% ya?ae, ui caa’ycaeeny, a oaeiae aecia/aea ?o
a?eueo aenie? ye?ni? iieacieee. C? an?o aei?iaoaaieo AeA iaeaoaeoeai?oei
aeyaeany aeaeno?ae.

O ianooiiiio i?ney ia?iaee ?ioe? ianaaeaeaiiy iaeeie oaae iaee aeuo
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? e?auo ye?noue i?iaeoeoe??. Ca?eueoaiiy a?iaeaeiino?
ianaaeaeaiue iaeeie aoei ?acoeueoaoii oeo aeeaieeo ii?oieia?/ieo ?
o?c?ieia?/ieo ci?i, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a iaaiiao i?ae ae??th AeA, a naia:
iaaiie iaee aeuo ii?icino?ee?noue an?o oeaiei ? a?oiueie, a?eueoo
e?euee?noue ieiaeiaeo a?ei/ie, aoee e?aua caaacia/ai? anei?eyoe?eiei
aia?aoii ia iaeeieoeth aeiaaeeie iaaiia. Aa??aio c aeaeno?aeii iaa
iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue ieiaeiaeo a?ei/ie.

sseui eou? iaeeie ia?iaeyoe ui??/ii, oi noio?oueny iiceoeaiee aoaeo ae??
AI. sse iieacaee ae?iaie/? aei?iaoaaiiy, i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue
iaeeie a?ae ia?iaee aeaeno?aeii c?inoaea ia 38%. A yaiaeao iaeeie
ca?eueooaaeeny ai?no anei?a?iiai? eeneioe, noia oeoe??a ? ciaiooaaeany
caaaeueia eeneioi?noue o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai.

Aeey ?aaoeyoe?? i?ioeano aeic??aaiiy ya?ae iaeeie eou? ia?iaeyee 0,1%
?ic/eiaie AI ca 4-5 aeiia aei ia?oiai cai?o a?iaeath. Iao? ?acoeueoaoe
iieacaee, ui ia 15-20% c?inoaea eieueeinoue c?ieeo yaiae a ia?o? aeaa
cai?e, ? oea aeaei iiaeeeainoue ciaioeoe eieueeinoue cai?ia i
caieueooaaei aeoiae oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoei? (oaae. 4). Oi?niaaia
aeic?iaaiiy yaiae iaeeie iiae

Oaaeeoey 4

Aieea aoeeaii?iaeooeaioia ia a?iaeaeiinoue iaeeie ni?oo Iiaieeoa?anueea

(a a?aiao) a — ia 1 iaaii; a — ia 10 iiaiiieo i ?yaeo

0,3% ?ic/eiaie AI ia?iaeyee iaaiie cai?uaiiy o ??e cai?o a?iaeath

0,1% ?ic/eiaie AI ia?iaeyee eou?, ye? aaea caciaee ia?iaee 0,3%
?ic/eiaie

* — ?icieoey aeinoiai?ia i?e ? = 0,95

aieeaii AeA aeeeeeaei aeinoiai?ia caieueoaiiy aiinoo noie oeoe?ia,
caaaeueii? eeneioiinoi, anei?aiiiai? eeneioe i aioioeiaiia i ciaioaiiy
noie aiiiieeneio.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaa, ui c? an?o
aei?iaoaaieo AeA aeaeno?ae ? iaeia?niaeoeai?oei aeey i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy, ine?eueee oea a?o/eciyiee i?aia?ao ? eiai ae?y
a?aecia/aeany aenieith aoaeoeai?noth ia oaeeo ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo
iieacieeao ye ii?icino?ee?noue oeaiei iaaiia ? a?oiueie, e?eueeino?
ieiaeiaeo a?ei/ie ? a?iaeaeiino?, a oiio a yaiaeao aecia/aee caeeoee
naia aeaeno?aeo. Iao? aeai? iieacothoue, ui yaiaee iaeeie ieiaeiiinieo
iaaii?a, ye? ia?iaeyeeny ia ia?oiio ?ioe? ?icaeoeo, caeeoe?a aeaeno?aeo
ia i?noyoue, a a yaiaeao c oi?niaaiei aeic??aaiiyi aiie iiai?noth
cieeaee /a?ac 5 aei?a i?ney ia?iaee (oaae. 5). Oea aea? i?aenoaae
aiai?eoe i?i aacia/iinoue oaei? oaoiieiai? ae?iuoaaiiy iaeeie.

