Динаміка процесу кристалізації в циліндроконічному класифікуючому кристалізаторі: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / Я.Е. Михайловський, Сум. держ. ун

NOINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ieoaeeianueeee sse?a Aiaio?eiae/

OAeE 66.021.3

AeEIAI?EA I?IOeANO

E?ENOAE?CAOe?? A OeEE?IAe?IEII?*IIIO EEANEO?EOTH*IIO E?ENOAE?CAOI??

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.05.13 — Iaoeie oa aia?aoe o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Noie – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?i?/ii? oaoi?ee oa i?iieneiai? aeiei-a??
(OOIA) Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?i?noa?noai ina?-oe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?aaia Aiaoie?e Iao?iae/

i?ioani? eaoaae?e OOIA NoiAeO

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

No?aeueoeia Aieiaeeie?
Aaneeueiae/

i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii?
aeieia?? ?

aaciaee aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
NoiAeO;

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?aae/aiei Eaii?ae Ai?eniae/

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaoeie oa
aia?aoe

o?i?/ieo oa iaooiia?a?iaieo
ae?iaieoeoa

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Oe?a?ie “EI?”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo oaoi?/ii? oaieio?ceee IAIO, Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 26 ethoiai 1999 ?. i 16 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 55.051.03 o Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? (244007, i. Noie, aoe. ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, 2, ei?ion A,
aoae. 215)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Noinueeiai
aea?aeaa-iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (244007, i. Noie, aoe. ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa,
2)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.A.Iaiy

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeei?enoaiiy eeaneo?eoth/eo e?enoae?caoi??a c
inaaaeic??aeaeaiei oa?ii ? iaeiei c oeyo?a ae??oaiiy caaea/ i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino?, ciaioaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?? o i?ioeanao io?eiaiiy
iai?aai?/ieo nieae ? i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea. E?enoae?caoi?e oeueiai aeaeo,
i?aoeththoue a aacia?a?aiiio ?aaeei?, caaacia/othoue io?eiaiiy o?i?/ii
/en-oiai, e?oiiie?enoae?/iiai i?iaeoeoo iaeii??aeiiai a?aioeiiao?e/iiai
neeaaeo, aeicaieythoue ?aaoethaaoe oaeaee?noue oee?eoeyoe?? ?ic/eio,
oaeaee?noue c?inoo e?enoae?a, i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ui iioe?th? canoinoaaiiy
oaeeo e?en-oae?caoi??a ? aea? iiaeeea?noue aaoiiaoecoaaoe oaoiieia?/i?
i?ioeane.

Aeey ?icoe?aiiy iiceoeaieo iiaeeeainoae eeaneo?eoth/eo e?enoae?ca-oi??a
a i?iieneiaino? aeei?enoiaothoue oeee?iae?ieii?/i? eeaneo?eoth/?
e?enoae?caoi?e (OeEEE), ui aeicaiey? ca?eueoeoe ia’?iio
i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ?icoe?eoe ae?aiacii ?ici???a c?inoath/eo ca?ai,
ciaioeoe aeiin iaeeo /anoie a oee?eoeyoe?eiee oeeee. Aea a e?oa?aoo??
iaeaea a?aenooiy iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooie?a OeEEE c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie
ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai oa?o ca?ai oa c o?aooaaiiyi aeeiai?ee iioie?a a
aia?aoao ia?ai?iiiai ia?aoeio.

Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy caeiiii??iinoae a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ?
ianiiai?iieo i?ioean?a a OeEEE, ?ic?iaea ?iaeaia?iiai iaoiaeo
?ic-?aooieo c aeei?enoaiiyi AII ia iniia? iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a
i?ioeano a eeaneo?eiaaiiio cioeaiiio oa?? c o?aooaaiiyi aeeiai?ee
iioie?a i?aae-noaaeythoue aeooaeueio iaoeiai-oaoi?/io caaea/o, yea ia?
oaeiae aaaeeeaa ia-?iaeiiainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
a?aeiia?aea? iaoeiaiio iai?yieo eaoaae?e OOIA NoiAeO o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
eii?aeeiaoe?eieie ieaiaie iaeaaaeeea?oeo IAe? I?iaoco N?N? ia 1986-1990
?. ?. c iai?yio e?enoae?caoe?? c ?ic/ei?a ? aaciai? oace, a oaeiae
eii?-aeeiaoe?eiei ieaiii AI N?N? ia 1986-1990 ?. ?. ii i?iaeai?
2.27.2.13.6 “?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia ? aia?aoo?e e?enoae?caoe?eieo
iaoiae?a i/eno-ee a ?ic/eiao”.

Iaoa ?iaioe. ?ic?iaea aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? i?ioeano a?ae?aae?/ii?
eeane-o?eaoe?? oa c?inoo e?enoae?a i?e e?enoae?caoe?? a
oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio aia?ao?; aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a i?e ?o aca-?iiae?? c aeno?aeiei iiooeii
ia?ane/aiiai ?ic/eio a OeEEE; aiae?c i?inoi-?iai-/aniaiai ?iciiae?eo
eieaeueieo ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai oa?o ii aenio? oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai
e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a; ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo i?iieneiaeo OeEEE c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiii’thoa?a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

— ?ic?iaea aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? i?ioeano a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? oa
ianiiai?iii? aca?iiae?? aeenia?nii? oace c ia?ane/aiei ?ic/eiii a oiiaao
ci?ie ei-eaeueieo ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai oa?o ii aenio? OeEEE;

— aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ? ianiiai?iieo
ia-?aiao??a cioeaiiai oa?o ca?ai a eii?/ieo aia?aoao;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo, i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo OeEEE c
aeei-?enoaiiyi AII;

— aiae?c ci?ie eieaeueieo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ? ianiiai?iieo ia?aiao??a
i?ioeano e?enoae?caoe?? ii aenio? OeEEE c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie ao?aeieo
ia-?aiao??a ? aaiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eii?/ii? naeoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?ic?iaeaia aeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano a?ae?aae?/ii?
eeaneo?eaoe?? oa c?inoo e?enoae?a i?e e?enoae?caoe?? a
oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio aia?ao?; i?iaaaeaii aiae?c i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai
?iciiae?eo eieaeueieo ia?a-iao??a cioeaiiai oa?o ii aenio?
oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a; ae??oaia caaea/a iioei?caoe??
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiia e?enoae?caoe?? a oeee?i-ae?ieii?/iiio
inaaaeic??aeaeaiiio oa?? c o?aooaaiiyi ?ici???a ca?ai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo
aei-ne?aeaeaiue aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a
i?e ?o noene?e aca?iiae?? c aeno?aeiei iioieii ia?ane/aiiai ?ic/eio;
?ic?iaea-ii iaoiae ?iaeaia?iiai ?ic?aooieo OeEEE ia caaeaio
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa ?ic-i?? i?iaeoeoe?eieo e?enoae?a i?e iioeiaeueieo
?aaeeiao eiai ?iaioe; ?ic-?iaeaia i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo
oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a oa a?ao?/iiai iiaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo
ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai oa?o ii aenio? aia-?aoo c aeei?enoaiiyi AII, yea
aea? iiaeeea?noue ca iao?eaaeee /an i?i?a-ooaaoe aaeeeo e?euee?noue
aa??aio?a oeee?iae?ieii?/ieo e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/?a ia caaeai? ii/aoeia?
ia?aiao?e ? ia?aoe c ieo iioeiaeueiee.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa. A oiae? i?aeaioiaee aeena?oaoe?? iiooeoaa/
iniaenoi noai?ea aenia?eiaioaeueiee noaiae aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?enoae?caoe?? a cioeaiiio oa??; i?aeaiooaaa ? i?ia?a aenia?eiaioe ii
a?ae?iaeeiai?oe? oa ianiiai?io a oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio aia?ao? c
a?ae?icioeaiei oa?ii; ii?a-oethaaa, i?iaiae?coaaa oa ocaaaeueiea
?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

