Дипломатичні представництва Української Народної Республіки в країнах Центральної Європи за доби Директорії (1918-1920 рр.): Автореф. дис… канд. іст

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CAII??CUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

NIEIAEIAA A?eoi??y A?eoi??aia

OAeE 94 (477) «1918»

AeEIEIIAOE*I? I?AAeNOAAIEOeOAA OE?A?INUeEI? IA?IAeII? ?ANIOAE?EE A
E?A?IAO

OeAIO?AEUeII? ?A?IIE CA AeIAE AeE?AEOI??? (1918 — 1920 ??.)

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oa?auaiei TH??e
?ea??iiiae/, Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi?
?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aiae?oneoei Aiaaeai ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e i?aaiciaanoaa Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (i. Ee?a);

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Oaeiae Ieaenaiae? Aiae??eiae/
aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?in?enueei? ?noi??? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao
?i. O.Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 29 » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 17.051.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e o
Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (aae?ana: 330600, i.Caii??aeaey,
aoe.AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?ion V, aeoiaee cae).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 330600,
i.Caii??aeaey, aoe.AEoeianueeiai, 66, e.11.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 26 » o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oei/aiei N.I.

?. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ? anaa?/ia
?icaoaeiaa iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino? iaiiaeeea? aac ?? aeoeaii?
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? ooaa?aeaeaiiy ia i?aeia?iaei?e
a?ai?. A oiae? o?eaaei? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeee
ia?iae coi?a aecaieeoeny a?ae iaoe?iiaeueiiai aiiaeaiiy, caeiaoa
noaa?aii?noue ? i?aeia?iaeia aeciaiiy o na?oiaiio ianooaa?.

?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? ia no/aniiio aoai? ia iiaea
cae?enithaaoenue oni?oii aac aea/aiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie, ?? aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae
a aeiao iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1921??., eiee aia?oa
i?ney o?eaaei? ?noi?e/ii? ia?a?ae aiia ciiao oa?eoea o na?oiaa
ni?aoiaa?enoai. Cae/aeii, iiceoe?? no/anii? Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei?e
a?ai? ? iaaaaaoi i?oei?oeie, ianooaae ?? aeciaiiy o na?o? iac??aiyiii
oe?oeie, ii??aiyii ?c caeiaooeaie on?o iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo
ooai?aiue 1917-1921 ??. Iaeiae, aeina?ae ae?yeueiino? aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa Oe?a?ie o cacia/aiee ia??iae aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe. A?i ?
nueiaiaei? ia? aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy o aecia/aii? ci?noo
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, oi?ioaaii? oa?aeoa?o ?? noinoie?a ye c
aeeae/eie non?aeaie, oae ? ia?oia?aie o ??cieo /anoeiao na?oo.

A iao /an iacaeaaeia Oe?a?ia ? niaaeei?ioeai aeeieiiaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
on?o aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue ia ?? oa?eoi??? ?, ianaiia?aae, Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee, yea caii/aoeoaaea aeo?ae Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaeio
a?aio. O aaaaoia?aii?e ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? aeiae
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue aaaiia i?noea iin?aeaei ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia
i?aaenoaaieoeoai Aee?aeoi??? OI? o e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie. Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui naia Aee?aeoi???, nie?ath/enue ia ae?yeuei?noue
iiia?aaei?o aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue ? iacaaaeath/e ia iani?eyoeea?
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i? oiiae, aaeaeiny ?icaoaeoaaoe yeiaeoe?oo ia?aaeo
nai?o aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa o aeanyoeao e?a?i na?oo oa
?ioaa?oaaoe ni?aao ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ca naith
aea?aeaai?noue o na?oiaee ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iee eiioaeno.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?
ca’ycie c iaoeiaith oaiith eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ?
iie?oe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? o 1917-1921 ??.».

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae eenoiiaaea
1918 ?. aei 1921 ?. Ieaeiy o?iiieia?/ia iaaea ni?aiaaea? c ii/aoeii
ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? OI?. Aa?oiy – aecia/a?oueny /anii, eiee aiia
i?eiooaia aoea cai?iooe naith ae?yeuei?noue ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo,
i?ney inoaoi/iiai ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio a Oe?a?i?.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/athoueny iaaeaie ainueie
aea?aeaa, ye? aoiaeyoue a oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeee ?aa?ii: I?ia//eia,
Aano??y, Oai?ueia, *aoineiaa//eia, Oaaeoea??y, ?oae?y, Aaoeeai, Iieueua.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? oaie. Iaoeia? i?aoe?, ye? o??th /e ?ioith
i??ith aena?oeththoue i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? ?c noai?aiiyi oa ae?yeuei?noth
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa OI? aeiae Aee?aeoi??? a e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, a oaeiae acaaae? c ieoaiiyi ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
oeueiai ia??iaeo, iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia /ioe?e a?oie: 1.Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iaioa?e o/aniee?a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue, 1917-1920 ??.;
2.I?aoe? ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a; 3.Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoeiaoe?a
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e; 4.Aeine?aeaeaiiy no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo
?noi?ee?a.

Cia/iee ?ioa?an aeeeeeathoue ioae?eaoe?? aaciina?aaei?o o/aniee?a oeeo
iiae?e, ye? aoee i?aai?caoi?aie ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? neoaeae oa ??
ae?yeueiino? o 1917-1920 ??, ea??aieeaie oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa ca ei?aeiiii.

Iaienai? caeaa?eueoiai a 20-40-? ??., oe? i?aoe?, oi/a ? ia iicaaaeai?
ia?o?eii-iie?oe/ieo oia?aaeaeaiue, iieai?/ieo aeiaae?a i?ioe iie?oe/ieo
iiiiaio?a, i?noyoue /eiaei aaaeeeaeo niinoa?aaeaiue, ? oe?eaaei
na?ae/aiiyi aiioe. Cie?aia, o i?aoe? A.Aeiie/aiea (aieiae Aaia?aeueiiai
Nae?aoa??aoo OI? (1917-1918), aieiae Aee?aeoi??? (1919)) “A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
iaoe??” a?aeia?aceeenue an? noia?a/iino?, ye? ?nioaaee o ea??aieoeoa?
Aee?aeoi??? uiaei ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Aeiie/aiei A. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
iaoe??: O c-o ei. – E., 1990.. Aaoi? neaioe/ii ioe?ith? ye aioo??oith,
oae ? ciai?oith iie?oeeo OI? o 1919-1920??., aaa/ath/e i?i?aooiee o
a?aeoiae? ea??aieoeoaa OI? ia /ie? c N. Iaoeth?ith a?ae o. ca.
nioe?ae?noe/ieo i?eioeei?a.

Iiiia?ao?? I. Ooeueaeia (Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa?y – i?i?no?a
i?aeia?iaeieo ni?aa OI?) “ Iie?oeea: Aea?aeaaia aoae?aieoeoai Oe?a?ie ?
i?aeia?iaei? ni?aae”, “Aac oa?eoi???”, eiai noaoo? a /aniienao ?
ca??ieeao “Ii/aoee ae?yeueiino? i?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa
Oe?a?ie”, “Neiii Iaoeth?a oa oe?a?inueea caei?aeiiia iie?oeea”
?ice?eaathoue i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee OI?, c’yniaothoue
iai?yiee oi? /e ?ioi? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??, ?o i?e/eie,
aiae?cothoue iane?aeee oeueiai i?ioeano Ooeueaei I. Aac oa?eoi???:
?aeaieia?y oa /ei o?yaeo OI? ia /oaeei?. – E., 1998; eiai ae. Iie?oeea:
Aea?aeaaia aoae?aieoeoai Oe?a?ie ? i?aeia?iaei? ni?aae. – E., 1918.. sse
?noi?eeo, I. Ooeueaeio i?eoaiaiia aeaaaeai?noue a aiae?c? ?noi?e/ieo
iiae?e, ui ?iaeoue eiai i?aoeth “Aac oa?eoi???: ?aeaieia?y oa /ei o?yaeo
OI? ia /oaeei?” oe?iiei aianeii o aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy
aeeieiiaoe/ieo ?ai?acaioaoe?e OI? a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie caeiathoue i?aoe? Ae.
Aei?ioaiea (i?i?no?a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae),
oaoiaiai ?noi?eea, yeee aeineoue aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaea? ieoaiiy
noaiiaeaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie c Oeaio?aeueieie
aea?aeaaaie, ?ice?eaa? ia?o? e?iee aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae a aeiao
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae. “Ii? niiieie i?i
iaaeaai?-ieioea” Ae.Aei?ioaiea aeoiaeyoue ca iaae? aeai?o iaioa?ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, ine?eueee aaoi? iaiaaaany ?c aeanoeaith eiio aeaaaeai?noth
? ia’?eoeai?noth aeine?aeieea i?iaiae?coaaoe i?aeaea?aeaai? noinoiee
Oe?a?ie c Oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeei ?aa?iiii, iieacaoe i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a, ae?yeuei?noue
a?enueeiai-nai?oa?ieo i?n?e OI? ? acaaae? ocaaaeueieoe noeoii?noue
i?i?aooie?a oa iiieeie o ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? Aee?aeoi??? Aei?ioaiei Ae.
?noi??y Oe?a?ie, 1917-1923: a 2-o o. – Oaeai?iae, 1929-1930; eiai ae.
Ii? niiieie i?i iaaeaai?-ieioea: o 4-o /. – Euea?a, 1923-1924..

I?aoey a?aeiiiai oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a I. O?enothea (iaeiiai
c e?aea??a Oe?a?inueei? ia?o?? nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a), iaienaia
?c caeo/aiiyi cia/ii? e?eueeino? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a
i?ane, aacia?a/ii ? oe?iiei aeaea?aeii aeey aea/aiiy oaie O?enothe I.
Cai?oee ? iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??, 1917-1920 ??:
a 4-o /. – A?aeaiue, 1921.. I?ioa oa?aeoa?enoeea ye
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no Aee?aeoi???, oae ? ae?e oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e iiaea?oueny /a?ac i?ecio ?aeaieia?/ieo i??eoaaiue
aaoi?a, aeoeaiiai ae?y/a OIN?, yeee iaiaaa?oueny ia?aeeanoe anth
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca an? aaaee ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no OI? ia
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iee o?yae ?anioae?ee ? eiai i?aaenoaaiee?a o
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?yo.

Ie?aiiio ieoaiith ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe?? OI? ia Iieueuo
i?enay/aia i?aoey N. Oaeooeia (i?i?no?a thnoeoe?? OI?) “ Aa?oaanueeee
aeiaia?? i?ae iieyeaie e N.Iaoeth?ith 21 ea?oiy 1920 ?.” Oaeooei N.
Aa?oaanueeee aeiaia?? i?ae iieyeaie ? N. Iaoeth?ith 21 ea?oiy 1920. –
I?aaa, 1920.. Iiiia?ao?y ia? aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeiiiiaaa? c’ynoaaoe i?aeaea?aeaai? noinoiee OI? ? ?II
c i?aaiai? noi?iie. Ia aeoieo a/aiiai, N. Iaoeth?a i?ioei?aaii i?aeienaa
oaiaeo, ia iath/e ia oa iiaiiaaaeaiue a?ae ?ioeo /eai?a Aee?aeoi???.
Iaeii/anii aaoi? iieaco? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee Aa?oaanueeiai aeiaiai?o
aeey Oe?a?ie, ine?eueee a?ae naiiai ii/aoeo aeainoi?iii? noinoiee i?ae
iaiia aea?aeaaaie aoee aeey Oe?a?ie aeene?ei?iaoe?eieie.

