Державне управління науково-технічним прогресом: економічні аспекти: Автореф. дис… д-ра наук з держ. упр. / В.М. Рижих, Укр. акад. держ. упр. при Пр

OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AeA?AEAAIIAI OI?AAE?IIss

I?E I?ACEAeAIOIA? OE?A?IE

?iaeaen OAeE: 351.82

?EAEEO Aaneeue Ieeieaeiae/

AeA?AEAAIA OI?AAE?IIss

IAOEIAI-OAOI?*IEI I?IA?ANII:

AEIIII?*I? ANIAEOE

25.00.05 – aaeocaaa oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? eiinoeueoaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AAAEAE TH??e Ieeieaeiae/, ?inoeooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo oaoiieia?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy oa
?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IIAOIAE* Ieaenaiae? sseiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oaoiieia?? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
aieiaiee ?iaeaia?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

*OIA*AIEI Ieeiea A?eai?iae/,

IAI Oe?a?ie, /eai I?aceae??;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

??IIOAIEI Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/,

?aaea Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?ssCAIOeAA Ieeiea Ea?iiae/, Oa?e?anueea eiino?oeoi?nueea ath?i c
aeaeaoiiaoaeoaaiiy,

aee?aeoi?, aaia?aeueiee eiino?oeoi?.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee

oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

a/aia ?aaea, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 19 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.810.02 a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252057,
i. Ee?a, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20, aoae. 201.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 18 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A. I. Iiaianthe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Iath/e aenieee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee, i?iieneiaee ? eaae?iaee
iioaioe?ae, caeaoiee caaacia/eoe a aeinoaoiuei ei?ioe? ?noi?e/i? no?iee
aeinyaiaiiy na?aaeiuei?a?iiaenueeeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a,
Oe?a?ia ia?aaeeaa? aeeaieo e?eco. Cae?enithth/e ?aoi?ie, Oe?a?ia ca ?iee
iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino? ao?aoeea 2/3 AAI, aac?ia?ooy (c o?aooaaiiyi
i?eoiaaiiai) aeinyaei 40%, ianya AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiiy ciaioeany c 4100
aei 660 aeie. NOA(na?aaeiuei?a?iiaenueeee iieaciee — aeecueei 10000
aeie.) ? iaaeeceeanue aei iaae?, eiee athaeaeaoi? aeo?aoe aea?aeaae
noaee ii??aithaaoeny c 1958 ?ieii.

No/ania aeiiii?/ia e?eca caa?iaeo? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio oa i?iieneiaiio
iioaioe?aeo, noaaeoue i?ae noii?a eiai iaeaooi?. sseui oe? oaiaeaioe??
ia ci?iyoueny — iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an aaeeei? e?eueeino?
oe?a?inueeeo i?ia?aeieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye? iathoue cia/iee oaoiieia?/iee
iioaioe?ae, aoaea ao?a/aii.

?icii/aaoe aac iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy e noi?iaiaeaeaiiy aeiiii?/i?
?aoi?ie a ianoaiiaoe? iineaaeaiiy oi?ioth/iai e ?aaoethth/iai aieeao
aea?aeaae ia oa?aeoa? ? aeeiai?eo aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, Oe?a?ia
aeaiiino?o? niaoeeo?/i?, a?aei?ii? a?ae onoaeaieo aeiiii?e ?eieiaiai
oeio ?aaeoe??, ui aeieeathoue o a?aeiia?aeue ia iae?iaeiiii?/ia
?aaoethaaiiy iiiaoa?ieie iaoiaeaie. Oe?a?ia i?oea oeyoii iaea?iaaiiai
“oieiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy” aeiiii?ee c iaae??th ia iiceoeai? iane?aeee
?aoi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo aeaiaio?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui i?ecaaei aei
c?inoaiiy e?eciai? neooaoe?? a aeiiii?oe? oa noni?euenoa?.

Oe?a?ia ciooaia i?eeiyoe aeeeee /ano, ine?eueee no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa
aeiiii?ee oa ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iio?aaothoue ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, a oea, o naith /a?ao, oyaia ca
niaith no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao cia/ii? /anoeie ?ioaeaeoo aeiiii?ee – ??
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? noa?e.

Oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ia oeyoo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei
na?ae/eoue, ui iaiiaeeeai aeiiiaoeny iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia
aecia/eaoenue “ye” ? “iaa?ui”, oa “ui ia?aaoaeiao?ii” ia ioe?ieaoe
iane?aeee ??oaiue, ui i?eeiathoueny. Aacia?niaeoeaieie ? o? i?ia?aie
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo, a yeeo a?aenooiy no?aoaa?y i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa i?iieneiaiai iioaioe?ae?a ye aea?aeaae a oe?eiio,
oae ? ia?aeiieo ?? eaioetha?a. Ioe?ithth/e neooaoe?th, yea neeaeanue,
ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a iniia? e?eciaeo yaeu ciaoiaeeoueny ni?iuaia
oeoia/aiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee

Noai iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie, ?? aeiiii?/iee iioaioe?ae
aecia/athoueny a ia?oo /a?ao noaiii ? ??aiai ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
oa i?iieneiaiai eiiieaen?a, aaeaeaaoiith ?aae?caoe??th iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
? oaoiieia?/ieo iiaeeeainoae aea?aeaae. Oni?o aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i aoaea a
e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? aecia/aoeny no?ieaie aeoiaeo ?c e?ece
i?iieneiaino? aea?aeaae, aoaeoeai?noth ?? ?icaeoeo ?
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noth.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?aeoe/ii iiaia a?aenooi?noue ?aeeii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy oa oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee, aca?iica’yce?a ?o c oe?eyie ? caaaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie,
?ic??ciai?noue aeaaeai?/ii?, aoc?anueei? oa aaeocaai? iaoee, iaoeiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e i?iieneiaino? e iai?iiiiai eiiieaeno, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o
?aae?caoe?? e?eueeio nioaiue iaoe?iiaeueieo, ?aa?iiaeueieo, aaeocaaeo,
aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai i?eaiaeeoue aei ?icii?ioaiiy eioo?a, aeoaethaaiiy
?ia?o ? ia aeicaiey? iiaeieaoe e?ecia? yaeua a aeiiii?oe?.

O eiiieaen? i?iaeai no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, ye? iaeiie/eeenue
i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano, aaaeeeaa i?noea caeia? ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo
iaoai?ci?a iaa?oioiaaiiai aeai?o i??i?eoao?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie; oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?y no?aoaa?? e
oaeoeee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae ia
aeaeueith oa na?aaeith ia?niaeoeao, ?aeeii? aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee; noai?aiiy eiiieaenii?
aea?aeaaii? nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie,
ae?iaie/eie oa aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie; aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy
aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a ?ioa?anao caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oa i?ia?aneaiiai
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, iie?auaiiy oiia aeeooy ianaeaiiy e?a?ie.

Aeieeea aino?a iio?aaa a ?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, ae?iaeaii? e
i?iaaaeaii? ?aeeii? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee; noai?aii? eiiieaenii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, ui caaacia/eoue
oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?th oe??? iie?oeee, aeicaieeoue nenoaiii oa
oe?eani?yiiaaii ea?oaaoe iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii o i?iieneiaino?;
caaacia/eoue i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oe?a?inueeeo oaoiieia?e oa
i?iaeoeoe?? ia na?oiaiio ?eieo, noai?aiiy iaoai?ci?a aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, ae?iaie/iai e eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo a
?ioa?anao caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, i?ia?aneaiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, caaeiaieaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iio?aa, iie?auaiiy
oiia aeeooy ianaeaiiy.

Aeey aeaiaeo Oe?a?ie c e?ece oa ia?aaaaeaiiy ?? ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno ia o?a?eoi??th aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaiao?aeii aianoe nooo?a?
ei?aeoeae a aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo iiiaoa?iiai oeio e ia?aianoe oeaio?
coneeue ia noeioethaaiiy i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa. ?aaoethth/? ooieoe??
aea?aeaae ia iiaeooue aooe aoaeoeaieie, yeui a?aenooiy iaae?eia
eiiieaenia nenoaia no?aoaa?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy oa i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai
ieaioaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie.

Oie oaeo, ui a Oe?a?i? i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth a?aenooi?e aeina?ae
no?aoaa?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy oa eiiieaeniiai nenoaiiiai
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue,
iaiao?aei? aeey oeueiai aea?aeaai? aaaeae? e a?aeiia?aeiee
?ino?oiaioa??e oa ?inoeoooe?ei? no?oeoo?e, yaii iaaeinoaoi? ieaioth/? oa
?aaoethth/? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae iineoaeeee iaeaaaeeea?oeie aeo?aeieie
ia?aaeoiiaaie aeey ?ic?iaee i?eioeei?a, iniia oa iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy
e ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe??,
i?aea?aeii/i? eii?aeeiaoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie,
ae?iaie/eie oa aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?ioa?anao ae??oaiiy
i??i?eoaoieo i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue o nioe?aeuei?e, aeiiii?/i?e oa
a?enueeia?e noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? e?a?ie.

sseui Oe?a?ia i?aaia oa?eoe aei na?oiaiai ?eieo a yeino? aea?aeaae c
aeeaa?neo?eiaaiith, i?iieneiai ?icaeiooith aeiiii?eith c aenieeie
oaoiieia?yie, caaacia/eoe iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo, caaeiaieueieoe
iaoe?iiaeuei? iio?aae, i?aeaeueoe ye?noue aeeooy ianaeaiiy, — ?e
iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeaio iie?oeeo, ui ai?iaaaeaeoaaea a o i?aeoeeo
?aeath ii?aeiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee c i?iieneiaith iie?oeeith ?
?icaeyaeaeanue ae a o?niiio aca?iica’yceo c aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith,
eiiieaenio nenoaio ?? ?aae?caoe??. Cae?enieoe aoaeoeaia aea?aeaaia
oi?aae?iiy IOI aac noai?aiiy oaei? nenoaie e aac ?ic?iaee a?aeiia?aeii?
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a no/anieo oiiaao i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. Oaeo
iie?oeeo i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe aea?aeaaiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith oa
i?iieneiaith iie?oeeith.