A ioae?eaoe?yo, a yeeo a?aeia?aaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? oa
ye? iaienai? o ni?aaaoi?noa? c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii, aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue: a
[1]- ?ic?iaea aeai?eoio oa aeie-noaie i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a
cio-eaiiai oa?o a eii?/i?e naeoe?? eeaneo?eoth/iai e?enoae?caoi?a; a
[2]- ae-cia/aiiy oiia a?ae?inaia?aoe?? oa eeaneo?eaoe?? e?enoae?a o
eeaneo?eoth/iio e?enoae?caoi??; a [4]- ?ic?iaea i?ia?ai ?iaeaia?iiai
?ic?aooieo OeEEE c aeei?enoaiiyi AII; a [5]- ?ic?iaea aeeiai?/ii?
iiaeae? i?ioeano a?ae?aa-e?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe?? oa c?inoo e?enoae?a i?e
e?enoae?caoe?? a oeee?iae?ieii?/-iiio aia?ao?; a [7]- aiae?c
i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai ?iciiae?eo eieaeueieo ia?a-iao??a cioeaiiai oa?o ii
aenio? oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o aaey/i?noue iaoeiaiio ea??aieeo ca ie?aei? ?aea?,
ii?aaee ? i?aeo?eieo, ui noaee aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith a i?aeaioiaoe?
aeena?oa-oe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia 9-e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? IAIE-9 (Iaeana, 1996
p.) oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a, ni?a?ia?oiee?a oa
nooaeai-o?a NoiAeO (Noie, 1995-1998 p.p.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo
i?a-oeyo: noaoo? a oaiaoe/ieo ca??ieeao ? iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao-3; a
iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e-2; a oacao eiioa?aioe?e-4; iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? o ca?oao ii IAe?.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ii ?iaio?, nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae
(110 iaeiaio-aaiue) oa aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ia’?i ?iaioe 150 noi??iie,
o oiio /ene? 12 ?enoie?a (ia 13 noi??ieao), 7 oaaeeoeue (ia 15
noi??ieao) oa aeiaeaoee (ia 21 noi??ieao).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? a?aei?/ai? iiceoeai? iniaeeaino? eeaneo?eoth/eo
e?enoae?caoi-??a oeee?iae?ieii?/ii? oi?ie, a naia: iiaeeea?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy cioeaii-ai oa?o e?enoae?a a?eueo oe?ieiai, i?ae o
oeee?iae?e/ieo aia?aoao, a?aio-eiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo; iaea?aeaiiy
iaeii??aeiiai e?oiiie?enoae?/iiai i?i-aeoeoo, naia?aoe?y ae??aieo
e?enoae?a; ina?oeaiiy oee?eoethth/iai ?ic/eio oa cieaeaiiy iiae??aiaiiy
ca?iei o oee?eoeyoe?eiiio oeeee?. Iieacaia aeooaeue-i?noue, iaoeiaa oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oaie aeena?oaoe??, aeeeaaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? a?ae?iaeeiai?ee oa
ianiia?aiino a aia?aoao c a?ae?icioeaiei oa?ii oaa?aeeo /anoie, iiaeaii
i?eioeei ?iaioe oa c?iaeaii iaeyae ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo
e?enoae?-caoi??a c inaaaeic??aeaeaiei oa?ii e?enoae?a, a oaeiae
a?aei?/ai? ia?aaaae eeaneo?eoth/eo e?enoae?caoi??a c oeee?iae?ieii?/iei
ei?ionii.

I?e ?icaeyae? e?enoae?caoe?? a eeaneo?eoth/iio e?enoae?caoi?? ia iniia?
i?aeoeee aenieoaoaoe?? oa iioae?eiaaieo aeaieo aeyaeaii, ui ia ?iaioo
aia?aoa aieeaathoue a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? oaeoi?e ? e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?ioeano ianiiai?io a nenoai? e?enoaee-?ic/ei, a oaeiae aaiiao?e/ia
oi?-ia e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a.

A?ae?iaeeiai?oe? inaaaeic??aeaeaieo oa??a o oeee?iae?e/iiio aia?ao?
i?e-nay/aia cia/ia e?euee?noue ?ia?o. O a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? aeey
iieno ?icoe-?aiiy cioeaieo oa??a i?e iaeii??aeiiio inaaaeic??aeaeaii?
oe?iea aeei?en-oaiiy ia? iieoaii??e/ia ??aiyiiy Oiaeana c ni?aaaoi?aie,
yea c?o/ia aeey ?ic?aooie?a o anueiio ?ioa?aae? ?nioaaiiy cioeaiiai
oa?o, aea aiii ia aei-caiey? aiae?coaaoe nooi?iue ?icoe?aiiy cioeaiiai
oa?o i?e ia?ai?iiiio ae?aiao?? /anoie oa ci?i? iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio
aia?aoa. ?ioei aenia?e-iaioaeueii io?eiaiei ? oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaiei
??aiyiiyi ? ni?aa?aeii-oaiiy ??/a?aeniia-Cae?, yea iaea?eueo oi/ii
iieno? ?icoe?aiiy oa??a oaa?aeeo iiiiaeenia?nieo /anoie i?e
inaaaeic??aeaeaii? ??aeeiith a ia?ao?ae-iiio ?aaeei? iao?eaiiy ca?ai a
oeee?iae?e/ieo aia?aoao, i?ioa i?e oeueiio o?aaa iiia?aaeiuei aecia/eoe
oaeaee?noue a?eueiiai in?aeaiiy oa ?aaeei in?-aeaiiy ca?iei.

Ianiiai?i i?ae aeno?aeiei iioieii inaaaeic??aeaeoth/iai na?aaeiaeua ?
oa?ii oaa?aeeo /anoie oaeiae ? i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy aaaaoueio
aeine?aeiee?a. ?c-ca iaiaaeaii? e?eueeino? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
iienaoe iaeiei e?eoa-??aeueiei ??aiyiiyi i?ioean ianiiai?io a nenoai?
e?enoaee-?ic/ei aeey ??cieo ?a/iaei iei? iaiiaeeeai. Aeey aecia/aiiy
e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?en-oee i?e ianiiai?i? a aeenia?nieo nenoaiao /anoi
aeei?enoiao?oueny ??a-iyiiy Aenaeue?oaea, io?eiaia aeey ?cieueiaaii?
noa?e/ii? /anoee, iao?ea?-ii? ??aiii??iei iioieii ??aeeie. I?e aiae?c?
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo iiaeai? ??ci? i?aeoiaee o aeai?? iioeiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai oa?o i?e e?en-oae?caoe??.

Aeey oeee?iae?ieii?/ieo aia?ao?a ? iaaecia/aieie ia?aiao?e cioeaiiai
oa?o a ca’yceo c? ci?iith iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio aia?aoa, ae?aiao?a ca?ai
? oiia ?o iao?eaiiy.