“Niiieie” I. Aaeaaaia, aieiae Oe?a?inueei? iaaecae/aeii? i?n?? a
Oai?uei? aeoiaeyoue ca iaae? iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e. Ia iaoo aeoieo, aiie
? oe?iiei aeaea?aeii aeey aea/aiiy i?ioeano noai?aiiy ? ae?yeueiino?
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa OI? ? CI OI? a oe?e e?a?i?. Iniaeeai
oe?iiei ? niinoa?aaeaiiy aaoi?a, iia’ycai? c? ci?iaie iie?oe/ii? aeaaee
a Oai?uei? a oeae ia??iae ? ?o aieeaii ia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeiai
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa. Aaoi? oaeiae ioae?eo? oe?eaa? aeieoiaioe, ye?
oi?eathoueny ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae OI? a Oai?uei?, ui
cia/ii i?aeaeuo? ?ioi?iaoe?eio aaaii?noue i?aoe?.

Aieiaa o?yaeo OI? (?O.1919 – O.1920) ?. Iacaia, yeee aaciina?aaeiuei
i/iethaaa ?inoeoooe??, ui a?aeaee ye aioo??oiueith, oae ? ciai?oiueith
iie?oeeith Aee?aeoi???, o nai?o i?aoeyo “Aieueoaaeci ? ieoiaoe?y
Oe?a?ie”, “Oe?a?ia a iai? ? ao?? ?aaiethoe??” ?ice?eaa? i?ioean
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? a oeae ia??iae Iacaia ?. Aieueoaaeci ?
ieoiaoe?y Oe?a?ie. – E., 1922; eiai ae. Oe?a?ia a iai? ? ao??
?aaiethoe??: a 3-o o. – I?aaa, 1942.. Aaoi? iaiaaa?oueny i?iaiae?coaaoe
ye nai? aeani? i?i?aooiee uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii?
i???ioaoe?? e?a?ie, oae ? aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, /anoi iia’ycaieo c
iaeiiiaoaioi?noth ? a?aenooi?noth i?ioan?iiae?cio na?aae ea??aiee?a
I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa ? aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa.

Iaaiei i?aenoieii aeine?aeaeaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
o?yaeo Aee?aeoi??? acaaae? ? caei?aeiiieo ?ai?acaioaoe?e OI?, cie?aia,
iiaeia aaaaeaoe oaiaoe/iee ca??iee aeueiaiaoo “*a?aiia eaeeia” ca 1939
?. ui aeeoia i?ae caaaeueiith iacaith “Oe?a?ia ia aeeieiiaoe/iiio
o?iio?”. O noaooyo eieeoi?o i?aoe?aiee?a aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa
aena?oeththoueny iniiai? iai?yiee ?iaioe oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? a
?a?ii?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy Ae.Aioii/oea, A.Aaeae/oea, I.Aeaiueea,
Ae.Eaaeoeueeiai aaciina?aaeiuei oi?eathoueny oaie aeena?oaoe?? ? iathoue
iaoeiao oe?ii?noue ia eeoa ye na?ae/aiiy o/aniee?a
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo ia?aaiai??a i?i caie?aiiy, i?ioeano i?aai?caoe??
ciai?oiuei-?ioi?iaoeaii? neoaeae oiui, aea e ye ia?oa ni?iaa
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa OI? a
Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?. Aioii/oe Ae. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? ia?aaiai?e i?i
caie?aiiy a o?aai? 1919 ?. // Aeueiaiao “*a?aiia eaeeia”, — Euea?a,
1939. – N. 174-178; Aaeae/oe A. Aeeieiiaoe/ia ?noi??y // Oai naii. – N.
178-183; eiai ae. I?aai?caoe?y oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae //
Oai naii. – N. 35-39; Aeaiueei I. Oe?a?inueea i?aniaa neoaeaa o A?aei?
// Oai naii. – N. 39-43; Eiaae?a I. Aeeieiiaoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue ca /ane
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae // Oai naii. – N. 129-136; Eaaeoeueeee Ae. C
aeeieiiaoe/ieo niiiei?a // Oai naii. – N. 70-79.

Aeaye? i?aoe? ni?a?ia?oiee?a oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa
ca ei?aeiiii ? ianaiia?aae a Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii? c’yaeythoueny o
i?neyai?iiee /an. Na?aae ieo ne?ae aeae?eeoe niiaaaee ? noaoo?
?.Iiaoeueeiai, yeee i?ioyaii 1919-1922 ??. i?aoethaaa ia ??cieo iinaaeao
a Iaaecae/aei?e oe?a?inuee?e aeeieiiaoe/i?e i?n?? a ?oae??. Iiaoeueeee
?. Ii iioee?e ieiu?: caienee aeo?iae?noa ? aeeieiiaoa. – *. ?-??. –
Ithioai, 1964; eiai ae. Oai?aiiy aeeieiiaoe/ii? i?n?? i?e Aaoeeai? ca
Ea?iainueeiai ? Oeoeaae/a // Iaoa??aee ?O Iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? IOO. –
Oi?iioi, 1953. – N.33-59; eiai ae. Oe?a?inueea aeeieiiaoe/ia i?n?y a
?oae?? ca ia?oeo o?noue i?nyoe?a nai?? ae?yeueiino?//
Eaeaiaea?-aeueiaiao “A?ae?iaeaeaiiy”. – Aoaiin-Ae?an, 1956. – N. 29-52;
eiai ae. Oe?a?inueea aeeieiiaoe/ia i?n?y aei Aaoeeaio // Oai naii. –
1954. – N.29-61; Ooeueaei I. Ii/aoee ae?yeueiino? i?i?noa?noaa
caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oe?a?ie // Oe?a?inueeee naiino?eiee. – 1957. –
A?oaeaiue, *.4. – N. 29-32.

Ie?aio a?oio iaoeiaeo i?aoeue noaiiaeyoue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueeeo
?noi?ee?a, ui oi?eathoueny i?iaeaie ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
Aee?aeoi??? ? oi?ioaaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae OI?. Na?aae ieo –
e?eueea niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue, ye?, iaeiae, iicia/ai? e?aei?i
noa’?eoea?ciii, iia’ycaiei c ?aeaieia?/ieie ianoaiiaaie EI?N uiaei
ioe?iee oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.A.Ea?iaiea,
A.A.Eeoieaoa, ?.A.Iaoa?na, ?.A.Neiiiaiea, A.Ae.Neaae, I.?.Noi?oiaiea,
I.I.Oaeiae/aiea, ?.N.Oi?ey oa ?i., Ea?iaiei A.A. Eiino?aiiay aiaiiay
eioa?aaioeey ia Oe?aeia /1918 –1920/. – Oa?ueeia, 1966; Eeoieao A.A.
?aca?ii ao?aeoacii-iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie Aee?aeoi?ee ia Oe?aeia. – I.,
1949; *aoineiaaoeei-niaaoneea ioiioaiey, 1918-1934. – E., 1965;
Neiiiaiei ?.A. i?iaae iie?oeee i?aeia?iaeiiai ?iia??ae?cio / ?? iie.
1919 -–aa?acaiue 1921/. – E., 1965; Neaaa A.Ae. Ia?eaeneay ie?iay
eiioa?aioeey e eiino?aiiay eioa?aaioeey a no?aia Niaaoia. – E., 1971;
Noi?oiaiei I.E. I/a?ee enoi?ee a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e aiaiiie
eioa?aaioeee ia Oe?aeia. – I., 1966; Oaeiae/aiei I.I. C ?noi???
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee O?N? /1919-1922/. – E., 1957; Oi?eue ?.N. C
i?aii?ii ie?o e??cue iieoi’y a?eie. – E., 1962.

i?enay/aieo aea/aiith ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei?
?aaeyinueei? ?anioae?ee, ?? i?aeia?iaeiei noinoieai, iiai?noth
caiia/o?oueny iiceoeaiee aeina?ae aaaaoia?aiii? i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa Aee?aeoi??? acaaae? ? o
Oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeiio ?aa?ii?, cie?aia, aai iaaiaee ni?eeia?oueny
oe?eeii iaaaoeaii, ye i?aeoi ai?iaeee oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeia?.

I?ioa /a?ac i?ecio eiiia?o?eieo ?aeaieia?/ieo iaoa?oaaiue, i?eoaiaiieo
?aaeyinuee?e nenoai?, ?yae aeine?aeaeaiue /anoi ai?uothoue cia/iee
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, uiaei ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e
? aeaeaaaoe?e, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue e?aua c?icoi?oe neeaaei?noue
i?aeia?iaeii? neooaoe?? a ?a?ii?, oiiae ?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? i?ioyaii 1919-1920 ??. ? ?icnoaiiaeo iie?oe/ieo nee a
Oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeiio ?aa?ii?. A oeueiio ae ca’yceo ne?ae caaaeaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iineianueeeo aaoi??a A.A.Ci??ia, I.?.Iooeao,
A.A.sscueeiai? oa ?i., Ci?ei A.A. Iniiau aeeieiiaoe/aneie neoaeau. – I.,
1964; Iooeao A.E. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea Aaia?ee, iiya?ue 1918 – ai?aeue 1927.
– I., 1981; Niaaoneay ?inney – Aaiaa?neay Niaaoneay ?anioaeeea, 1919
aiae. – I., 1990; sscueeiaa A.A. Iaeay Aioaioa a aa?iiaeneie iieeoeea,
1918-1925. – I., 1974; ?? ae. Iaeay Aioaioa // Aa?iia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
ioiioaieyo, 1917-1939. – I.,1979 oa ?i. ye? i?enay/ai? ie?aiei ieoaiiyi
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei? ?in?? o Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?, ?
aaciina?aaeiuei oi?eathoueny ieai?a e?a?i oeueiai ?aa?iio uiaei Oe?a?ie
a eiioaeno? i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae ?NON? ? aea?aeaaaie Caoiaeo.