Oaaeeoey 5

Caeeoeiai eieueeinoi aeaeno?aeo ca ai?noii 2-OAOE a yaiaeao iaeeie ni?oo
Iiaieeoa?anueea. Aeaoa ia?iaee 20.06.89 ?.

i/a — ia aeyaeaii

Aeniiaee

1. I?i?iaeueieie o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaieie eiioeaio?aoe?yie eaiiicaio I ?
aeaeno?aeo ?: aeey aaeueioaaiiy ?inoo iaaii?a cai?uaiiy 0,3% ?ic/eie ca
i?aia?aoeaiith oi?iith; aeey i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano aeic??aaiiy ya?ae —
0,1% ?ic/eie.

2. Aoeeaii?iaeooeaioe — iio?aei? oao?aa?ae?io?ioaiae?ieneaeo (i?aia?aoe
4093 ? 3894) ia iaeei? aei?iaoaai? aia?oa ? a eiioeaio?aoe?yo 0,3%
?ic/eie ca i?aia?aoeaiith oi?iith iieacaee aeia?a ae?aaeaiee
?aoa?aeaioiee aoaeo ia iaaiiao iaeeie ? iathoue ia?niaeoeao i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy.

3. Ia?iaea aei?iaoaaieie aeiii?aie aoeeaio iaaii?a cai?uaiiy ia ?aii?o
aoaiao ?o ?icaeoeo aeeeeeaea aeeaie? ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie ye ia ia?oiio,
oae ? ia ae?oaiio ?ioe? ?icaeoeo. A ia?oee ??e ?icaeoeo a ieaei?e ?
na?aaei?e /anoeiao iaaiia ciaiooaaeeny aeiaaeeia, oiaueia ? a?aeiia?aeii
ia’?i iaaeeaoce?a; caaaeueia ieiua eenoe?a ia iaaii? ciaiooaaeany, i?ioa
ieiua eenoe?a ia iaeeieoeth aeiaaeeie iaaiia ca?eueooaaeany; aieiaa ?
nooa iane ye noaaea, oae ? eenoe?a ciaiooaaeeny, aea a?aeiioaiiy nooi?
iane eenoe?a aei nooi? iane noaaea ca?eueooaaeiny, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
e?aua caaacia/aiiy iaaiia ieanoe/ieie ?a/iaeiaie a ia??iae ?ioaineaiiai
?inoo ? i?aeaioiaee aei cei?ae?. Aa?o?aea ci?i ia caciaaaea ? caaaeueia
e?euee?noue aoce?a ia iaaii? ia ci?ithaaeany. Iaaiie ae?oaiai ?ieo
?icaeoeo iaee a?eueoo ieiuo eenoe?a ia iaeeieoeth aeiaaeeie iaaiia.

4. Ia aeyaeaii caeaaeiino? i?ae e?euee?noth ia?iaie iaaii?a iaeeie
aoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie ? ?aoa?aeaioiei aoaeoii. ?aoa?aeaioiee aoaeo
aeiii??a aoeeaio caeaaeeoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ? oiia aaaaoaoe?? —
oaiia?aoo?e oa e?eueeino? iiaae?a.

5. Ae?y aeiii??a aoeeaio iicia/aeany ia an?o ??aiyo i?aai?caoe??
anei?eyoe?eiiai aia?aoo:

ia i?aiaioiiio ??ai? a?aeaoaaeiny ciaioaiiy noie oei?io?e?a ca ?aooiie
o?aeoe?? oei?io?eo «a» o ia?a?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth aieiai? iane, aea
c?inoaiiy ye noie oei?io?e?a, oae ? ea?ioeii?ae?a o ia?a?aooieo ia
iaeeieoeth ieiu? eenoea;

ia ieanoeaeiiio ??ai? a?aei?/aeiny ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? oei?iieano?a o
ee?oeiao iacio?eo ? i?aeaeuaiiy ?o oioio?i?/ii? oa oioioinoi?eethth/i?
aeoeaiino?. I?ae aieeaii eaiiicaio I ci?ie aoee iaeiii?oi?o?;

ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai? ia?iaea aoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie aeeeeeaea ca?eueoaiiy
ia’?io ee?oei iacio?eo ? ia’?io ee?oeie, ui i?eiaaea? ia iaeei
oei?iieano;

ia ??ai? eenoeiaiai aia?aoo ia?iaea aeeeeeaea ciaioaiiy noia?ii? ieiu?
eenoe?a, a oaeiae ca?eueooaaea o?eaae?noue aeeooy eenoe?a ieaei?o
y?on?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iie?auaiiy ?o aeeaeaiiy ? na?oeiaiai ?aaeeio.
Ca?eueoaiiy o?eaaeino? aeeooy eenoe?a ieaei?o y?on?a iiceoeaii
iicia/aeiny ia aec??aaii? iaaii?a oa ?o i?aeaioiaoe? aei cei?ae?. Iaaiie
ae?oaiai ?ieo ?icaeoeo iaee a?eueoo ieiuo eenoe?a, ui i?eiaaea? ia
iaeeieoeth aeiaaeeie iaaiia. AEiaeai ?c aei?iaoaaieo i?aia?ao?a ia
aeyaeya iciae o?oioiene/iino?.

6. I?aeue, ui i?noeoueny o?eueee o eaiiicai? I, iiaeeo?eo? ae?th

2-oei?aoeeoinoiiiai? eeneioe, ui aeyaeyeiny o aeu?e (o ii??aiyii? c
?ioeie aeiii?aie aoeeaio) ?aoa?aeaioi?e aeoeaiino? oeueiai i?aia?aoo oa
a i?aeaeuaii? oioio?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? oei?iieano?a.

7. Ia?iaeai? iaaiie iaeeie iaee aeuo ii?icino?ee?noue a?oiueie ? an?o
oeaiei iaaiia, aea ia ca ?aooiie aieeao ia noai niieith, a ca ?aooiie
ia?aaoaeiae aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ? ai?iieeneioiiai iai?i?a.

8. Ia?iaea ??cieie aoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie iaaii?a cai?uaiiy iaeeie ia
?aii?o aoaiao ?o ?icaeoeo aeeeeeaea i?aeaeuaiiy a?iaeaeiino?
ieiaeiiinieo iaaii?a a na?aaeiueiio ia 9,1% ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? ya?ae, ui caa’ycaeeny, ? ciaioaiiy eiieo?aioe?? i?ae
??ciia?eiaeie iaaiiaie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?a?iciiae?eo anei?eyo?a
i?ae iaaiiaie cai?uaiiy ? ieiaeiiinieie iaaiiaie ia ei?enoue inoaii?o.

9. Eou? iaeeie, ia?iaeai? a iiia?aaeiueiio ? a ianooiiiio ?ieao
aeaeno?aeii, iaee a?iaeaei?noue ia 38% aeuo a ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueieie
ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ieiaeiaeo a?ei/ie ? i?aeaeuaiiy
ii?icino?eeino? oa ceiino?eeino? iaaii?a.

10. C? an?o aei?iaoaaieo aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a aeaeno?ae ?
iaeia?niaeoeai?oei aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy, ine?eueee oea
a?o/eciyiee i?aia?ao ? eiai ae?y a?aecia/aeany aenieith aoaeoeai?noth ia
oaeeo ainiiaea?nueei oe?iieo iieacieeao ye ii?icino?ee?noue ?
a?iaeaei?noue.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii o?e oaoiieia??
canoinoaaiiy aeaeno?aeo aeey ?aaoeyoe?? ?inoo ? ieiaeiiioaiiy iaeeie,
ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaeneiaeueii caaeiaieueieoe aeiiae aei
i?iieneiaeo ni?o?a iaeeie, ui aenoaathoueny ae?iaieoeoaii.

Nienie iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e

1. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Niao? E.I., Aeaaeaeoe O.I. Oeceieiae/aneia iainiiaaiea
eiiieaeniiai i?eiaiaiey oei?oieeioei?eaea e eaiiicaia I ia ianaaeaeaieyo
iaeeiu // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueo. ?anoaiee. — 1988. — O. 20. — ?3.
— N. 296-302.

2. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I. Aeaenoaea ?aoa?aeaioia ia ii?oiaaiac e
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iiaaaia iaeeiu // Oeceieiae/anee aeoeaiua aauanoaa. —
1989. — O. 21. — N. 89-92.

3. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., ?aiaithe A.E., Niao? E.I. Eciaiaiey a
ieaiaioiii ninoaaa e ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeoeaiinoe oei?iieanoia
?acaeaathueony eenoueaa iaeeiu i?e ?aoa?aeaioiii aeaenoaee
yoeeaii?iaeooeaioia // Oeceieiaey ?anoaiee. — 1989. — O. 36. — Aui. 6. —

N. 1096-1102.

4. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., Eiaia A.I. Oeceieiae/aneia iainiiaaiea
i?eiaiaiey aeaeno?aea a ea/anoaa ?aoa?aeaioa // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey
eoeueo. ?anoaiee. — 1991. — O. 23. — ?1. —

N. 45-51.

5. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., ?aiaithe A.E. Eciaiaiey a ii?oiaaiaca,
ninoiyiee iieiy e ii?icionoie/eainoe iaeeiu i?e aicaeaenoaee
?aoa?aeaioia

// Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey eoeueo. ?anoaiee. — 1991. — O. 23. — ?3. — N.
257-263.

6. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., ?aiaithe A.E., Aa?anoaoeeee A.A.,
Iaa?aoeeee A.A. Aeaenoaea ?aoa?aeaioia ia ai?iiiaeueiue noaoon,
iacino?oeoo?o eenoueaa e ?ino ?anoaiee iaeeiu // Oeceieiaey e aeioeiey
eoeueo. ?anoaiee. — 1995. — O. 27. — ?5-6. — N. 374-382.

7. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Aeaaeaeoe O.I. Eciaiaiea oeie/aneiai ninoaaa
i?iaeoeoeee yaiaeiuo eoeueoo? i?e noeioeyoeee nic?aaaiey
yoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie // Oai?aoe/aneay e i?eeeaaeiay ea?iieiaey: Oacenu
aeieeaaeia Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee (Eeoeiaa, 30 ieo.—1 iiya?y 1989 a.).
— Eeoeiaa: Ooeeioea, 1989. — N. 134-135.

8. Eo?ueyoa A.A., Niao? E.I., Aeaaeaeoe O.I., Iieeuoe A.N., Iaa?aoeeee
A.A., Aa?anoaoeeee A.A. Ai?iiiaeueiay ?aaoeyoeey oioineioaca i?e
aeaenoaee ?aoa?aeaioia // ?aai/aa niaauaiea ii i?ia?aiia «?aaoeyoi?u
?inoa e ?acaeoey ?anoaiee» (Iineaa, 1991). — I.: A.e.

— 1991. — N. 9.

AIIOAOe??

Aeaa?aeoe O.I. Ae?y aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia ??no, anei?eyoe?eiee aia?ao,
ii?icino?ee?noue oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaeeie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.12 — o?c?ieia?y ?ineei. ?inoeooo o?c?ieia??
?ineei ? aaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