Iniaeea?noth ?iaioe OeEEE ? oa, ui c ieaeiuei? oeee?iae?e/ii? naeoe??
a?ae-aiaeyoueny e?oii? i?iaeoeoe?ei? e?enoaee, a na?aaei?e eii?/i?e
naeoe?? ae?iuo-thoueny e?enoaee i?ii?aeieo ?ici???a, a o aa?oi?e
oeee?iae?e/i?e naeoe?? aeoa-thoue e?enoaee i?i?iaeueiiai ?ici??o,
ii??aiyiiai c ?ici??ii ca?iei, ui aeiinyoueny o oee?eoeyoe?eiee oeeee.
I?e oeueiio a cioeai?i oa?? i?ioeane a?ae?aae?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe?? oa
c?inoo e?enoae?a i?io?eathoue iaeii/anii a oiiaao ci?iii? oaeaeeino?
?ic/eio ii aenio? aia?aoa. ?c-ca iaaeinoa/? aeaieo aeey aecia/aiiy
eieaeueieo ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai iie?aeenia?niiai oa?o /anoie oi/iee
iaoaiaoe/iee iien oeeo i?ioean?a aac yeeoinue i?eiouaiue caeeoa?oueny
iaae??ooaaiith caaea/ith. Oiio aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? ?ic?iaea
?iaeaia?ieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo OeEEE c aeei?enoaiiyi ni?iuaieo
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co noaio i?iaeaie noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ?
iinoaaeai? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iiaeaia aeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano
a?ae?ieeaneo?eaoe?? oa c?inoo e?enoae?a o oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio aia?ao?,
?ic?aooieiaa noaia yei-ai i?eaaaeaia ia ?en. 1.

Aeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue ?ic?iaeaia i?e oaeeo i?eiouaiiyo:

1) i?ioean i?io?ea? a ?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao i?e iaci?iieo aeanoeainoyo
aca?iiae?th/eo oac;

2) ?ic/ei ?ooa?oueny a ?aaeei? ?aeaaeueiiai aeoeneoaaiiy;

3) a aia?ao? i?aeo?eio?oueny aaeain e?eueeino? /anoie, ui ia?ao?eathoue
ii i??? c?inoo c aeua?icoaoiaaieo oa??a o ieae/a?icoaoiaai?;

4) a aia?ao? a?aeaoaa?oueny a?ae?aae?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y ca ?ici??aie
ca?-iei, oiaoi ooieoe?y ?iciiae?eo aeoath/eo /anoie a ae?aiacii?
?ici???a de…do ? iaia?a?aiith;

5) oi?ia /anoie a i?ioean? c?inoo ia ci?ith?oueny ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
?o ?ici??o;

6) eieaeuei? ia?aiao?e cioeaiiai oa?o ii aenio? aia?aoa iiai?noth
ae-cia/athoueny ?ici??aie aeoath/eo ca?iei oa a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieie oiiaaie
a oa??;

7) e?enoaee a aoaeue-yeiio ia?aoei? oa?o ??aiiaeinooii? oa c?inoathoue
c? oaeaee?noth, i?iii?oe?eiith na?aaeiueiio ia?ane/aiith.

Aanue ia’?i cioeaiiai eeaneo?eiaaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a ?icaeyaea?oueny
neeaaeaiei c ie?aieo, aocueeeo iiiio?aeoe?e, ?icoaoiaaieo iaeia iiiaae
iae-iith c iinooiiai iaioei ?ici??ii ca?iei a?ae i?iaeoeoe?eieo
e?enoae?a de, ui a?aeaiaeyoueny c ieaeiuei? oeee?iae?e/ii? naeoe??, aei
i?i?iaeueieo do, ui aeoa-thoue o aa?oi?e oeee?iae?e/i?e naeoe??. I?e
oeueiio a oiiaao noaeiai ?aaeeio a?ae?ieeaneo?eaoe?? e?enoae?a ca
?ici??aie o cioeaiiio oa?? eiaeia iiii-o?aeoe?y ca?iei oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iaeneiaeueiei di?, na?aaei?i d? oa i?i?-iaeueiei da? ?ici??ii aeoath/eo
e?enoae?a, a oaeiae na?aaei?ie eieaeueieie cia/aiiyie a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo
(wa?, (?, h?, Ar?, Re?) oa ianiiai?iieo ((Cn?, (Fi, (Vi, Fi, Vi, Mi,
NuDi, PrD) ia?aiao??a.

A?ae?iaeeiai?ea ?icoe?aiiy cioeaiiai oa?o iiiiaeenia?nieo /anoie a
oeee?iae?e/ieo aia?aoao iaee?aua iieno?oueny aii??e/iei ??aiyiiyi
??-/a?aeniia-Cae?, iiaeaiei o e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?i?

(1)

a yeiio iieaciee z aecia/a?oueny ii oi?ioe?

(2)

yea aeicaiey? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe eieaeuei? ia?aiao?e iiiiaeenia?nieo oa??a,
inaaaeic??aeaeaieo o oeee?iae?e/ieo aia?aoao. Oi?ioea (2) ocaaaeueith?
cia-/aiiy aaee/eie z, ye? oeeaaeathoueny a cii? a?oioaaiiy aeaieo
ca?aeii ??aiyi-iyi, io?eiaieie ??/a?aeniiii-Cae?, Aeaiaioue?aei oa
Oa??iei aeey ia?ao?ae-iiai ?aaeeio iao?eaiiy /anoie a ae?aiacii? /enae
36 ( Ar ( 105.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo ?iai/i? oaeaeeino? ??aeeie i?e ia?ao?aeiiio ?aaeei?
ia-o?eaiiy /anoie aeei?enoiao?oueny ??aiyiiy

(3)

aea A ? a — eiao?oe??io ? iieaciee, caeaaei? a?ae /enea Ar.

Ia ii/aoeo ia?ao?aeii? ciie (36 ( Ar ( 2500; 2 ( Rea ( 40) iao?eaiiy
i?iaeiaaeo? iineoe aaca?ae?eaiee oa?aeoa?, aeanoeaee eai?ia?iiio
?aaee-io, A=0,105, a=0,78. A cii?, i?eeaae?e aei oo?aoeaioiiai ?aaeeio
(2500 ( Ar ( 105; 40 ( Rea ( 500), iao?eaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iayai?noth cai?ioii-aeoi?iaeo oa/?e, A=0,335, a=0,63.

Caaeath/e iiaeoeue aeenia?niino? iiiio?aeoe?? ca?iei mAe ( 1,2 oa
cai?ith-th/e ae?eueieoeth eii?/ii? naeoe??, a ye?e ?icoaoiao?oueny
ie?aia iiiio?aeoe?y, ia ??aiiaaeeeee oeee?iae?, ?icaeyiooi oa?aeoa?
aca?iiae?? /anoie iiiio?ae-oe?? c iioieii, ye aca?iiae?th
iiiiaeenia?niiai cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a c aeno?aeiei o oeee?iae?e/iiio
aia?ao? iioieii ?ic/eio, i?e oeueiio caeeoa-thoueny ni?aaaaeeeaeie
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (1)-(3).

Aeei?enoiaoth/e ??aiyiiy ia?ic?eaiino? iioieo, oi?ioee (1)-(3) ?
cae?enithth/e ia?aoai?aiiy, io?eiai? ??aiyiiy, ye? aeicaieythoue
?ic?aoiao-aaoe ci?iaiiy eieaeueii? ii??ciino? eeaneo?eiaaiiai
iie?aeenia?niiai cio-eaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a a oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio aia?ao?
c eooii ?ice?eooy ei-iono (( ( ( ( ((( ? ae?aiao?ii ieaeiuei?
oeee?iae?e/ii? naeoe?? D1 a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?aiaciio ?ici???a
aeoath/eo a aia?ao? /anoie di/d1, ii??ciino? (1 i?i-aeoeoe?eii?
iiiio?aeoe?? oa aenioe hi ?icoaooaaiiy ia?aoeio eieaeueiiai ia’?io ca?ai

(4)

aea n — iieaciee, caeaaeiee a?ae ?aaeeio iao?eaiiy ca?iei: i?e
36 ( Ari…Ar1 ( 2500, c=0,258; i?e 2500 ( Ari…Ar1 ( 105,
c=0,17.