A?oio iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, ye? noinothoueny aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie
neeaaeathoue ?iaioe i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e. Oea
caeaa?eueoiai ocaaaeueithth/? aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi???
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue a Oe?a?i? 1917-1921 ??., ?noi???
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, a?enueeiai? ?noi???. O a?eueoino? oeeo
i?aoeue oith /e ?ioith i??ith ?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee c
e?a?iaie ?a?iie ? a oiio /ene? ?? oeaio?aeueiiai ?aa?iio. Aiae?coth/e
i?ioean aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?, eiai iaaaoeai? ? iiceoeai?
iane?aeee ?. Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee noeeueiee aa/eoe i?e/eie i?i?aooie?a
Aee?aeoi??? a ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? ianaiia?aae o ia?ica’ycaiino?
aioo??oi?o i?iaeai, ui noiyee ia?aae OI?. Eaae?o?eiaaiee aiae?c
noeoiiino? oaeoi??a, ye? aieeioee ia oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii?
i???ioaoe?? OI?, ?? iiaeaeueo? ci?ie, aeicaieeee aaoi?o ciaeoe iia?
i?aeoiaee o aecia/aii? iniiaieo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino? aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa o Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii? oa ?o aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy
i?aeaea?aeaaieo noinoie?a.

Ie?aii ne?ae coieieoenue ia a?oioiaieo i?aoeyo I.Noao?aa, a yeeo aaoi?ii
aeei?enoaii aaeeeo e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a cao?aeieo a?o?a?a, ui nooo?ai
aeiiiaiththoue eiei aeaea?ae aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acii c oei aaoi?
aena?oeth? eeoa ie?ai? iai?yiee ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Aee?aeoi??? ? COI?,
cone?aaeaeoth/e naith oaaao aieiaiei /eiii ia aeainoi?iii?o ca’yceao c
Iieueuath oa ?aaeyinueeith ?in??th. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeei noinoieai
i?enay/ai? oaeiae i?aoe? I.I??/oea ? A.E?acoaa. A ieo aeeeaae ia?aa?ao
ai?iieo iiae?e ii?aeio?oueny ?c aena?oeaiiyi iecee ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo
e?ie?a, aei yeeo aaeaaaeenue ? COI?, ? OI? i?ae /an
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie.

I?aaia?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio ?
noaiiaeaiith ?? aeainoi?iii?o ca’yce?a c e?a?iaie *aoaa?iiai nithco
i?enay/ai? noaoo? I.Aaoea “Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa 1918 ?. ye i?aaeiao
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa” ? A.Aaeae/oea “Aa?anoaenueeee ie? ? ieoiaoe?y
Oe?a?ie: i?aaia ? iie?oe/ia ioe?iea”.

Na?aae i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a ae?anii?e eeoa aeaye?
aaciina?aaeiuei oi?eathoueny oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oea iiiia?ao??
A.Ainiiaeeia “O?e aecia/i? aeeieiiaoe: a?ao I.Oeoeaae/, eiycue
?.Oiea?aeaanueeee, aa?ii I.Aaneeueei”, ?.Oiie “Aiinoieuenueeee i?ano?e ?
Oe?a?ia, 1919-1922”, “Ca??iee ia iioaio Ieaenaiae?a Ooeueaeia,
1889-1960”, a oaeiae noaoo? E.Aeia?a “?aaai Iiaoeueeee – /ani?noue c
iaoe??th, 1894-1979”, yea iioae?eiaaia a /aniien? “Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee”
oa A.O?aia?oeueeiai “Oe?a?inueea eiinoeuenueea neoaeaa, 1918-1924”,
iaae?oeiaai?e a “E?oa?aoo?i?e Oe?a?i?”.

Ie?aio a?oio noaiiaeyoue iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeeoee ae?oeii a
no/aniee ia??iae ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Aeoea?caoe?y
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie iai?ee?ioe? 1980-1990-o ??. iia’ycaia c
aeoiaeii Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae.
C’yaeeanue iecea iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c ?noi??? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie, ?? aeainoi?iii?o a?aeiinei c e?a?iaie ?a?iie. Iaaiith i??ith
oea coiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth caa?iaiiy aei ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ia?oeo
e?ie?a ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie. Na?aae aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?enay/ai? caaaeueiei i?iaeaiai i?aeia?iaeii?
iie?oeee OI? o 1917-1920 ??. ne?ae aeae?eeoe i?aoe? Ae.A?ae?i??aa ?
N.Aa?aaothea. Aa?aaothe N.A. Ciai?oiy iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI? : Aeen…
eaiae. ?no. iaoe. – E., 1996; A?ae?i??a Ae.A. Noaiiaeaiiy
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie, 1917-1920: Aeen… eaiae. ?no. iaoe.
– E., 1994. Iaeiae ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa Oe?a?ie
a Oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeiio ?aa?ii? ?icaeyaea?oueny ieie iia?aeii.
Ie?ai? ieoaiiy ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Aee?aeoi??? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee
ia??iae ?icaeyaeathoueny a aeena?oaoe?yo I.Ai?iaei?, I.Aeoa?iae,
?.E?ooae, I.Iaaethea. Ai?iaeiy I.Ae. Iie?oeea e?a?i Aioaioe oa NOA uiaei
aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i? a 1917-1919: Aeen… eaiae. ?no. iaoe. – E., 1995;
Aeoa?iaa I.I. Oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo ei?aeii?a a Oe?a?i?, 1917-1925:
Aeen… eaiae.?no.iaoe. – E.,1996; E?ooae ?.I. Caea?iaooy a neeaae?
*aoineiaa//eie: Iniaeeaino? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo, 1919-1929:
Aeen… eaiae.?no.iaoe. – Oaeai?iae,1997; Iaaethe I.A. No?aeia Aaee/eia a
?a?iiaenuee?e iie?oeoe?, 1918-1919: Aeen… eaiae. ?no. iaoe. – E., 1993.

Aeayeei aniaeoai i?iaeaie i?enay/ai? iaoeia? noaoo? N.A?aeiyinueeiai,
E.Aaioio, I.Aea?aeaethea, O.??aiaiei, I.Iaaethea, I.I?eooeyea,
?.N??aiyea. A?aeiyinueeee N.A. Iie?oeea *aoineiaaoeueeiai o?yaeo uiaei
oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe?? a i?aeai?iiee ia??iae // I?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee
Oe?a?ie: Iaoeia? iiooee ? ciao?aeee. – Aei. 3. – E., 1993. – N. 36-56;
eiai ae. Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo eiioeaioe?yo
*aoineiaa/eie, 1918-1989 // Oe?. ?no. aeo?i. – 1997. — ?1. – N. 43-61;
Aaioio E. sseui an? oeyoe aaaeooue aei ?eia… : I?i ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueei? iaaecae/aeii? aeeieiiaoe/ii? i?n?? i?e Aiinoieuenueeiio
i?anoie? a o?aai?-eeii? 1919 ?ieo // Iie?oeea ? /an. – 1997. — ? 5-6. –
N. 95-98; Aea?aeaethe I.N. Oe?a?inueei-aano?i-oai?nuee? a?aeiineie //
I?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee Oe?a?ie : iaoeia? iiooee ? ciao?aeee. – Aei. 3. –
N. 15-21; ??aiaiei O. Neiii Iaoeth?a ? THcao I?enoaenueeee // O 70-??//y
ia?ecueei? o?aaaae??: Ca. Iai’yo? Neiiia Iaoeth?e. – E., 1997. –
N.212-217; Iaaethe I. COI? ? iie?oeea Oai?ueie // Oe?a?ia a ieioeiio. –
Aei. O??. E. – Euea?a, 1995. – N. 33-44; I?eooeye I.I. Aeiiii?/iee
aeiaia?? OI? c I?ia//eiith oa Aano?i-Oai?ueiith 1918 ?. // Oe?. ?no.
aeo?i. – 1927. — ? 1. – N. 62-72; N??aiye ?. Iieuenueea aeiaa Neiiia
Iaoeth?e, 1920 – 1923 // O 70-??//y ia?ecueei? o?aaaae??. – N. 187-199;
Oaa/aiei ?. A?ey aeoie?a: Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? OI? //
Iie?oeea ? /an. – 1995. — ? 9. – N. 76-82.

Iaaiith i??ith aiie oaeiae ciaeoee nai? aena?oeaiiy a ocaaaeueithth/eo
i?aoeyo A.Aa?nothea “Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea”, “Ay/aneaa
Eeieinueeee: C ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie”, ss.A?eoeaea “Ia?en ?noi???
Oe?a?ie: oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? O?O-OO noie?ooy”,
“Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue o OO noie?oo?: ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/iee
aiae?c”.

Ioaea, ye na?ae/eoue aiae?c ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie, ua e aein? ia
noai?aii niaoe?aeueieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a yeeo ae eiiieaenii
?icaeyaeaeanue i?iaeaia ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa Aee?aeoi??? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee o e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie o 1919-1920 ??., aena?oeaiiy
?o i?noey ? ?ie? o ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?e ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi???.
A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe aenoaaeeny oae? aeine?aeieoeuee?
caaaeaiiy:

1. Iieacaoe ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo /eiiee?a iia’ycaieo ?c aeoiaeii
Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio;

2. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??
Aee?aeoi??? OI?;

3. Aeine?aeeoe i?ioean noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie;

4. C’ynoaaoe no?oeoo?o, eaae?iaee neeaae ? ooieoe?? aeeieiiaoe/ii?
neoaeae Aee?aeoi??? OI? o oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaaao;

5. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? i?aaenoaaieoeoa
Aee?aeoi??? OI?, ?ice?eoe ?o ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? i?aeaea?aeaaieo
noinoie?a OI? c e?a?iaie Oeai-

o?aeueii? ?a?iie;

6. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? i?aaenoaaieoeoa
Aee?aeoi??? OI?, ?ice?eoe ?o ?ieue o oi?ioaaii? i?aeaea?aeaaieo
noinoie?a OI? c e?a?iaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie;

7. I?inoaaeeoe ?ieue i?aaenoaaieoeoa OI? o ?? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ca’yceao c oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeie e?a?iaie;

8. ?ice?eoe ae?yeuei?noue eiinoeuenueei? neoaeae, i?aniai-?ioi?iaoe?eieo
onoaiia oe?a?inueeeo iinieuenoa ? iaaecae/aeieo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e oa
ai?iii-nai?oa?ieo i?n?e.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee a oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao ?
?o ?ieue a i?aeia?iaeiiio ooaa?aeaeaii? Oe?a?ie ye iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee aeoiee, oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee Aee?aeoi??? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee a e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, /eneaii? aeaea?aea, ui cana?ae/othoue i?noea ?
?ieue ae?yeueiino? aeeieiiaoe/ieo ?ai?acaioaoe?e OI? a aaiethoe??
?a?iiaenueei? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee i?i Oe?a?io.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio, ia’?eoea?cio oa anaa?/iino? ye?
?aae?cothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith aeei?enoaiiy ye caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo iaoiae?a
— ?noi?e/iiai oa eia?/iiai, oae ? caaaeueii?noi?e/ieo —
?noi?e/ii-ii??aiyeueiiai, neio?ii?noe/iiai.