I?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
?aoa?aeaio?a-aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a ia aeaio ni?oao iaeeie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
ia?iaea aeiii?aie aoeeaio iaaii?a cai?uaiiy ia ?aii?o aoaiao ?o ?icaeoeo
aeeeeea? cia/i? ci?ie ii?oieia?/ii? aoaeiae iaaiia ye ia ia?oiio, oae ?
ia ae?oaiio ?ioe? ?icaeoeo. Ae?y aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a iicia/aeany ia an?o
??aiyo i?aai?caoe?? anei?eyoe?eiiai aia?aoo, iaeiae i?aia?aoe ia
aeyaeyee iciae o?oioiene/iino? ? ia cieaeoaaee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
iaaii?a. Aiane?aeie ia?iaee iaaii?a aeiii?aie aoeeaio a?aeaoaaeiny
i?aeaeuaiiy ii?icino?eeino? a?oiueie ? an?o oeaiei, yea aeieea? ca
?aooiie ia?aaoaeiae aoaeaaiaeiaaiai ? ai?iieeneioiiai iai?i?a. Aeyaeaii,
ui ?aaoeyoe?y ?inoo iaaii?a cai?uaiiy ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith a?iaeaeiino?
ye o ??e ia?iaee, oae ? a ianooiiiio i?ney ia?iaee ?ioe?. Ca aeiiiiiaith
aoeeaii?iaeooeaio?a iiaeeeaa ?aaoeyoe?y oaeaeeino? aeic??aaiiy ya?ae
iaeeie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoeeaii?iaeooeaioe, iaeeia, ii?oieia?/ia aoaeiaa,
anei?eyoe?eiee aia?ao, ii?icino?ee?noue, i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Aeaaeaeoe O.I. Aeaenoaea yoeeaii?iaeooeaioia ia ?ino, anneieeyoeeiiiue
aiia?ao, ii?icinoieeinoue e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iaeeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.12 — oeceieiaey ?anoaiee. Einoeooo oeceieiaee
?anoaiee e aaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

I?iaaaeaii eiiieaeniia enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey
?aoa?aeaioia-yoeeaii?iaeooeaioia ia aeaoo ni?oao iaeeiu. Onoaiiaeaii,
/oi ia?aaioea aeiii?aie yoeeaia iiaaaia caiauaiey ia ?aiieo yoaiao eo
?acaeoey aucuaaao cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey ii?oieiae/aneiai no?iaiey
iiaaaia eae ia ia?aii, oae e ia aoi?ii aiaeo ?acaeoey. Ia ia?aii aiaeo —
a ieaeiae e n?aaeiae /anoyo iiaaaa oiaiueoaeenue aeeeia, oieueia e
niioaaonoaaiii iauai iaaeaeioceee; iauay ieiuaaeue eenoueaa ia iiaaaa
oiaiueoaeanue, ii ieiuaaeue eenoueaa ia aaeeieoeo aeeeiu iiaaaa
oaaee/eaaeanue. Aeaaeiay e nooay iannu eae noaaey, oae e eenoueaa
oiaiueoaeenue, ii ioiioaiea nooie iannu eenoueaa e nooie ianna noaaey
oaaee/eaaeinue, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i eo/oai iaania/aiee iiaaaa
ieanoe/aneeie aauanoaaie a ia?eiae eioaineaiiai ?inoa e iiaeaioiaee e
ceiiaea. Aa?oooea iiaaaa eciaiaiee ia i?aoa?iaaaea e iauaa eiee/anoai
oceia ia iiaaaa ia eciaiyeinue. Iiaaae aoi?iai aiaea ?acaeoey eiaee
aieueooth ieiuaaeue eenoueaa ia aaeeieoeo aeeeiu iiaaaa. Aeaenoaea
yoeeaii?iaeooeaioia neacuaaeinue ia anao o?iaiyo i?aaiecaoeee
anneieeyoeeiiiiai aiia?aoa, iaeiaei i?aia?aou ia ieacuaaee
oeoioiene/aneiai aeaenoaey e ia nieaeaee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iiaaaia.
Ia ieaiaioiii o?iaia i?ienoiaeeei oiaiueoaiea noiiu oei?ioeeeia ca n/ao
o?aeoeee oei?ioeeea «a» a ?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo aeaaeiie iannu eenoueaa,
ii oaaee/aiea eae noiiu oei?ioeeeia, oae e ea?ioeiieaeia a ?an/aoa ia
aaeeieoeo ieiuaaee eenoueaa. Ia ieanoeaeiii o?iaia ioia/aii oiaiueoaiea
eiee/anoaa oei?iieanoia a eeaoeao iacioeeea e oaaee/aiea eo
oioioeie/aneie e oioioinoi?eee?othuae aeoeaiinoe. Iiae aeeyieai
eaiiicaia I yoe eciaiaiey auee aieaa nouanoaaiiuie ii n?aaiaieth n
ae?oaeie yoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie, /oi iauyniyaony i?enoonoaeai eiiia iaaee
a yoii i?aia?aoa. Ia eeaoi/iii o?iaia ia?aaioea yoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie
aucuaaea oaaee/aiea iauaia eeaoie iacioeeea e iauaia eeaoee,
i?eoiaeyuaainy ia 1 oei?iieano. Ia o?iaia eenoiaiai aiia?aoa ia?aaioea
aucuaaea oaaee/aiea aeeeoaeueiinoe aeecie eenoueaa ieaeieo y?onia, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oeo/oaiee eo ieoaiey e naaoiaiai ?aaeeia. Yoi a
naith i/a?aaeue iieiaeeoaeueii neacuaaeinue ia i?ioeannao auc?aaaiey
iiaaaia e eo iiaeaioiaee e ceiiaea.