Ii?ici?noue oa oiiae ianiia?aiino a i?iaeoeoe?ei?e iiiio?aeoe??
aecia-/athoueny oaeei /eiii, uia oaeaee?noue a?aeiiniiai ?ooo oac o
noeneeo oii-aao aeinyaea iaeneioio

(5)

A ?icae?e? iiaeaia iiiia?aia aeey ?ic?aooieo ae?aiao?a a?aeiineieo
/an-oie a oeee?iae?ieii?/ieo aia?aoao c a?ae?icioeaiei oa?ii.

Aeey iieno ianiiai?io i?e e?enoae?caoe?? a cioeaiiio oa?? e?enoae?a
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeeooc?eia iaeiiia?aiao?e/ia iiaeaeue, yea aeicaiey?
ioe?-ieoe ci?iaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eio ii aenio? cioeaiiai oa?o
e?enoae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? ?ooo ?ic/eio, eiao?oe??ioa
iania?aeaea/? oa ieoi-ii? iiaa?oi? ca?iei (?o ae?aiao?a oa ii??ciino?
oa?o), i?e oeueiio

(6)

C ??aiyiiy (6) aeaeii, ui ci?iaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eio ii aenio?
cio-eaiiai oa?o iineoue aeniiiaioe?eiee oa?aeoa?.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??ioa iania?aeaea/? o cioeaiiio oa?? e?enoae?a
aeei?enoiao?oueny e?eoa??aeueia ??aiyiiy Aenaeue?oaea1

(7)

ia iniia? yeiai, aeei?enoiaoth/e iniiaia ??aiyiiy ianiiai?io, oi?ioee
(1)-(3) oa cae?enieaoe ia?aoai?aiiy, io?eiaia caeaaei?noue ia’?iiiai
ei-ao?oe??ioa iania?aeaea/? a?ae oiia i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano

(8)

aea B oa b — eiao?oe??io ? iieaciee, caeaaei? a?ae /enea Ari: i?e
36 ( ArI ( 2500, B=7,12, b=0,28; i?e 2500 ( ArI ( 105,
B=12,73, b=0,35; E — eiiieaen iino?eieo aeey aeaii? nenoaie
ia?aiao??a o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae oac, E=(([Dx2(((T-()2((]0,33/(.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui a eeaneo?eoth/eo e?enoae?caoi?ao e?enoaee c?inoathoue a
oiiaao, iaaeeaeaieo aei /enoiai c?inoo, aoei neeaaeaii aaeainiaa
??aiyi-iy ii e?eueeino? e?enoae?a, in?aeath/eo ii i??? c?inoo c
aeua?icoaoiaaieo oa??a o ieae/a?icoaoiaai?

(9)

ia iniia? yeiai aoee io?eiai? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy ?iai/iai
ia’?io e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a eeaneo?eoth/iai e?enoae?caoi?a

(10)

oa caaaeueii? iane e?enoae?a, ui i?noyoueny a iueiio

(11)

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii iien eaai?aoi?iiai iaeaaeiaiiy, iaoiaeeee
i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a, i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aei-ne?aeaeaiue, ?o ia?iaea oa aiae?c.

Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaee noi?o? neeyiiai a?aioeyoo,
inaaaei-c??aeaeai? aiaeith, a oaeiae iiiio?aeoe?? e?enoae?a
aethii-aiii?eiiai aaeoio, inaaaeic??aeaeai? iane/aieie ?ic/eiaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia noaiae?, iiaeaiiio ia ?en. 2.
Iaeaaeiaiiy aeeth/a? a naaa ci?iiee oeee?iae?ieii?/iee e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/
1, e?enoa-e?caoi?-iane/oaa/ 2, caio?thaaeuei? ianine 3 ? 6,
oaieiiai?iieee 4 ? 5, ii-noaeeio c aeeaeeueiei ?ic/eiii 7, ?ioaiao?e ?1
oa ?2, oa?iiiao?e O1, O2 oa O3 ? oa?iinoao, yeee ia ?en. 2 ia iieacaiee.
Aia?aoe 1 ? 2 aeaioiaeai? c i?-aai?/iiai neea.

I?e ?iaio? c ?ic/eiaie aethii-aiii?eiiai aaeoio iaeaaeiaiiy
caiia-ithaaee ?ic/eiii, a iio?i a e?enoae?caoi?-iane/oaa/ 2
caaaioaaeoaaee 1,5(2 ea e?enoae?a nie? oa i?eaiaeeee ?ic/ei aei
iane/aiiai noaio ca aeiii-iiaith oa?iinoaooth/i? nenoaie ? oee?eoeyoe??
?ic/eio ii caieiaiiio oeee-eo caio?thaaeueiei ianinii 3. I?ney
aeinyaiaiiy a oeeee? iio??aieo ia?a-iao??a ?ic/eio i?iaiaeeee aeine?aee.

E?enoae?caoi?-iane/oaa/ 2 i?ecia/aany aeey oiai, uia aeeeth/eoe ci?-io
?oo?eii? neee i?ioeano, ai cioeaiee oa? a e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/? 1 ia
caaacia/oaaa iiaiiai ciyooy ia?ane/aiiy.

A ia?o?e /anoei? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ae??ooaaeanue caaea/a
aiae?co oa aeine?aeii? ia?aa??ee a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo caeaaeiinoae ii
?icoe-?aiith ??aeeiieo cioeaieo iiii — oa iie?aeenia?nieo ca?ienoeo
oa??a. Aeey oeueiai ia aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaeaaeiaii? aoee i?iaaaeai?
aeine?aee ii ??-aeeiiiio inaaaeic??aeaeaiith ca?ienoeo oa??a. A i?ioean?
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?-ae?a aa??thaaee ii iieacaiiyi ?ioaiao?a ?1 aeo?aoo
oee?eoeyoe?eiiai ?ic/e-io, ?a?no?oaaee iieacaiiy oa?iiiao??a O1 ? O2 ?
cai??yee aenioo cioeaiiai oa?o a e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/? 1 ii i??i?e oeae? ia
no?ioe? aia?aoa.

Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui na?aaei?
?icoiaeaeai-iy i?ae aenia?eiaioaeueieie oa ?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie
aaee/ei ui oa (i ia ia?aaeuo? (5% i?e iaeneiaeueiiio ?icoiaeaeaii? a
iaaeao (8% .

Anoaiiaeaiee aca?iica’ycie (4) i?ae ia?aiao?aie i?iaeoeoe?eii?
iiii-o?aeoe?? e?enoae?a (d1, Ar1, (1), eieaeueieie ia?aiao?aie cioeaiiai
oa?o (di, Ari, (i) oa aaiiao?e/ieie ia?aiao?aie e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a (D1,
(, hi) aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe aieea a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oaeoi??a ia
?ioaineai?noue ia-niiai?io a cioeaiiio oa?? c o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeeio
iao?eaiiy /anoie oa o?-ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae aca?iiae?th/eo oac.