Aeaea?aeueia iniiaa A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ? caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiae?aeeny oa aiae?coaaeeny aeaea?aeuei? iaoa??aee. O ?iaio?
aeei?enoaii 17 oiiae?a oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a Ee?aa ?
Eueaiaa, ii?aoeueiaaii iiiaae 300 a?o?aieo ni?aa. Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao
cia/ia /anoeia a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aaiaeeoueny aia?oa. Ca iioiaeaeaiiyi,
oi?iith ? iaoeiaith oe?ii?noth ae?oeiaai? oa a?o?ai? aeaea?aea iiaeia
?icae?eeoe ia 4 a?oie:

— aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy
(ae?oeiaai?, a?o?ai?);

— aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa OI?
ca ei?aeiiii (ae?oeiaai?, a?o?ai?);

— aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee iniaenoeo oiiae?a (ae?oeiaai?, a?o?ai?);

— iaoa??aee ia??iaee/ii? i?ane.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie aeaea?ae iaeaaeaoue iinoaiiae, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy,
aee?aeoeae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, ?aaee ia?iaeieo i?i?no??a OI?; ?aaee
i?i?no??a Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae; I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa
Aee?aeoi??? OI?; Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy Aaia?aeueiiai ooaao A?i?? OI?.
Aiie aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?ine?aeeoaaoe i?ioean i?aai?caoe?? ?
ae?yeueiino? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii 1918-1920 ??.
Oe? aeieoiaioe aeicaieythoue iieacaoe ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo
/eiiee?a, iia’ycaieo ?c aeoiaeii oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ia i?aeia?iaeio
a?aio.

Iaea?eueoa ?ioi?iaoe?? c aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie i?noeoueny o
aeieoiaioao I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa OI?, eaioeaey???
Aee?aeoi???, oi?aae?iiy i?ane oa ?ioi?iaoe?? OI?. Oea a?aeicae,
iinoaiiae, aee?aeoeai? aeieoiaioe Aee?aeoi???, ?aaee ia?iaeieo i?i?no??a
OI?; oee?eoey?e, ia?aeieee, ca?oe i?i ?iaioo I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo
ni?aa, i?ioieiee ia?aae aie?a aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa Oe?a?ie o
A?aei? ? Ea?enaaae?; iaeace i?i i?ecia/aiiy ? a?aenoaaeo ea??aiee?a
iinieuenoa, aeeieiiaoe/ieo ? a?enueeiai-nai?oa?ieo i?n?e; eenooaaiiy c
aeaia?oaiaioii /oaeicaiieo ciinei i?i?noa?noaa. Cacia/ai? iaoa??aee
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii?
i???ioaoe?? Aee?aeoi??? OI? ? aeine?aeeoe i?ioean noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

A?eueo?noue aeaea?ae oe??? a?oie cina?aaeaeaia a Oeaio?aeueiiio
aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee Oe?a?ie. Aeena?oaioii aoee
aeei?enoai? 14 oiiae?a oeueiai a?o?ao, 4 c ieo iaeaaeaoue aei ia?oi?
a?oie aeaea?ae. Oea aeieoiaioe I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa OI?
(o.3696); Eaioeaey??? Aee?aeoi??? OI? (o.1429); Oi?aae?iiy i?ane oa
?ioi?iaoe?? OI? (o. 1113); Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy Aaia?aeueiiai ooaao
A?i?? OI? (o.1078); a oaeiae oiiae c eieaeoe?? Oeaio?aeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o i. Eueaia?: Iaoa??aee i?i
ae?yeuei?noue o?yae?a OI? ? COI? (o.581).

Aei oe??? a?oie aeaea?ae a?aeiinyoueny oaeiae aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee,
iioae?eiaai? a ca??ieeao “Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea”; “Oe?a?inueea
?aaiethoe?y: Aeieoiaioe, 1919-1921”; Aeioeaiei I. “E?oiien oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??: Iaoa??aee ? aeieoiaioe aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??, 1917-1923”; O?aiei ?. “Ca??iee caeii?a ? iinoaiia
Oe?a?inueeiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a?aeiinii caei?aeiiieo ?inoeoooe?e”.

Ae?oao a?oio aeaea?ae noaiiaeyoue aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa OI? ca ei?aeiiii. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue ca?oe i?i ?iaioo
iinieuenoa ? aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie,
iaeyaee iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a e?a?iao i?ecia/aiiy, ooaoi? ?iceeaaee ?
ca?oi?noue i?i a?ioia? aeo?aoe. Aeieoiaioe aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
c’ynoaaoe no?oeoo?o, eaae?iaee neeaae ? ooieoe?? aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae
Aee?aeoi??? OI? o oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaaao; ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? i?aaenoaaieoeoa, ?ice?eoe ?o ?ieue o
oi?ioaaii? i?aeaea?aeaaieo noinoie?a OI?, o ?? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ca’yceao c oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeie e?a?iaie, iieacaoe ae?yeuei?noue
eiinoeuenueei? neoaeae, i?aniai-?ioi?iaoe?eieo a?aeae?e?a oe?a?inueeeo
?ai?acaioaoe?e ca ei?aeiiii oa a?enueeiai-nai?oa?ieo i?n?e.

Aei ?iaioe aoee caeo/ai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee oe?a?inueeeo iinieuenoa,
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? a?enueeiai-nai?oa?ieo i?n?e OI? a
Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii? c oiiae?a OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie: Oe?a?inueei?
iaaecae/aeii? i?n?? o ?a/? Iiniieeo?e Iieuenuee?e (o.2211); Iinieuenoaa
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae a Aano?i-Oai?uei? (o.3198); Iinieuenoaa OI? o
I?ia//ei? (o.3619); Iaaecae/aeii? aeeieiiaoe/ii? i?n?? OI? a Oai?uei?
(o.3518); Oe?a?inueei? iaaecae/aeii? i?n?? a Oaaeoea??? (o.4211);
Iaaecae/aeii? aeeieiiaoe/ii? i?n?? OI? a *N? (o.3519); Oe?a?inueei?
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ii? i?n?? a ?II (o.2486); Oe?a?inueeiai
eiinoeuenoaa a Oeth??oo (o.4455); Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai-nai?oa?ii?
i?n?? a ni?aaao iieiiaieo a Aa?e?i? (o.3192).

O?aoth a?oio aeaea?ae noaiiaeyoue aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee iniaenoeo
oiiae?a, ui caa??aathoueny a OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie : ?noi?eea, iie?oe/iiai ?
aea?aeaaiiai ae?y/a, i?i?no?a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae
Ae.Aei?ioaiea (o.4186) ? OeAe?A Oe?a?ie o i.Eueaia?: ?noi?eea,
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a, /eaia aeaeaaaoe?? COI? ia Ie?ia?e
eiioa?aioe?? a Ia?eae? N.Oiiao?anueeiai (o.368); aieiae Oe?a?inueei?
aeaeaaaoe?? ia Ie?ia?e eiioa?aioe?? a Ia?eae?; I.Oeoeaae/a (o.681);
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a, oiiaiiaaaeaiiai a ni?aaao i?ane ?
i?iiaaaiaee COI? I.Iaca?oea (o.359). A?o?ai? iaoa??aee oe??? a?oie
nooo?ai aeiiiaiththoue caaaeueio ea?oeio noaiiaeaiiy ciai?oiuei?
iie?oeee OI? ? COI?. Oea caeaa?eueoiai aeieoiaioe i?i ae?yeuei?noue
iaaecae/aeieo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e a ?oae??, Iieueu?, iinieuenoa Oe?a?ie
a I?ia//ei? ? Aano?i-Oai?uei?, aeaeaaaoe?? OI? ? COI? ia Ie?ia?e
eiioa?aioe?? a Ia?eae?. A ieo iiaea?oueny aeaoaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea
iecee ae?y/?a aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae, iieacaii ?o i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue ?
iie?oe/i? iiceoe??. Aacia?a/ii, ia an? aiie i?noyoue ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c
ae?yeueiino? aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa ca ei?aeiiii, ine?eueee
a?aeia?aaeathoue iie?oe/io i???ioaoe?th aaoi??a, ui iicia/aeanue ia
noa’?eoeai?e ioe?ioe? iiae?e, iie?oe/iiai i?iaiaeo OI? ? ie?aieo in?a.

Iacaaaeath/e ia noa’?eoea?ci ? o?aaiaioa?i?noue, oe? aeieoiaioe iathoue
aeiyoeiao iaoeiao oe?ii?noue. A a?eueoino? c ieo iiaea?oueny oe?eaaee
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, a?aeoai?th?oueny yne?aaa ea?oeia iiae?e, ui
aeiiiiaaa? ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae, aeinyaiaiiy ? iiieeee a ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa a e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeiai ?aa?iio.

Cia/iee ? ??ciiiai?oiee iaoa??ae i?i noaiiaeaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae
OI? ca ei?aeiiii i?noeoueny o ia??iaee/i?e i?an? 1918-1921 ??. Cie?aia,
aaoi?ii aoee aeei?enoai? iia?aeiieaiiy ? ca?oe i?i oi?ioaaiiy ?
ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiaoe/ieo ?ai?acaioaoe?e Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoeaiee
iaoa??ae I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa OI?, ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
oe?a?inuee? iinieuenoaa ? iaaecae/aei? i?n??, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
aeainoi?iii?o ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie c aea?aeaaaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie,
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i? noinoiee, ?iaioo eiinoeuenueei? neoaeae,
ciai?oiuei?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?ae?icae?e?a ? a?enueeiai-nai?oa?ieo i?n?e.

Aei aiae?co caeo/ai? /aniiene ??cieo iie?oe/ieo iai?yie?a, oeaio?aeuei?
oa caei?aeiii? aeaeaiiy. Na?aae ieo iaiao?aeii aeae?eeoe iaea?eueo
?ioi?iaoeai? oe?a?inuee? aacaoe: “A?niee Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee” – ae?oeiaaiee i?aai Aee?aeoi???; “Iiaa ?aaea” – ae?oeiaaiee
i?aai Oe?a?inueei? ia?o?? nioe?ae?no?a-oaaea?ae?no?a (OINO); “?ia?oie/a
aacaoa” – ae?oeiaaiee i?aai Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?iai/i?
ia?o?? (ONAe?I); “Ia?iaeia aiey” – ae?oeiaaiee i?aai OeE Anaoe?a?inueei?
?aaee naeyinueeeo aeaiooao?a (Naeini?eea); “Iiaeie” – ae?oeiaaiee i?aai
I?i?noa?noaa i?ane ? i?iiaaaiaee OI? ; iacaeaaei? /aniiene
“A?ae?iaeaeaiiy”, “O?eaoia”(Ee?a), “Oe?a?ia” (Aeiieoey). Na?aae
oe?a?inueeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ye? aeoiaeeee ca iaaeaie OI?,
iaea?eueoa ?ioi?iaoeaiiai iaoa??aeo i?i ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa Oe?a?ie ca ei?aeiiii i?noyoue /aniiene “ Aiey”
(A?aeaiue), “O?eaoia Oe?a?ie” (Aa?oaaa), “Oe?a?inueea neiai” (Aa?e?i),
“Oe?a?inueeee i?aii?” (A?aeaiue), “Oeyo” (Caeueoeaaaeaeue).

Eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy ae?oeiaaieo ? a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a oa
iaoa??ae?a aeiae Aee?aeoi??? OI?, ioae?eaoe?e ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue
1918-1921 ??., niiaaae?a i?ia?aeieo ae?y/?a oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo aea? iiaeeea?noue c aeinoaoi?i nooiaiai
aeinoia??iino? aeine?aeeoe noai?aiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa eiiieaenii
aea/a?oueny i?ioean noai?aiiy oa ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa Aee?aeoi??? OI? a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie. Aiinyoueny nooo?a? aeiiiaiaiiy o aea/aiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai
eo?no Aee?aeoi??? a oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaaao,
?ice?eaathoueny aieiai? aoaie oi?ioaaiiy iinieuenoa ? aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?n?e OI? ca ei?aeiiii, aiae?co?oueny ?o eaae?iaee neeaae, no?oeoo?a.
Aia?oa ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ieceo ae?y/?a aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae, iieacaii
?o i?ioan?ei? ? caaaeueiiiie?oe/i? iiceoe??.

Aia?oa aaaaeaii aaeeeee ei?ion iiaeo a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a, iaoa??ae?a
i?ane, ye? aeicaieeee aena?oeeoe eiie?aoii-?noi?e/io ae?yeuei?noue
i?aaenoaaieoeoa Aee?aeoi??? o oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao o
i?aeaea?aeaaieo noinoieao, i?aai?caoe?? eiinoeuenueei? neoaeae,
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i?e ? i?aniai-?ioi?iaoe?ei?e noa?ao ae?yeueiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe i?iaiaeeeanue ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, aea a?aeaoeinue iaaiai?aiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?y eiai aei caoenoo. ?? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
iioae?eiaai? a iaoeiaeo noaooyo ai?uaieo o ca??ieeao Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, Aa?aeyinueeiai ?inoeoooo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa,
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo EAeEO, CAeO. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? i?e /eoaii? eo?no «?noi??y Oe?a?ie» ia
eaoaae?? nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i Aa?aeyinueeiai ?inoeoooo
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
iueiio nenoaiaoeciaaii iaoa??ae, yeee iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey
ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ?noi??? iia?oi?o
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, i?aeaioiaoe? niaoeeo?n?a oa iin?aiee?a aeey
aeueo ? na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?yae aeniiae?a oa ocaaaeueiaiue iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeeieiiaoe/iith neoaeaith Oe?a?ie i?e iio?aa? caa?iaiiy aei
?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ?? aca?iei c oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeie
aea?aeaaaie ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
eiiieaenii aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, a oaeiae no/aniith iaoiaeieia??th ?
iaoiaeeeaie, ia iniia? yeeo aeeiiaia aeena?oaoe?y.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia ia’?eoii, i?aaeiaoii, iaoith ?
caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?ei?oie ? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
oa e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 180 noi??iie. Iniiai?
iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? i?noyoueny o 3 noaooyo oaoiaeo aeaeaiue.

??. NO?OEOO?A ? INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy oaie, aecia/ai? ?? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «?noi??ia?ao?y ? aeaea?aeueia iniiaa
aeine?aeaeaiiy», oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oa aiae?cothoueny noai iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie oa aeaea?aeueia iniiaa oaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Noaiiaeaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
OI?» ?ice?eaa?oueny iinooi aeeieiiaoe/ii? aeoeaiino? oe?a?inueeeo
o?yae?a. ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio
ca aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae, a?aeiiaeaiiy OI?,
a oaeiae ia?o? e?iee oi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??
Aee?aeoi???.

A?eueoiaeoeueea aa?an?y niiioeaea ea??aieoeoai Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee
c?iaeoe na?e iie?oe/iee aea?? ia ei?enoue e?a?i *aoaa?iiai nithco ? eiai
e?aea?a — I?ia//eie. C naiai aieo i?aeo?eiea i?ioeano onaiino?eiaiiy
Oe?a?ie a?aeiia?aeaea iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai I?ia//eie, yea
iaiaaaeanue noai?eoe i?ioeaaao nai?io iioaioe?aeueiiio ai?iaia? — ?in??.
Oe?a?ia, ye aaeeeee ?eiie caooo i?iaoeueei? i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? oa
aeaea?aei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa??a iaea ?icaeaaoenue a i?a?o?
i?iaoeueeeo aieea?a. Aano?i-Oai?ueia, ciooaia o oyaeeeo aeiiii?/ieo
oiiaao i?aeienaoe Aa?anoaenueeee ie? ? aeciaoe iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie,
aoaeoaaea naith iie?oeeo a?aeiinii inoaiiuei? ia i?eioeeiao ae/?eoaaiiy
? i?ieiiaaoe?? ia?aoiaeiaiai noaio a noinoieao iaio aea?aeaa.

I?ney oeeaaeaiiy Aa?anoaenueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o OI? iaaoea on?o i?aa
? iaia’yce?a noa’?eoa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ? oa?eoea ia i?aeia?iaeio
a?aio ye iacaeaaeia aea?aeaaa, iaeiae aeeieiiaoe/i? ciineie c e?a?iaie
Aioaioe aoee inoaoi/ii ia?a?aai?.

Ia /an ia?aai?ioo i?ney i?aeienaiiy aeiaiai?o a Aa?ano? Oeaio?aeueia
?aaea iaea aeeieiiaoe/i? noinoiee c Aano?i-Oai?ueiith, I?ia//eiith ?
Oo?a//eiith.

Ae?aiacii ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae
nooo?ai c??n. ?icoe?thth/e noa?o i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yce?a, aiia iaaeneea?
aeeieiiaoe/i? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa oaeiae aei Aieaa???, O?ieyiae??, Iieueu?,
?oioi??, Oaaeoea???. Oe?a?inueeo Aea?aeaao aeciaee Aeai?y, Ia?n?y,
A?aoe?y, Ii?aaa?y, ye? ae?aaeeoothoue o Ee?a? nai?o aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaiee?a.

I?eeoiaoe aei aeaaee, Aee?aeoi??y iieieeanue ia?aae neeaaeiei
ia?aieao?iiyi ai?iii-iie?oe/ieo nee ? ia aeaeue, ia ni?iiiaeany /?oei
aecia/eoe naith ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io i???ioaoe?th. Aei oeueiai cia/iith
i??ith ni?e/eieeenue ?icoiaeaeaiiy a na?aaeiaeu? ?? e?aea??a.
Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y Oe?a?ie oneeaaeithaaeanue, ye oea ia
ia?aaeienaeueii ia ia?oee iiaeyae, aeoii ceoee OI? ?c
Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueeith Ia?iaeiith ?anioae?eith, yeee oaeoe/ii iinoaaea
iiao niai?io oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao o noai a?eie c Iieueuath. Inoaiiy,
i?aeo?eioaaia O?aioe??th, ooaa?aeeeanue o Eueaia? ? aaea aeoeai? aieia?
ae?? c iaoith e?ea?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueei? aeaaee ia oa?eoi??? Aaee/eie ?
Cao?aeii? Aieei?. Oaeei /eiii, aei i?ioea?eueoiaeoeueeiai ?
i?ioea?eiaaa?ae?enueeiai o?iio?a OI? aeiaeaany ? i?ioeiieuenueeee.

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui iii?e i?iaieioaiiy aeoo ceoee aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/i?
no?oeoo?e ? Aaeeoeueei? Oe?a?ie ? Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? oaeoe/ii
i?iaeiaaeoaaee nai? ie?aia ?nioaaiiy ? i?iaiaeeee naiino?eio ciai?oith
iie?oeeo.

Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo, i?aaiaiiy oe?a?ioe?a aei
naiino?eiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?nioaaiiy ia io?eiaee i?aeo?eiee aea?aeaa
Aioaioe. ?ic/a?iaai? oaeith iiceoe??th e?a?i-ia?aiiaeeoeue o Ia?o?e
na?oia?e a?ei?, ea??ai? eiea OI? ia?anoaee i???iooaaoeny ia O?aioe?th,
NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai?th e noaee ooeaoe a ?ioeo e?a?iao i?aeo?eiee nai?i
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiei ono?aie?iiyi. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o oeueiio
a?ae?a?aea aeeieiiaoe/ia aeoeai?noue Aee?aeoi??? a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii?
?a?iie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Noai?aiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa a
e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie» a?aeia?aaea?oueny ?icaoaeiaa oe?a?inueei?
aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae a oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, iieacaii
oaeoi?e ? oiiae, ye? aieeaaee ia ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiaoe/ieo
?ai?acaioaoe?e.

Oe?a?inuee? iinieuenoaa a I?ia//ei? ? Aano???, iaea?eueo aieeaiaeo
e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, caniiaai? a ia??iae Oe?a?inueei?
Aea?aeaae, i?iaeiaaeeee nai? ?nioaaiiy ? ca ?anioae?eainueeiai o?yaeo.
?o ea??aieoeoai ? neeaae aoee ea?aeeiaeueii ci?iai?, ye ? aieiai?
iai?yiee ae?yeueiino?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa a e?a?iao Aioaioe ? iaeo?aeueieo aea?aeaaao, ui
ea?oaaeenue iaoith aeiaeoeny aeciaiiy OI?, iinieuenoaa Oe?a?ie a Aa?e?i?
? A?aei? i?aaioee ia?aeiiaoe I?ia//eio ? Aano??th, ui OI?, iii?e anth
neeaaei?noue ? i?ieea?noue ai?iii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?,
caeeoa?oueny iaae?eiei ia?niaeoeaiei ? iie?oe/iei ia?oia?ii. A oiiaao
a?aenooiino? noaeiai ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai eo?no OI?, ii?iaeueieo oiia
aeey ae?e o?yaeo ? iia?aoeaiiai ca’yceo aeeieiiaoe/i? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa a
Aa?e?i? ? A?aei? a?ae?a?aaaee ?ieue eii?aeeioth/eo oeaio??a aeey ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo iinieuenoa ? aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e.

Oe?a?inuee? iaaecae/aei? aeeieiiaoe/i? i?n?? a Oai?uei? ? *aoineiaa//ei?
aeieeee ? i?aoethaaee a oiae? ?icaoaeiae oeeo aea?aeaa. Iaaecae/aeia
aeeieiiaoe/ia i?n?y OI? a Oai?uei? aoea noai?aia iinoaiiaith Aee?aeoi???
a?ae 26 n?/iy 1919 ?. O neeaae? aieiae Ieeiee Aaeaaaia, ?aaeieea Ieeiee
O?aaa, aoaoa ?aaia Oethioa, neoaeaiaoey Ieoaeea Eo?iaea aiia a?aeaoea ia
i?noea i?ecia/aiiy.