A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aaioee aeiii?aie yoeeaia i?ienoiaeeei iiauoaiea
ii?icinoieeinoe ii/ae e anao oeaiae iiaaaa, eioi?ia aicieeaao ca n/ao
ia?ano?ieee oaeaaiaeiiai e aieiieeneioiiai iaiaiia.

Iieacaii, /oi ia?aaioea ?acee/iuie yoeeaii?iaeooeaioaie iiaaaia
caiauaiey ia ?aiieo yoaiao eo ?acaeoey aucuaaea iiauoaiea o?iaeaeiinoe
ieiaeiiiniuo iiaaaia a n?aaeiai ia 9,1% ca n/ao oaaee/aiey caaycaaoeony
yaiae e oiaiueoaiey eiieo?aioeee iaaeaeo ?aciiaic?anoiuie iiaaaaie, /oi
aucuaaao ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea anneieeyoia iaaeaeo iiaaaaie caiauaiey e
ieiaeiiinyueie a iieueco iineaaeieo. Ianaaeaeaiey iaeeiu, ia?aaioaiiua
aeaeno?aeii eae a i?aaeuaeouai, oae e a aiae oai?ee o?iaeay eiaee
o?iaeaeiinoue ia 38% auoa, /ai eiio?ieueiua, ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
eiee/anoaa ieiaeiauo aaoi/ae e iiauoaiey ii?icinoieeinoe e ceiinoieeinoe
iiaaaia.

I?e iiiiue yoeeaii?iaeooeaioia aiciiaeia ?aaoeyoeey nei?inoe nic?aaaiey
yaiae iaeeiu.

Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey ?ac?aaioaii o?e oaoiieiaee
i?eiaiaiey aeaeno?aea aeey ?aaoeyoeee ?inoa e ieiaeiiioaiey iaeeiu,
eioi?ua aeatho aiciiaeiinoue iaeneiaeueii oaeiaeaoai?eoue o?aaiaaiey e
i?iiuoeaiiui ni?oai iaeeiu, eioi?ua auaeaeaathony i?iecaiaenoaii.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yoeeaii?iaeooeaiou, iaeeia, ii?oieiae/aneia no?iaiea,
anneieeyoeeiiiue aiia?ao, ii?icinoieeinoue, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

Dabizhuk T.M. Influence of the ethylene producers over the growth,
assimilate apparatus, frost-hard and productivity of raspberry. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a Ph. D. degree (Biology) by speciality 03.00.12 — Plant
Physiology. — Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics. NAS of
Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The complex research of the retard-ethyleneproducers influence has been
conducted over the two sorts of raspberry. It has been determined, that
the treatment of the sustitution sprouts by the ethylene donors on the
early stages of their progress causes the considerable changes in the
sprouts morphological structure both in the first and in the second
years of progress. The influence of the ethyleneproducers develops on
all the assimilation apparatus organization levels. However, the
preparations did not exert plant toxic influence and did not reduce the
vitality of the sprouts. The rise of the frost-hard of all sprout
tissues has been the result of the treatment by the ethylene donors. The
frost-hard has arisen from the transformation in aminoacides and
carbohydrate metabolism. It has been revealed, that the regulation of
the sprouts growth substitution helps the rise of a crops both in the
treatment and next years. The speed of raspberry ripening can be
regulated with the help of ethyleneproducers.

Key words: ethyleneproducers, raspberry, morphological structure,
assimilation apparatus, frost-hard, productivity.

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