O ae?oa?e /anoei? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aea/aany ianiiai?i a
nenoai? cioeai? e?enoaee — ia?ane/aiee ?ic/ei. A e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/ 1
caaaioaaeoaaee iaaaaeeo e?enoae?a caaeaiiai ?ici??o ianith 0,1(0,25 ea
oa iiaeaaaee /a?ac ?ioaiao? ?2 aeeaeeueiee ?ic/ei a?aeiii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? a e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/ 1 oa ioieiaeaeoth/o aiaeo a
oaieiiai?iiee 4. A i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?ae?a cai??yee aenioo
cioeaiiai oa?o a e?enoaeiae?iuo-aa/? 1, ?aaoethaaee ia?ane/aiiy,
ci?ithth/e ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeo?ao oee?eo-eyoe?eiiai oa aeeaeeueiiai
?ic/ei?a ii iieacaiiyi ?ioaiao??a ?1 ? ?2, ?a?n-o?oaaee iieacaiiy
oa?iiiao??a O1-O3. I?ney cae?i/aiiy aeine?aeo, yeee o?e-aaa 10(15 oa.,
iaeii/anii i?eieiyee iiaea/o aeeaeeueiiai ?ic/eio oa ioi-eiaeaeoth/i?
aiaee. Ca aeiiiiiaith neoiia c e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a aeaaioaaeo-aaee
e?enoae?/io noniaic?th oa o?eueo?oaaee ??, i?ney /iai e?enoaee
aeno-ooaaee a nooeeuei?e oao? oa aecia/aee i?e??no iane ?a/iaeie.

Ia ?en. 3 iiaeaii ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia-/aiue ia’?iiiai eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? ii aenio? eii?/ii?
naeoe?? i?e ??cieo ?aaeeiao inaaaeic??aeaeaiiy, ye? aecia/athoueny
aea?aaeaioiei ?ici?-?ii ca?iei, oaeaee?noth ?ic/eio ia aoiae? a eii?/io
naeoe?th ? noeneeie oii-aaie iao?eaiiy ca?ai.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ia?iaeyeenue o oi?i? ??aiyiiy (8), i?e oeueiio
aeyaeaii, ui na?aaei? ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae aenia?eiaioaeueieie oa
?ic?aooi-eiaeie cia/aiiyie aaee/eie (V ia ia?aaeuo? (5% i?e
iaeneiaeueiiio ?icoiaeaeaii? a iaaeao (8%.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo oa ?ic?aooieo aoee c?ia-eai?
oae? aeniiaee: 1) ?icoe?aiiy cioeaiiai oa?o aeenia?nieo /anoie c
iiaeoeai aeenia?niino? mAe ( 1,2 ia? oaeee aea oa?aeoa?, ui ? ?icoe?aiiy
oa?o iiiiaeenia?nieo /anoie; 2) a eii?/iiio aia?ao? ii aenio? oa?o
ci?-ith?oueny ye eieaeueia ii?ici?noue, oae ? oaeaee?noue iioieo
??aeeie, i?e/iio oey ci?ia caeaaeeoue, a iniiaiiio, a?ae eooa ?ice?eooy
eiiona oa ii?iciino? oa?o aeey e?oiieo ca?iei ia aoiae? a eii?/io
naeoe?th; 3) ia ?ioaineai?noue ianiiai?io i?ae e?enoaeaie oa aeno?aeiei
iioieii ia?ane/aiiai ?ic/eio iniiaiee aieea ni?aaeythoue
a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? oiiae o cioeaiiio oa??.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaea?oueny ?iaeaia?iee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo oa
iiaeaii aiae?c ?iciiae?eo ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai eeaneo?eiaaiiai oa?o
e?enoae?a ii aenio? OeEEE.

iioeiaeueieo oiia aeey c?inoo e?enoae?a, ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia? i?eeiyoi?
aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? oa yaey? niaith iio?aeoe?eiee ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a
cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a. Oaeiae a?aoiaaii, ui a i?ioean? e?enoae?caoe??
ca?iaeeia? e?enoaee oee?eoeththoue a oee?eoeyoe?eiiio oeeee?, i?e
oeueiio /anoeia c ieo ?ic/eiy?oueny aai oeiaeth?oueny, a /anoeia
i?ae?inoa? aei ?ici???a /anoie, cae?aieo oo?eiaoenue a iaaeoa?iaiio
i?inoi?? aa?oiuei? naeoe?? e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a. O iiaeaeueoiio aiie
i?eeiathoue o/anoue o c?ino? a ia’?i? cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a,
caaacia/oth/e aacia?a?aio ?iaioo e?enoaeiae-?iuoaa/a.

Ii/aoeiaeie aeaieie aeey ?ic?aooieo oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai eeaneo?eoth-/iai
e?enoae?caoi?a ?:

— i?iaeoeoeai?noue aia?aoa ii nie? Ge;

— ?ici?? i?iaeoeoe?eieo e?enoae?a de;

— o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? e?enoae?a oa ?ic/eio i?e oaiia?aoo??
e?enoae?caoe?? (aonoeia ( ? a’yce?noue ( ?ic/eio, aonoeia (O ?
eiao?oe??io oi?-ie ( e?enoae?a, eiao?oe??io iieaeoey?ii? aeeooc?? nie? a
?ic/ei? Dx);

— a?aie/ia ia?ane/aiiy ?ic/eio ia aoiae? a oa? (Cao;

— iiaeoeue aeenia?niino? iiiio?aeoe?? ca?iei mAe.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a oa a?ao?/iiai
iiaeaiiy ?iciiae?eo ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai oa?o ii aenio? aia?aoa aoea
?ic-?iaeaia i?ia?aia CRYST.FOR ia iia? OI?O?AI (aa?n?y 5.0),
?aae?ciaa-ia ia eiii’thoa?? oeio IBM-PC oa i?eaaaeaia o aeiaeaoeo.

A ?icae?e? iiaeaia aeie-noaia ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai
eeane-o?eiaaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a o oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio aia?ao?.

A iaaaaeaiiio aiae?c? aeeiiaii ia AII ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a cioea-iiai
oa?o e?enoae?a oa ?o ?iciiae?eo a OeEEE i?iaeoeoeai?noth Ge=9000 ea/a
aeey io?eiaiiy noeueoaoo aiii?y c ?ici??ii ca?iei de=3,0 ii i?e
a?aie/-iiio ia?ane/aii? ?ic/eio ia aoiae? a oa? (Nao=4,2 ea/i3.
Ia?aiao?e aean-oeainoae aca?iiae?th/eo oac ne?aeoth/?: oaiia?aoo?a
i?ioeano t=60(N, aonoe-ia e?enoae?a (O=1770 ea/i3, aonoeia ?ic/eio
(=1253 ea/i3, a’yce?noue ?ic-/eio (=1,8·10-3 Ia·n, eiao?oe??io aeeooc??
nie? a ?ic/ei? Dx=1,785·10-3 i2/n, eiao?oe??io oi?ie e?enoae?a (=1,18. A
?ic?aooieao aa??thaaany ae?aiao? ieaeiuei? oeee?iae?e/ii? naeoe??, eoo
?ice?eooy eiiona, ii?ici?noue i?iaeoe-oe?eieo e?enoae?a.

Ia ?en. 4 ? 5 iiaeai? i?io?e? ci?ie eieaeueii? ii?iciino? (a) oa
ei-eaeueiiai ia’?iiiai eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? (a) cioeaiiai oa?o
e?enoa-e?a ii aenio? e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?iciino?
i?iaeoeoe?e-ii? iiiio?aeoe?? oa a?ae eooa ?ice?eooy eiiona. Ia ?en. 4
(a) aeiaeaoeiai ia-ianai? e?i?? oa /enea, a?aeiia?aei? iino?eiei
a?aeiioaiiyi ae?aiao??a d? /de.