I?ney nioe?ae?noe/iiai ia?aai?ioo o ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? Aoaeaiaooo, yeo
oi?ioaaa eii?na? caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Aaea Eoi, /?oei aecia/eeanue
ia?ai???ioaoe?y ia ?aaeyinueeo ?in?th. Aeoeai? e?iee oe?a?inueei?
aeeieiiao?? o iai?yieo noai?aiiy «iio??eiiai nithco nia?onueeeo
?anioae?e» ia ni?eyee aaoi?eoaoia? OI? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?.
Iaiaa?aaei?noue a aeneiaao, ye? i?aeoiiethaaeenue i?anith, aeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaee ai?iae Oe?a?ie, aae caao?ooaaoe ?? o?yae, ye
«a?eueoiaeoeueeee».

Aieiaith oe?a?inueei? iaaecae/aeii? i?n?? a I?ac? aoei i?ecia/aii
a?aeiiiai a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a ? ioae?oeenoa I.Neaa?inueeiai.
*aoineiaa//eia ia aeciaea OI? de jure, ?acii c oei oe?a?inueea
iaaecae/aeia i?n?y o?ao?oaaea a io?oe?eieo nieneao aeeieiiaoe/iiai
ei?iono, ae?aaeeoiaaiiai a I?ac? ? ei?enooaaeanue on?ia aeeieiiaoe/ieie
i?ea?eayie.

A oaaeoea??? aieiaith aeeieiiaoe/ii? i?n?? aoa a?aeiiee aeeieiiao
I.Aaneeueei, yeee a nai?e aeeieiiaoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? iaiaaaany
i?eaa?iooe ia a?e Oe?a?ie ?oioinueeeo, iieuenueeeo ? /anueeeo
aeeieiiao?a, ui iaee aenieee ??aaiue ae?aaeeoaoe?? a ?a?ii? ? iiaee
ni?eyoe ?e aeeoe ia i?aeia?iaeio a?aio.

Iaaecae/aeio aeeieiiaoe/io i?n?th a ?oae?? aei a?oaeiy 1919 ?. i/iethaaa
aaoi?eoaoiee iie?oe/iee ? a?iiaaenueeee ae?y/ Ae.Aioiiiae/. Ia aeaeue, a
aeeieiiaoe/iiio i?aaenoaaieoeoa? aeieeee iaii?icoi?iiy i?ae eiai /eaiaie
c iaeyaeo ia i?eiaeaaei?noue aei ??cieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e. ?ieiee
iie?oe/i? aia?oe?? /eai?a i?n?? i?eaiaeeee aei i?yii? oeiaee e?a?i?, yeo
aiie ?ai?acaiooaaee. Cie?aia, ?aaeiee A.Iaco?aiei, yeee ci?iea ia
iinaae? aieiae i?n?? Ae.Aioiiiae/a, ana yne?aa?oa aeyaeya naith e?ao
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/io i???ioaoe?th, iaeaaiaeeaoe o?ni? noinoiee c
e?aea?ii Nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?oae?enueei? ia?o?? Na??ao?. Iai?ee?ioe? na?iiy
1920 ?. aieiaith i?n?? aoei i?ecia/aii I.Aaneeueea, yeee caeeoaany ia
oe?e iinaae? aei e?ea?aeaoe?? i?n?? a 1922 ?.

Iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy a ooaa?aeaeai? Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei?e
a?ai? iaei anoaiiaeaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei c Aaoeeaiii. Aaee/aciee
ii?aeueiee aaoi?eoao iainueeiai i?anoieo, eiai yeiaeoe?o? i?aeia?iaei?
ca’ycee iiaee a ni?eyoe ni?aa? i?aeia?iaeiiai aeciaiiy Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee. Aei aeoeaieo eiioaeo?a c ?eiii Aee?aeoi??th
niiioeaei oaeiae ia’?aeiaiiy OI? ? COI? a iaei?e aea?aeaa?, o ye?e
a?aeoaia? cia/io /anoeio ianaeaiiy neeaaeaee a?aei-eaoieeee.

23 n?/iy 1919 i?i?noa?noai caei?aeiiieo ni?aa iia?aeiieei a?aoa
I.Oeoeaae/a i?i eiai i?ecia/aiiy aeeieiiaoe/iei i?aaenoaaieeii i?e
Aaoeeai?.

Aaaeeeaei aeinyaiaiiy oe?a?inueei? i?n?? o Aaoeeai? aoei i?ecia/aiiy
Aaiaaeeeoii XV aiinoieuenueeiai a?ceoaoi?a aeey Oe?a?ie i.Aeaeaiiee?.

Iaeiei c iae/enaeuei?oeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa o ?a?ii? aoea
aeeieiiaoe/ia i?n?y OI? o Aa?oaa?, ui, aacia?a/ii, na?ae/eei i?i
na?eici? iie?oe/i? caoe?eaaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a Iieueu?. 22 ea?oiy 1920 ?.
aoea i?aeienaia iie?oe/ia eiiaaioe?y i?ae Iieueuath ? Oe?a?iith, ca?aeii
c yeith ??/ Iiniieeoa Iieuenueea aeciaaaea Oe?a?inueeo Ia?iaeio
?anioae?eo ? Aee?aeoi??th ia /ie? c N.Iaoeth?ith ye aa?oiaio aeaaeo a
Oe?a?i?. Oey iie?oe/ia a oaeiae a?enueeiaa eiiaaioe?y iaaeaaaea
iiaeeea?noue i?iaeiaaeaiiy ai?ioueae ca aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae
a?eueoiaeoeueei? aa?an??.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — «Iniiai? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? aeeieiiaoe/ieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa OI?» ?icaeyaea?oueny oa aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? o oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, yea
cae?enieea cia/io ?iaioo c iaoith iaeaaiaeaeaiiy c ieie ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
o iie?oeei-aeeieiiaoe/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e, oi?aiaaeuei?e, a?enueeia?e,
iaoeia?e oa eoeueoo?i?e noa?ao.

Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi eiinoeuenueeeo onoaiia aoea i?aaiaa ioi?iia
a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, ye? c oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei iieieeeny ca ei?aeiiii,
iaaeaiiy ?i o?iainiai-iaoa??aeueii? aeiiiiiae. Iaeii/anii aiie aaee
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i? ni?aae c e?a?iaie, c yeeie Oe?a?ia iaea
oi?aiaaeuei? oaiaee; ii?aoeueiaoaaee i?ia?aie aeey iiaeeeaeo aeiiii?/ieo
aca?iei; cae?enithaaee ?iaioo ii iiaa?iaiith ia aaouee?aueio
oe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo. Eiinoeuenueea ae?yeuei?noue iaea
iaaiith i??ith eiiiainoaaoe a?aenooi?noue io?oe?eiiai aeciaiiy OI? o
?yae? e?a?i ?a?iie ? noaea aaaeeeaei iai?yieii aeeieiiaoe/ii? ?iaioe.

Ciai?oiuei?ioi?iaoe?eia ?iaioa oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e ?
iinieuenoa a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie aoea aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Aacia?a/ii, ia’?eoeaia
?ioi?ioaaiiy ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i i?i oe?a?inueeo ni?aao iaaeaaaei
iiaeeea?noue noai?eoe iiceoeai? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo aeainoi?iii?o
i?aeia?iaeieo noinoie?a. A oie aea /an ?ioi?iaoe?eio neoaeao
oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa ca ei?aeiiii ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ye can?a ?ica?aeoaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ine?eueee aiia aoea
ci???ioiaaia ia ca?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo aeaieo aeey aea?aeaaiiai i?iaiaeo
OI? c iaoith iiaeaeueoiai ei?eaoaaiiy iie?oe/iiai eo?no Oe?a?ie.

A?enueeiai-aeeieiiaoe/i? i?n??, a oaeiae aeaeaaaoe?? c ieoaiue
?aiao??aoe?? a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo oe?a?ioe?a cae?enithaaee cia/io ?iaioo
ii i?aai?caoe?? iiaa?iaiiy a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo a Oe?a?io. Naia a e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie cina?aaeaeoaaeenue aeanyoee oeny/
oe?a?ioe?a-iieiiaieo, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue /anoi o aeoaea aaaeeeo oiiaao ?
iio?aaoaaee iaaeaiiy ?i iaoa??aeueii?, iaaee/ii? ? aoiai?oa?ii?
aeiiiiiae i?ae /an ia?aaoaaiiy o oaai?ao.

Oni?oe oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiao?a a iaeaaiaeaeai? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
noinoie?a c e?a?iaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie iaaiith i??ith iii’yeooaaee o?
o?oaeiiu?, c yeeie c?oeioeanue iieiaea oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa a
iie?oe/i?e noa??. Caoe?eaaeaiiy a aeiiii?/iiio iioaioe?ae? Oe?a?ie
?a?iiaenueeeo aaie???a ? o?iaineno?a cioooaaee iie?oe/i? eiea e?a?ie,
ye? i?ae oeneii Aioaioa ia iiaiaeaeoaaeenue ia ?? aeciaiiy, aei
aeainoi?iii?o oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a. Oe?a?inueea aeeieiiao?y
coi?ea caoe?eaaeoe ?a?iiaenueeee na?o ia?niaeoeaaie
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a c OI?, ui aoei iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
aeinyaiaiue oe?a?inueei? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee aeiae Aee?aeoi??? OI?.

???. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE IAOEIAIAI AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ia aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie a?aee?eei oeyo aeey ??
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Aeo?ae iiaiiianoaei? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae o i?aeia?iaeiee na?o aoa iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith ??
iiaiie?iaiiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo,
iiaeieaiiy oeaieo iiaeyae?a ia oe?a?inueeo i?iaeaio, ye aioo??oith
ni?aao ?in?? /e Aano?i-Oai?ueie. Aaea c ia?oeo e?ie?a nai?? ae?yeueiino?
iieiae?e oe?a?inuee?e aeeieiiao?? aeiaaeinue aeieaoe iane?aeee o?eaaeiai
ia??iaeo aacaea?aeaaiino? ? ?ic’?aeiaiino? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ye? ia
ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy noaee ia’?eoii aino?eo noia?a/iinoae ? i?yieo
cac?oaiue c aieo aaeeeeo aea?aeaa.

I?eo?ae aei aeaaee Aee?aeoi??? ia ci?iea iai?eoeeueiiai noaaeaiiy aei
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? e?a?i Aioaioe, ye? i?iaeiaaeoaaee
i?aeo?eioaaoe iie?oe/iee eo?n ia a?aeiiaeaiiy “?aeeii? ? iaae?eeii?”
?in??. ?ic/a?iaai? oaeith iiceoe??th e?a?i-ia?aiiaeieoeue o Ia?o?e
na?oia?e a?ei?, ea??ai? eiea OI? ooeathoue a ?ioeo e?a?iao i?aeo?eiee
nai?i iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiei ono?aie?iiyi. Aaaeeeao ?ieue o oeueiio
a?ae?a?aea aeeieiiaoe/ia aeoeai?noue a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.

Aeoea?caoe?y aeeieiiaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? coiiaethaaeanue
i?aaiaiiyi aeiiiaoeny anoaiiaeaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo eiioaeo?a, a a
ia?niaeoea? ? iiaiii?aaieo aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei, c yeiiiaa oe?oei
eieii o/aniee?a ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai i?ioeano, iaiaaaiiyi caeiaooe
i?aeia?iaeio i?aeo?eieo o ai?iouea? ca oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue. Iii?e
iaaeciaiiy Oe?a?ie de jure, Aee?aeoi??? aaeaeiny cia/ii ?icoe-?eoe
ia?aaeo nai?o aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa ca ei?aeiiii, o oiio /ene?
? o oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeiio ?aa?ii?. ?icaoaeiaa ?ai?acaioaoe?e
Aee?aeoi??? a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie nie?aeanue ia aaaiia
caeiiiaeaa/a ? i?aai?caoe?eia i?aea?oioy, caeeaaeaia ooo ye
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith, oae ? Oe?a?inueeith Aea?aeaaith. Oe?a?inuee?
iinieuenoaa a I?ia//ei? ? Aano???, iaea?eueo aieeaiaeo e?a?iao
oeaio?aeueii?a?iiae-nueeiai ?aa?iio, caniiaai? a ia??iae aaoueiaiaoo
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, i?iaeiaaeeee nai? ?nioaaiiy ? ca o?yaeoaaiiy
Aee?aeoi???. Iath/e o nai?io neeaae? aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo aeeieiiao?a ?
nie?ath/enue ia ?icaeiaiee neoaeaiaee aia?ao, aiie a?ae?a?aaaee
aaae-eeao eii?aeeiaoe?eio ?ieue a ae?yeueiino? ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa a ?a?ii?.

Oe?a?inuee? iaaecae/aei? aeeieiiaoe/i? i?n?? a *aoineiaa//ei? ? Oai?uei?
aeieeee ? i?aoethaaee a i?ioean? ?icaoaeiae oeeo aea?aeaa i?ney ?icaaeo
Aano?i-Oai?nueei? iiia?o??. Oe?a?inuee?e aeeieiiao?? aaeaeiny c?iaeoe a
oeeo e?a?iao aaaeeeaee e?ie ia oeyoo th?eaee/iiai aeciaiiy OI?. I?ioyaii
ei?ioeiai oa?i?io aoei i?aai?ciaaii aia?ao i?aaenoaaieoeoa ? aeinyaiooi
?o ae?aaeeoaoe??. Aieiae i?n?e aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo aeeieiiaoe/iiai
ei?iono ? ei?enooaaeenue aeeieiiaoe/ieie i?ea?eayie, ca anoaiiaeaiei
i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaii.

Oe?a?inuee? aeeieiiaoe/i? i?n?? a ?oae??, Aaoeeai? e Oaaeoea??? iaee
iai?aio?oe?eiee noaoon, i?ioa aaeeee ?yae aaaeeeaeo caoiae?a aei
aeciaiiy Oe?a?ie de jure. Cie?aia, nooo?aei aeinyaiaiiyi oe?a?inueei?
i?n?? o Aaoeeai? aoei i?ecia/aiiy iainueeiai a?ceoaoi?a a Oe?a?io, ui
aoei iiia?aaei?i e?ieii aei i?ecia/aiiy iainueeiai ioioe?y ? aeciaiiy
OI? ye iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae.

Iae/enaeuei?oith aoea aeeieiiaoe/ia i?n?y OI? o Aa?oaa?, ui na?ae/eei
i?i iaaecae/aeii aaaeeea? iie?oe/i? caoe?eaaeaiiy Aee?aeoi??? a Iieueu?.
Oe?a?inueea aeeieiiao?y aeiiiaeany io?oe?eiiai aeciaiiy OI? c aieo
Iieueu? ? oeeaaeaiiy c iath iie?oe/ii? ? a?enueeiai? eiiaaioe??, ui
aeaei iiaeeea?noue i?iaeiaaeaiiy ai?ioueae ca aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae
a?eueoiaeoeueei? aa?an??.

Oe?a?inueeei i?aaenoaaieoeoaai a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, ye ? ??
aeeieiiaoe/i?e neoaea? a oe?eiio, aeiaiaeeeinue ae?yoe o iaaecae/aeii
neeaaeieo oiiaao. *ano? ci?ie ai?iii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, ye?
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue ??ceei nei?i/aiiyi oa?eoi???, aea ?aaeueii ?nioaaea
aeaaea Aee?aeoi???, ia iiaee ia a?aeaeoenue iaaaoeaii ia ae?yeueiino? ??
i?aaenoaaieoeoa ca ei?aeiiii. Aeaaaeany aciaee a?aenooi?noue iino?eiiai
? iaae?eiiai ca’yceo c o?yaeiaei oeaio?ii, ui ia??aeei aeeeeeaei
iaocaiaeaeai? ?c inoaii?i iie?oe/i? e?iee, /anii iaa?oue
aaca?aeiia?aeaeuei? cayae, ui oeiaeeee caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiei ?ioa?anai.
Aei oeeo i?ee?eo yaeu ni?e/eieeanue oaeiae ? i?aeia?o?eia ai?iaeia/a o
ea??aieoeoa? OI?, yea /anoi ia?aiineeanue ? ia a?oio aeeieiiaoe/iiai
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa ca ei?aeiiii. Nooo?ai? oeiaee ii?iaeueiiio
ooieoe?iioaaiith aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae caaaeaea nioe?ae?noe/ia
caaiaaaeiaai?noue Aee?aeoi???, yea ia??aeei aieeaaea ia a?aeiia?aei?
neoaeaia? i?ecia/aiiy ? i?ecaaea aei onoiaiiy ?yaeo aecia/ieo oao?aoe?a,
ye? oni?oii i?aoethaaee ca /an?a Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae. A ?acoeueoao?
eiioe?eo?a i?ae i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo ia?o?e o i?aae-noaaieoeoaao
Oe?a?ie ca ei?aeiiii iaee i?noea ceiaaeeaaiiy neoaeaiaei noaiiaeuai,
iaaei?aaaeai? o?iainia? aeo?aoe, aii?aeueia iiaaae?iea neoaeaiaoe?a
oiui.

Nooo?ai? oeiaee caaaeaea i?anoeaeo Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?
a?aenooi?noue ?aeeiiai oe?a?inueeiai aeeieiiaoe/iiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa
i?ney i?iaieioaiiy OI? ? COI?. Ia i?aeoeoe? iaeaeaa o?yaee
i?iaeiaaeoaaee naith aeeieiiaoe/io ae?yeuei?noue ia??cii, /anoi ae?th/e
o i?ioeeaaeieo iie?oe/ieo iai?yieao, i?ae?eaath/e oei naiei naio ?aeath
niai?iino? Oe?a?ie.

Neeaaeia iie?oe/ia oa aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua OI? ia aeaaaei iiaeeeaino? ia
iaeaaeiiio ??ai? oo?eioaaoe nai? i?aaenoaaieoeuee? ?inoeoooe ca
ei?aeiiii. Aaea iai?e-e?ioe? 1919 ?. ?o ooaoe aoee nei?i/ai? ia
iieiaeio, ciaioeeeny aeo?aoe ia ca?ia?oio ieaoo, i?aaenoaaieoeueeo
ae?yeuei?noue. Ia e?iaoeue 1920 ?. neooaoe?y iia??oeeanue ua a?eueoa.

? ana ae ae?yeuei?noue aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e OI? ca ei?aeiiii, o oiio
/ene? a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, nooo?ai ni?eyea i?ioeanai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ci?oeiaiith i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie,
i?aeianaiith ?? i?anoeaeo a i/ao ?a?iiaenueei? ? na?oiai?
a?iiaaenueeino?. Ne?ae iaoe ia oaac?, ui ca /an ia?aaoaaiiy Aee?aeoi???
i?e aeaae?, nooo?ai ?icoe?eeanue ia?aaea ?? caei?aeiiieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa. E??i 25 aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e oe?a?inueeee o?yae
iaaeneeaa o ??ci? e?a?ie niaoe?aeuei? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i?,
a?enueeiai-aeeieiiaoe/i? i?n??, a oaeiae aeaeaaaoe?? c ieoaiue
?aiao??aoe?? a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo oe?a?ioe?a.

Oe?a?inueea aeeieiiao?y a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie cae?enieea cia/io
?iaioo c iaoith iaeaaiaeaeaiiy c ieie ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o
iie?oeei-aeeieiiaoe/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e, oi?aiaaeuei?e, a?enueeia?e,
iaoeia?e oa eoeueoo?i?e noa?ao. Iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoea
ae?yeuei?noue, iia’ycaia c i?aai?caoe??th iiaa?iaiiy
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo a Oe?a?io. Naia a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie
cina?aaeeeenue aeanyoee oeny/ oe?a?ioe?a-iieiiaieo, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue
/anoi o aeoaea aaaeeeo oiiaao ? iio?aaoaaee iaaeaiiy ?i iaoa??aeueii,
iaaee/ii? ? aoiai?oa?ii? aeiiiiiae i?ae /an ia?aaoaaiiy o oaai?ao.
Oe?a?inueeei aeeieiiaoe/iei ?ai?acaioaoe?yi aeiaiaeeeinue i?ioeae?yoe
i?aaenoaaieeai ?in?enueei? ? iieuenueei? a?i?e, ye? iaiaaaeenue caeo/eoe
o nai? /anoeie yeiiiaa a?eueoa oe?a?inueeeo iieiiaieo.

Iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeao ?iaioo cae?enithaaee eiinoeuenuee? onoaiiae, ye?
iaaeaaaee i?aeoe/io aeiiiiiao a?iiaaeyiai oe?a?inueeiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
a?aeaioeyi ? a?enueeiaiiieiiaiei c iaoith ?o iiaa?iaiiy ia aaouee?aueio.
Eiinoeuenueea ae?yeuei?noue iaea iaaiith i??ith eiiiainoaaoe
a?aenooi?noue io?oe?eiiai aeciaiiy OI? o ?yae? e?a?i ?a?iie ? noaea
aaaeeeaei iai?yieii aeeieiiaoe/ii? ?iaioe ii?yae c
?ioi?iaoe?eii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueeith ? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iith
ae?yeuei?noth. Eiinoeuenuee? caeeaaee acyee aeoeaio o/anoue o
i?aeaioiaoe? aeiiii?/ieo oaiae OI? c Iieueuath, ?oae??th, Oaaeoea???th
oa ?ioeie ?a?iiaenueeeie e?a?iaie.