Eieaeueia ii?ici?noue cioeaiiai oa?o a oe?eiio c?inoa? ii aenio?
aia?a-oa, i?e/iio oei neeuei?oa, /ei iaioa eoo ?ice?eooy eiiona. I?ioa
i?e eooao ?ice?eooy eiiona ( ( 16( a ieaei?e /anoei? eii?/ii? naeoe??
niinoa??-aa?oueny aeayea cieaeaiiy eieaeueii? ii?iciino? aeey ca?iei c
a?aeiioaiiyi ae?aiao??a d? /de ( 0,75 ? aiii i?iyaey?oueny neeuei?oa a
naeoe?yo c a?eueoei eooii ?ice?eooy eiiona. Eieaeueia ii?ici?noue
cioeaiiai oa?o ca?iei oaeaeei c?inoa? o aa?oi?e /anoei? eii?/ii? naeoe??
i?e a?aeiioaii? d? /de ( 0,65. I?e eooao ?ice?eooy eiiona
12( ( ( ( 16( eieaeueia ii?ic-i?noue cioeaiiai oa?o iaeaea ia
ci?ith?oueny a ae?aiacii? a?aeiioaiue 0,95 ( d? /de ( 0,75.

C? ca?eueoaiiyi eooa ?ice?eooy eiiona ?icoe?th?oueny ae?aiacii ?ici???a
aeoath/eo e?enoae?a. I?e ca?eueoaii? ii?iciino? i?iaeoeoe?eieo e?enoae?a
ca?eueoo?oueny /an ia?aaoaaiiy ?ic/eio a oa??.

Eieaeueiee ia’?iiee eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? c?inoa? ii aenio? aia?a-oa
iaeaea iacaeaaeii a?ae eooa ?ice?eooy eiiona. Aeinyaioaoe iaeneiaeueii?
aaee/eie i?e ii?iciinoyo (?=0,85(0,88, a?i iio?i ??cei cieaeo?oueny
aian-e?aeie oaeaeeiai ciaioaiiy ia’?iii? eiioeaio?aoe?? /anoie o aa?oi?e
oee-e?iae?e/i?e naeoe?? aia?aoa. Iaeneioie cia/aiue ia’?iiiai
eiao?oe??ioa ia-niia?aaea/? c?inoathoue c? ca?eueoaiiyi eooa ?ice?eooy
eiiona. I?e ca?eue-oaii? ii?iciino? cioeaiiai oa?o i?iaeoeoe?eieo
e?enoae?a ia’?iiee ei-ao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/? o?ioe cieaeo?oueny.

OIIAI? IICIA*AIIss

(Cao, (Cauo, (Cn? — ia?ane/aiiy ?ic/eio ia aoiae? a oa?, ia aeoiae? c
oa?o oa na?aaei?, a?aeiia?aeii, ea/i3 , a/ea;

de, do — ae?aiao? i?iaeoeoe?eieo oa a?aeiineieo a oee?eoeyoe?eiee oeeee
e?enoa-e?a, a?aeiia?aeii, i;

di?, d?, da? — iaeneiaeueiee, na?aaei?e oa i?i?iaeueiee ae?aiao?
e?enoae?a ie?a-ii? iiiio?aeoe??, i;

D1, D2 — ae?aiao? ieaeiuei? oa aa?oiuei? oeee?iae?e/ieo naeoe?e, i;

Do — eiao?oe??io iieaeoey?ii? aeeooc?? nie? a ?ic/ei?, i2/c;

foae — ieoiia ieiua iiaa?oi? e?enoae?a o oa??, i2/i3;

F? — ieiua iiaa?oi? ca?iei ie?aii? iiiio?aeoe??, i2;

Ge — i?iaeoeoeai?noue e?enoae?caoi?a ii nie?, ea/c;

h? — aenioa ?icoaooaaiiy eieaeueiiai ia?aoeio ?-i? iiiio?aeoe??, i;

Hi, H — aenioa ie?aii? iiiio?aeoe?? oa iiaia aenioa cioeaiiai oa?o
e?en-oae?a, i;

mAe — iiaeoeue aeenia?niino? iiiio?aeoe?? ca?iei, mAe=di? /da?;

m? — ianiaa /anoea nie?, yea aee?enoae?ciao?oueny a iaaeao ie?aii?
iiii-o?aeoe??, m?=(di?3-da?3)/de3;

M?, I — iana e?enoae?a ?-i? iiiio?aeoe?? oa caaaeueia iana nie?, ea;

n — e?euee?noue iiiio?aeoe?e cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a;

u? — oaeaee?noue ?ooo ?ic/eio a eieaeueiiio ia?aoei?, i/c;

V?, V — ia’?i ?-i? iiiio?aeoe?? oa caaaeueiee ia’?i cioeaiiai oa?o, i3;

wa? — oaeaee?noue aeoaiiy e?enoae?a ie?aii? iiiio?aeoe??, i/c;

( — eoo i?ae oa??ieie eii?/ii? naeoe??, a?aae;

(F — iiaa?oiaaee eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/?, ea/(i2(n(ea/i3);

(V — ia’?iiee eiao?oe??io ianiia?aaea/?, ea/(i3(c(ea/i3);

(1, (i — eieaeueia ii?ici?noue cioeaiiai oa?o ca?ai i?iaeoeoe?eii? oa
ie?aii? iiiio?aeoe?e, a?aeiia?aeii;

( — aeeiai?/ia a’yce?noue ?ic/eio, Ia(c;

(T, ( — aonoeia e?enoae?a oa ?ic/eio, a?aeiia?aeii, ea/i3;

Ari — e?eoa??e A?o?iaaea, Ari=di3(g(((((T-()/(2;

NuDi — aeeooc?eiee e?eoa??e Ionnaeueoa, NuDi=(F(di/Dx;

PrD — aeeooc?eiee e?eoa??e I?aiaeoey, PrD=(/(((Dx);

Rei — e?eoa??e ?aeiieueaena, Rei=ui(di((/(;

Rea? — e?eoa??e ?aeiieueaena, yeee aaco?oueny ia oaeaeeino? aeoaiiy
e?enoae?a ie?aii? iiiio?aeoe??, Rea?=wa?(d?((/(.

AENIIAEE

1. ?ic?iaeaia aeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano a?ae?ieeaneo?eaoe?? oa c?inoo
e?enoae?a o oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio aia?ao? c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie
a?aioeiiao-?e/iiai neeaaeo /anoie o cioeaiiio oa??, a oaeiae
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoe-ainoae aca?iiae?th/eo oac ? aaiiao?e/ieo
ia?aiao??a e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a.

2. Io?eiai? ??aiyiiy, ye? aeicaieythoue ?ic?aooaaoe ci?io eieaeueieo
a?ae-?iaeeiai?/ieo oa ianiiai?iieo ia?aiao??a eeaneo?eiaaiiai
iie?aeenia?n-iiai cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a o oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio
aia?ao?.

3. Aeeiiaii aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo, ia’?io ? iane
e?enoae?a a OeEEE c o?aooaaiiyi o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae nen-oaie,
aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a nenoaie oa ii/aoeiaeo i?iaeoieo aeaieo.

4. Aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee
aaeaeaaoi?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie
eieaeueieo a?ae?iaee-iai?/ieo oa ianiiai?iieo ia?aiao??a i?e
e?enoae?caoe?? nieae a OeEEE.

5. Iieacaii, ui ci?ia ii?iciino? cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a ii aenio?
oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a caeaaeeoue a?ae a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo
oiia o cioeaiiio oa??, ia?aiao??a i?iaeoeoe?eii? iiiio?aeoe?? oa
aaiiao??? e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a.

6. Iieacaii, ui ci?ia ia’?iiiai eiao?oe??ioa ianiia?aaea/? ii aenio?
oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/a caeaaeeoue a?ae o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae nenoaie, ia?aiao??a i?iaeoeoe?eii? iiiio?aeoe?? oa
a?ae?iaeeia-i?/ieo oiia o cioeaiiio oa?? ? i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
eooa ?ice?eooy eiiona a ae?aiacii? 0,6 ( (? ( 0,7.

7. ?ic?iaeai? aeai?eoi, i?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo ia AII, a oaeiae
?iaea-ia?iee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo OeEEE c o?aooaaiiyi o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoe-ainoae nenoaie, ?ici??o i?iaeoeoe?eieo e?enoae?a ?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? aia?a-oa. Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? ca iao?eaaeee /an
i?i?aooaaoe ia AII aaeeeo e?euee?noue aa??aio?a ?ici???a
oeee?iae?ieii?/ieo e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/?a oa ae-a?aoe iioeiaeueiee aa??aio.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE AEEEAAeAIEE A IOAE?EAOe?ssO:

1. A?aaia A.I., Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. ?an/ao oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneiai
e?en-oaeei?anoeoaey eeanneoeoee?othuaai e?enoaeeecaoi?a n
eniieueciaaieai YAI / Oeie/aneia iaoeiino?iaiea: ?an/ao,
eiino?oe?iaaiea, oaoiiei-aey. Oaiaoe/aneee nai?iee iao/. o?oae.- E.: OIE
AI, 1992, c. 4-11.

2. A?aaia A.I., Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. Iiiia?aiia aeey ?an/aoa aeeaiao?a
oiineiuo /anoeoe a oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneeo aiia?aoao n aeae?iacaaoaiiui
neiai / Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee
i?aiiaeaaaoa-eae, nio?oaeieeia e nooaeaioia. Noiu, 1995, c. 130.

3. Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. E ioeaiea oneiaee aeae?inaia?aoeee e
eeanneoe-eaoeee e?enoaeeia a eeanneoeoee?othuai e?enoaeeecaoi?a / Oacenu
aeieea-aeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee i?aiiaeaaaoaeae,
nio?oaeieeia e nooaeaioia. Noiu, 1995, c. 131.

4. A?aaia A.I., Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. Eiiiuethoa?iia i?iaeoe?iaaiea
oee-eeiae?ieiie/aneeo eeanneoeoee?othueo e?enoaeeecaoi?ia / I?aoe? IX
i?ae-ia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? «Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a
o?i?/ieo, oa?-/iaeo oa iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa». «Iiaeaethaaiiy
aia?ao?a a oiiaao ni?eueii i?io?eath/eo a?ae?iiaoai?/ieo, o?i?/ieo,
oaieiaeo oa ianniiai?i-ieo i?ioean?a». *anoeia 5. Iaeana, 1996, c. 49.

5. A?aaia A.I., Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. Aeeiaie/aneay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna
e?enoaeeecaoeee nieae ec ?anoai?ia a eeanneoeoee?othuai e?enoaeeecaoi-?a
/ I?aoe? IX i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe?? «Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa
aia?a-o?a o?i?/ieo, oa?/iaeo oa iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa».
«Iiaeaethaaiiy aia-?ao?a a oiiaao ni?eueii i?io?eath/eo
a?ae?iiaoai?/ieo, o?i?/ieo, oaieiaeo oa ianniiai?iieo i?ioean?a».
*anoeia 5. Iaeana, 1996, c. 50.

6. Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna
aeae?ieeanne-oeeaoeee noniaicee ii ?acia?ai ca?ai a eiie/aneii aiia?aoa
/ Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee i?aiiaeaaaoaeae,
nio?oaeieeia, anie?aioia e nooaeaioia. Noiu, 1997, c. 96.

7. A?aaia A.I., Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. ?ani?aaeaeaiea ia?aiao?ia
aeae?iacaaoaiiiai neiy e?enoaeeia ii aunioa oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneiai
eeanneoeoee?othuaai e?enoaeeecaoi?a / AEIO, 1997, o.70, ?10, n.
1686-1693.

8. Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. Ioeaiea ia?aiao?ia acaaoaiiiai neiy e?enoae-eia ii
aunioa oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneiai e?enoaeei?anoeoaey / A?niee NoiAeO ?2(10),
1998, n. 133-139.

9. Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y. Iniaaiiinoe ?an/aoa oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneiai
eeanneoeoee?othuaai e?enoaeeecaoi?a n eniieueciaaieai YAI / Oacenu
aeieeaaeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee i?aiiaeaaaoaeae,
nio?oaeieeia, anie?aioia e nooaeaioia. Noiu, 1998, c. 58.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ieoaeeianueeee ss.A. Aeeiai?ea i?ioeano e?enoae?caoe?? a
oeee?iae?ieii?/-iiio eeaneo?eoth/iio e?enoae?caoi??. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe c?
niaoe?aeueiino? 05.05.13-iaoeie oa aia?aoe o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa,
Noinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Noie, 1999 ?.

Caoeua?oueny 9 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, ye? i?noyoue ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeue-ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?ae?iaeeiai?ee oa
ianiiai?io i?e e?enoae?-caoe?? iai?aai?/ieo nieae a oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio
eeaneo?eoth/iio e?enoae?-caoi?? c inaaaeic??aeaeaiei oa?ii e?enoae?a.
?ic?iaeaia aeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano a?ae?ieeaneo?eaoe?? oa c?inoo
e?enoae?a o oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio aia?ao? c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie
a?aioeiiao?e/iiai neeaaeo /anoei o cioeaii-io oa??. Io?eiai?,
i?iaiae?ciaai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??ai? ??a-iyiiy, ye?
aeicaieythoue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ci?io eieaeueieo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ?
ianiiai?iieo ia?aiao??a eeaneo?eiaaiiai cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a o
oeee?iae?ieii?/iiio e?enoaeiae?iuoaa/?. I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea ?iciiae?eo
ei-eaeueieo ia?aiao??a cioeaiiai oa?o e?enoae?a ii aenio? aia?aoa, ui
aei-caiey? a?eueo iaa?oioiaaii i?iaeooaaoe eeaneo?eoth/? e?enoae?caoi?e.
?ic?iaeaiee ?iaeaia?iee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo oeee?iae?ieii?/iiai
eeaneo?eo-th/iai e?enoae?caoi?a, eiai aeai?eoi ? i?ia?aia ?aae?caoe?? ia
AII.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: cioeaiee oa?, a?ae?iaeeiai?ea, aeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue,
e?en-oae?caoe?y c ?ic/ei?a, ianiia?aiin, oeee?iae?ieii?/iee
eeaneo?eoth/ee e?enoae?caoi?.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ieoaeeianeee ss.?. Aeeiaieea i?ioeanna e?enoaeeecaoeee a
oeeeeiae?iei-ie/aneii eeanneoeoee?othuai e?enoaeeecaoi?a. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo ia-oe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.05.13 — iaoeiu e aiia?aou oeie/aneeo
i?iec-aiaenoa, Noineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Noiu, 1999 a.