Nooo?ai ?icoe?eeanue ?ioi?iaoe?eii-i?iiaaaiaeenonueea ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae a aea?aeaaao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie.
Iaiao?aei?noue ia’?eoeaiiai ?ioi?ioaaiiy ?o o?yaeiaeo e?e ?
a?iiaaenueeino? i?i ni?aaaei?e ci?no oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, eiie?aoiee ?icaeoie iiae?e a Oe?a?i?
aoea ae?ae aaaeeeaith c iaeyaeo ia ?ioaineaio aioeoe?a?inueeo
i?iiaaaiaeo /a?aiii? ? a?eiaaa?ae?enueei? ?in??, iieuenueeeo
oia?i?noe/ieo e?e. Aoei c?iaeaii aaaaoi aeey oiai, uia ci?ieoe oyao
?a?iiaenueeiai na?oo i?i Oe?a?io ye i?ia?ioe?th ?in?? ? Iieueu?,
iciaeiieoe ?a?iiaenueeo a?iiaaenuee?noue c aeinyaiaiiyie oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e, ?noi???th Oe?a?ie oiui.

Ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo i?aaenoaaieoeoa o Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?
ni?eyea aeoiaeo OI? c e?eueoey ai?iaeiai ioi/aiiy ? aeiiiiaaaea
iaeaaiaeeoe ?icia?o? ca’ycee c e?a?iaie ?a?iie ? na?oo. Aiia aieeioea ia
oa, ui cao?aei? iie?oeee ii/aee ?aae?noe/i?oa i?aeoiaeeoe aei oaeoo
?nioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ye oeea?e?ciaaii? aea?aeaae ? iaeaaiaeaeaiiy c iath
iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe AeENA?OAIOA C AeINE?AeAEOAAII? I?IAEAIE

1. Nieiaeiaa A.A. C ?noi??? aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei Aee?aeoi??? OI? ?
?aaeia?eiio ?NON? o 1919 // Iaoeia? i?aoe? ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Caii??cueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?n?oaoo. Aei.???. — Caii??aeaey, 1998. —
N.27-35.

2. Nieiaeiaa A.A. Aeeieiiaoe/i? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa OI? o I?ia//ei? oa
Aano??? // A?niee Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Na??y «?noi??y, aeiiii?ea, o?einio?y». Aei.2. — 1998. — N.89-97.

3. Nieiaeiaa A.A. Ciai?oiuei?ioi?iaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa o e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie (1918-1920
??.) // A?niee Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oa?aa?neoaoo.
Na??y “?noi??y, aeiiii?ea, o?einio?y.” – Aei. 3. – E., 1999. – N.
155-166.

Nieiaeiaa A.A. Aeeieiiaoe/i? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee a aea?aeaaao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie aeiae Aee?aeoi??? (1918 —
1920 ??.). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — Caii??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny aeena?oaoe?y (?oeiien), iniiai? iieiaeaiiy yei? aeeeaaeaii
o 3 iaoeiaeo noaooyo. A i?e aia?oa eiiieaenii aea/a?oueny i?ioean
noai?aiiy oa ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa
OI? a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie ca aeiae Aee?aeoi???. Caaaeaiiyi
oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? o oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao aoea
iaeo?ae?caoe?y, ia ne?eueee oea aoei iiaeeeaei, oeo iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a, ye? iaei aeey Oe?a?ie iaaeciaiiy ?? iacaeaaeiino?
i?ia?aeieie e?a?iaie Aioaioe. Noaaea e?aea??a aea?aeaa – ae?aio?a ia
“?aeeio ? iaae?eeio” ?in?th o i?aeia?iaei?e iie?oeoe? i?eaaea Oe?a?io
aei oaeoe/ii? ?cieyoe?? a?ae na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa ? iinoaaeei ia?aae
?? aeeieiiaoe/ieie i?aaenoaaieoeoaaie caaaeaiiy ?ic??aaiiy eaioethao
iaaeciaiiy ? anoaiiaeaiiy anaa?/ieo eiioaeo?a ?c ciai?oi?i na?oii.
Ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? aoea ni?yiiaaia ia iiooee ye
ie?aieo ia?oia??a, oae ? a?oi e?a?i, ye? iiaee a ?aaeueii ni?eyoe
Oe?a?i? o ai?iouea? ca iacaeaaei?noue.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa o oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i?e,
i?aniai-?ioi?iaoe?ei?e noa?ao, eiinoeuenuee?e ni?aa?, ui aoee aaaeeeaeie
eiiiiiaioaie aea?aeaaioai?/i? ae?yeueiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeeieiiaoe/i? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa, Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia
?anioae?ea, Aee?aeoi??y, ciai?oiy iie?oeea.

Soloviova V.V. The diplomatic representations of Ukrainian People’s
Republic in the states of Central Europe of the of Directory (1918 —
1920) — Manuscript.

The thesis to scholarly degree of candidate of history scholarship,
faculty 07.00.01. — History of Ukraine, Zaporizhzha State University,
Zaporizhzha, 1999.

The thesis (manuscript) is defended, the main ideas of which are exposed
in 3 scientific articles. The process of foundation and the activity of
Ukrainian diplomatic representation of Directory of Ukrainian People’s
Republic are being learnt here in a complex for the first time. The
thesis is devoted to the analysis of the foundation and activity of
diplomatic embassies and extraordinary missions of Directory in Central
European states, which have contributed to the breakthrough of the de
facto blockade of Ukrainian People’s Republic and to the establishing
its relationship with Europe.

In a thesis , that a main problem Ukrainian diplomatic in the states of
the Central European region was neutralising, on how many it was
possible, those negative consequences, which had for Ukraine the
non-recognition of its independence by leading countries Antanta. The
rate of the leaders of the states — “uniform and indivisible” Russia in
international policy has reduced Ukraine in actual isolation from world
community and has delivered before it by diplomatic representations a
problem of break of blockade of Ukraine and installation of the
comprehensive attitudes with the states of Europe and world. The
activity Ukrainian diplomatic was directed, first of all on search both
separate partners, and groups of the states, which could promote the
young Ukrainian state in struggle for independence.

To the Ukrainian representations in the states of the Central European
region, as to a diplomatic service as a whole, it was necessary to work
in extremely complicated conditions. Often changes of a political
situation in Ukraine to accompany by a sharp diminution of territory,
where there was an authority of the Directory, negatively had an effect
for activity it of representations abroad. To this it is necessary to
add absence of a constant and reliable communication with governmental
centre, that quite often called not agreed pitches harming to
nation-wide interests. The essential harm to prestige of Ukraine on
international arena has plotted absence of uniform Ukrainian
representation after junction of the Ukrainian People’s Republic with
western area.

Ukrainian diplomatic in the states of Central Europe has realised
significant work with the purpose of installation with them of
cooperation in political, economic, trade, military, scientific and
cultural orbs.

The important significance was acquired by activity connected to
organisation of returning of the people from a film in Ukraine. Just in
the states of the Central European region tens thousands in a film of
the Ukrainian people have concentrated which frequently were in very
difficult conditions and required granting by it of the material,
medical and humanitarian help. Besides the diplomatic representations
had to counteract the representatives of russian and Polish armies,
which tried to involve in the parts maximal Ukrainian people, which were
in a film.

Main problem of a consular service was the right protection of the
citizens of Ukraine, which for the different reasons have appeared
abroad, and also granting by him of the material help. In parallel
consular offices order trade and economic negotiations with the states,
with which Ukraine had the trade agreements.

The information activity Ukrainian diplomatic on international arena was
directed on overcoming of information vacuum, which was created round
Ukraine during it of stay in structure of the russian state. Both
pre-revolutionary St. Petersburg, and soviet Moscow were guided by
rushing to not suppose actualisation of the Ukrainian problem in
international life, directed the gains on a false information of a world
think not only about a character of historical and political life of
Ukraine, but also hindered with shaping of adequate submissions about
its culture, spiritual life, contribution to a world civilisation.
Simultaneously, the information activity of the Ukrainian diplomatic
representations abroad should be considered and as a method of
prospecting activity, as it was oriented on the tax of information
data’s for a management UPR with the purpose of further adjustment of a
political rate of Ukraine.

Ukrainian diplomatic has managed to interest the states of Europe in
perspectives of foreign economic relations with the Ukrainian People’s
Republic, that promoted softening of voltage in a political orb.

The activity of the Ukrainian diplomatic representations in Central
Europe has rendered essential influence to submissions of an european
public about a character and contents Ukrainian national of struggle.

The practical of Ukrainian diplomatic representations in the spheres of
commerce and economics, press-information, consular affairs, which were
important components of the country — creating is being considered in
this work.

Key words: diplomatic representation, Ukrainian People Republic,
Directory, foreign policy.

Nieiaueaaa A.A. Aeeieiiaoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa Oe?aeineie
Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee a ainoaea?noaao Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu a ia?eiae
Aee?aeoi?ee (1918 — 1920 aa.) — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu, Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea 1999.

Caueuaaony aeenna?oaoeey (?oeiienue), iniiaiua iieiaeaiey eioi?ie
eceiaeaiu a 3 iao/iuo ?aaioao. A iae aia?aua eiiieaenii eco/aaony
i?ioeann nicaeaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe aeeieiiaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa
Oe?aeineie Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee a ainoaea?noaao Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu. A
aeenna?oaoeee iiae/??eeaaaony, /oi iniiaiie caaea/ae oe?aeineie
aeeieiiaoee a ainoaea?noaao oeaio?aeueii-aa?iiaeneiai ?aaeiia auea
iaeo?aeecaoeey, ia neieueei yoi auei aiciiaeii, oao iaaaoeaiuo
iineaaenoaee, eioi?ua eiaei aeey Oe?aeiu iai?eciaiea a? iacaaeneiinoe
aaaeoueie no?aiaie Aioaiou. Noaaea eeaea?ia ainoaea?noa-aeueyioia ia
“aaeeioth e iaaeaeeioth” ?inneth a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iieeoeea i?eaaea
Oe?aeio e oaeoe/aneie ecieyoeee io ie?iaiai niiauanoaa e iinoaaeea
ia?aae a? aeeieiiaoe/aneeie i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaaie caaea/o i?i?uaa
aeieaaeu Oe?aeiu e onoaiiaeaieth ananoi?iiieo ioiioaiee n ainoaea?noaaie
Aa?iiu e ie?a. Aeayoaeueiinoue oe?aeineie aeeieiiaoee auea iai?aaeaia,
i?aaeaea anaai, ia iiene, eae ioaeaeueiuo ia?oi??ia, oae e a?oii
ainoaea?noa, eioi?ua iiaee niaeaenoaiaaoue iieiaeiio oe?aeineiio
ainoaea?noao a ai?ueaa ca iacaaeneiinoue.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue oe?aeineeo
aeeieiiaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa a oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneie,
i?anniai-eioi?iaoeeiiiie, eiinoeueneie noa?ao, ?aaioa
aiaiii-aeeieiiaoe/aneeo iennee e aeaeaaaoeee ii aii?inai ?aiao?eaoeee
aiaiiiieaiiuo oe?aeioeaa. Aeaeaaony auaiae i oii, /oi aeeieiiaoe/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony aaaeiui eiiiiiaioii ainoaea?noaaiii-oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeieiiaoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, Oe?aeineay
Ia?iaeiay ?anioaeeea, Aee?aeoi?ey, aiaoiyy iieeoeea.

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