Caueuaaony 9 iao/iuo ?aaio, eioi?ua niaea?aeao ?acoeueoaou
yenia?e-iaioaeueiuo e oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee aeae?iaeeiaieee e
ianniiaiaia i?e e?enoaeeecaoeee iai?aaie/aneeo nieae a
oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneii eeanne-oeoee?othuai e?enoaeeecaoi?a ni acaaoaiiui
neiai e?enoaeeia.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu: caeiiiia?iinoe aeae?iaeeiaieee
e ianniia?aiina a aiia?aoao n aeae?iacaaoaiiui neiai e?enoaeeia;
iniaaiiinoe e i?aeiouanoaa oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneeo eeanneoeoee?othueo
e?enoaeeecaoi?ia; aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea e ianniiaiaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey acaaoaiiiai neiy, oneiaey naia?aoeee, eeanneoeeaoeee e
?inoa e?enoaeeia a oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneeo eeanneoeoee?othueo
e?enoaeeecaoi?ao; aeeiaieea inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiiai neiy e?enoaeeia a
oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneii e?enoaeei?anoeoaea i?e ianniaie e?enoaeeecaoeee
nieae ec ?anoai?ia a eeanneoeoee?othueo e?enoaeeecaoi?ao.

?ac?aaioaia aeeiaie/aneay iiaeaeue i?ioeanna aeae?ieeanneoeeaoeee e
iineieiiai ?inoa e?enoaeeia a oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneii eeanneoeoee?othuai
e?enoaeeecaoi?a a i?ioeanna i?ioeaioi/iiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aeeaeeie e
aeenia?niie oacu n o/aoii eciaiaiey a?aioeiiao?e/aneiai ninoaaa /an-oeoe
ai acaaoaiiii neia.

?aoaia caaea/a iioeiecaoeee aeae?iaeeiaie/aneie ianoaiiaee i?e
e?enoaeeecaoeee a oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneii inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiii neia
e?enoaeeia n o/aoii ?acia?ia ca?ai. Ii?aaeaeaiu iioeiaeueiua ia?aiao?u
acaaoaiiiai neiy e?enoaeeia i?e eo acaeiiaeaenoaee n ainoiaeyuei iioieii
ia?anuuaiiiai ?anoai?a a oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneii eeanneoeoee?othuai
e?enoaeeecaoi?a.

Ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee iieo/aiu i?ioeee
?ani?aaeaeaiey eieaeueiie ii?iciinoe inaaaeiiaeeaeaiiiai neiy e
iauaiiiai eiyooeoeeaioa ianniia?aaea/e ii aunioa oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneiai
e?enoaeei?anoeoaey a caaeneiinoe io aeeaiao?a iieo/aaiuo e?enoaeeia,
oeceei-oeie/aneeo naienoa nenoaiu acaaoaiiua e?enoaeeu – ia?anuuaiiue
?anoai?, a oaeaea io aaiiao?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneiai
e?enoaeei?anoeoaey. Iieo/aiu, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu e yenia?eiai-oaeueii
i?iaa?aiu o?aaiaiey, iicaieythuea ?ann/eoaoue eciaiaiea eieaeue-iuo
aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo e ianniiaiaiiuo ia?aiao?ia eeanneoeoee?iaai-iiai
acaaoaiiiai neiy e?enoaeeia a oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneii eeanneoeoee?othuai
e?enoaeeecaoi?a n o/aoii eciaiaiey aoiaeiuo ia?aiao?ia e oaea ?ane?uoey
eiiona.

I?iaaaeaiu aiaeec e iiuoiay i?iaa?ea aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo caaeneiinoae ii
?anoe?aieth acaaoaiiuo ia?anuuaiiui ?anoai?ii iiii- e iieeaeenia?niuo
ca?ienouo neiaa. Yenia?eiaioaeueii eco/ai ianniiaiai a nenoaia
acaaoaiiua e?enoaeeu – ia?anuuaiiue ?anoai?. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua
enneaaeiaaiey aeae?iaeeiaieee e ianniiaiaia a eiie/aneii aiia?aoa
iiaeoaa?aeeee i?aaiia?iinoue ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee.

I?iaaaeaia ioeaiea i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey eieaeue-iuo
aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo e ianniiaiaiiuo ia?aiao?ia acaaoaiiiai
eeanneoeoee?iaaiiiai neiy e?enoaeeia ii aunioa oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneiai
e?enoaeei?anoeoaey, /oi iicaieyao aieaa iainiiaaiii i?iaeoe?iaaoue
eeanne-oeoee?othuea e?enoaeeecaoi?u.

?ac?aaioai eiaeaia?iue iaoiae ?an/aoa iniiaiuo eiino?oeoeaiuo ?acia?ia
oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneiai eeanneoeoee?othuaai e?enoaeeecaoi?a e ia?aiao?ia
i?ioeanna ia caaeaiioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e ?acia? i?iaeoeoeeiiiuo
e?enoaeeia i?e iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiao aai ?aaiou. ?ac?aaioaiu aeai?eoi e
i?ia?aiia eiaeaia?iuo ?an/aoia oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneeo eeanneoeoee?othueo
e?enoaeeecaoi?ia n eniieueciaaieai eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee. I?ia?aiia
?aaeeciaaia ia ia?niiaeueiii eiiiuethoa?a oeia IBM-PC e aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue ca iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy i?in/eoaoue aieueoia
eiee/anoai aa?eaioia oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneeo e?enoaeei?anoeoaeae ia
caaeaiiua enoiaeiua ia?aiao?u e aua?aoue ec ieo iioeiaeueiue.

?ac?aaioaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eiino?oe?iaaieth
e?enoaeei?anoeoaeae. N?aaiaiea ?ann/eoaiiuo n iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiie
i?ia?aiiu ?acia?ia eeanneoeoee?othueo e?enoaeeecaoi?ia n eniieuecoaiuie
a i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeaei oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia niaeaniaaiea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: acaaoaiiue neie, aeae?iaeeiaieea, aeeiaie/aneay
iiaeaeue, e?enoaeeecaoeey ec ?anoai?ia, ianniia?aiin,
oeeeeiae?ieiie/aneee eeanneoeoee?othuee e?enoaeeecaoi?.

SUMMARY

Michailovsky Y.E. The dynamics of the process of crystallization in the
cy-lindroconical classified crystallizer.

Dissertation for degree competition of technical science candidate on
speciality 05.05.13 — machines and apparatus of chemical productions,
Sumy State University, Sumy, 1999.

9 scientific papers, which contain the results of experimental and
theoretical reseach of hydrodynamics and masstransfer under
crystallization of inorganic salts in the cylindroconical classified
crystallizer with fluidized bed of crystals are under defence. The
dynamic model of the process of hydroclassification and the growth of
crystals in the cylindroconical apparatus taking into consi-deration the
changes of granulometrical composition of the particles in the fluidized
bed was designed. The equations, which allowed to calculate the changing
of the local hydrodynamic and masstransfer parameters of the classified
flu-idized bed of the crystals in the cylindroconical crystallgrower
were obtained, analized and experimentally checked. The evaluation of
the distribution of the local parameters of the fluidized bed of the
crystals according to the height of the apparatus was carried out, which
allows to design classified crystallizers more basically. The engineer
method of calculation of the cylindroconical clasi-fied crystallizer,
its algoritm and the programme of its realization on ECM was designed.

Key words: fluidized bed, hydrodynamics, dynamic model, crystallization
from solutions, masstransfer, cylindroconical classified crystallizer.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo ?. Oi?iao 60(84 1/16

Ianya 1.0 ae?oe. a?e. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Iaae?oeiaaii a Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

i. Noie, aoe. ?einueeiai-Ei?naeiaa, 2

Aenaeue?oae A.A. Ianniiaiai a nenoaia oaa?aeia oaei — aeeaeeinoue.
Eueaia: EAO, 1970.-188 n.

A?aaia A.I./ AEIO, 1987, o.60, ?9, n. 2007-2019.

A?aaia A.I./ AEIO, 1988, o.61, ?4, n. 794-799.

A?aaia A.I., Ieoaeeianeee ss.Y./ AEIO, 1997, o.70, ?10, n. 1686-1693

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