Cacia/ai? i?iaeaie, ?o aeooaeuei?noue, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/ei?noue iaoiiaeee aea?? oaie, aecia/eee iaoo e caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ca?aeii c eiiieaeniei iaoeiaei i?iaeoii
Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie
“Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy oa i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy” ca oaiith
“Oaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith Oe?a?ie” (1997-1999
??.).

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no?aoaa?y oa ieaioaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai e
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?
iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae oa ?ic?iaoe? oeyo?a aeiiii?/iiai oi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii Oe?a?ie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoee aecia/ai? oae? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe oa ocaaaeueieoe caeiiii??iino? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie
?iaeono??aeueii?i caeiooeo e?a?i na?oo (NOA, ssiii?y, O?aioe?y,
I?ia//eia oa ?ioeo);

— ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iiceoeaiiai na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aaeineiiaeeoe
nenoaio oa iaoai?ci i?eeiyooy e ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ia
aeueo ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i?;

— aeine?aeeoe caaaeuei? aeiiii?/i? caeiiii??iino? oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe??
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie;

— ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy, i?ia?aioaaiiy e ?ic?iaee
athaeaeaoo a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e aaeoc?;

— c’ynoaaoe nooi?noue ? ?ieue iaoe?iiaeueieo “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e” o
nenoai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee, ?o aieea ia ae??oaiiy
iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue, caaeiaieaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo iio?aa ? caaacia/aiiy aenii?oo i?iaeoeoe??;

— aeyaeoe iia? i?eioeeie, iniiae e iaoai?cie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo
?aea? aa?iii?eiiai ia’?aeiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee c i?iieneiaith
oa aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith, oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie;

— ?ic?iaeoe iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeii? “Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie” ye ?ioaa?iaaii?
noeoiiino? iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, i?eioeeie e e?eoa??? a?aeai?o
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai aeey aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee;

— ?ice?eoe i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/i? iniiae
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e,
ae?iaieoeoa a ?aeeiiio ?iiiaaoe?eiiio oeeee? c aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie
oa iniiai? i?ioeaaeo?i? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo o
noa?? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie;

— aecia/eoe i?eioeeie i?iaaaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith, ainiiaea?nueeith oa aeiiii?/iith noa?aie
ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae iaoai?cie i?eeiyooy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ia aeueo ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith oa i?iieneiaith iie?oeeith ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a ia aac? nenoaie
“no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy — i?ia?aioaaiiy — ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo”,
canoinoaaiiyi “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e” aeicaieyoue neiioeaio?oaaoe coneeey
aea?aeaae ia ?icaeoeo aenia?oieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino? ca ?aooiie
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano,
canoinoaaiiy ciai?oi?o o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieo aeae?a oaoi?ee, a oaeiae noai?youe iaeaaei? oiiae
aeey ?aoi?ioaaiiy e oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?, ainiiaea?nueei? e
aeiiii?/ii? noa?e ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoai? no/ani?
iaoeia? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia iaoiaee nenoaiiiai aiae?co,
oai??? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, oai??? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa aeiiii?/ii? aenia?oece, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, aeno?aiieyoe?? oa aiaeia?e, i?iaiicoaaiiy oa ieaioaaiiy,
iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy, aea/aiiy yaeu ? i?ioean?a o ?o aca?iica’yceo oa
oai?/iio ?icaeoeo, eeaneo?eaoe?e, a?oioaaiue, ni?anoaaeaiue, eia?/iiai
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a oiui.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aaoi?ii oia?oa ?ic?iaeai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy oa io?eiai? iia?
?acoeueoaoe a aaeoc? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy (oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith),
ye? a noeoiiino? ?ica’ycothoue aaaeeeao iaoeiao i?iaeaio no?aoaa??
?ic?iaee e ?aae?caoe?? no?oeoo?ii? oa ?iaanoeoe?eii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
iie?oeee.

Ia i?aenoaa? nenoaiiiai aiae?co aia?oa:

 aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? ooieoe?? oa aeiiae aea?aeaae c ieoaiue:
i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie oa aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie;
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa i?iieneiaiai
?icaeoeo ? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?; iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai;
oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?; i?eeiyooy
e ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ia aeueo ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy;
i?eioeei?a no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?ai ? ?ic?iaee
athaeaeaoo a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e oa aeiiii?/i?e noa?ao;

iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia, ?ic?iaeaia oa ai?iaaaeaeaia nenoaia no?aoaa?/iiai
ieaioaaiiy, i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo /IIA/ aeey
o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?eae ? caaaeaiue aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? aaeoc?;

cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae oa aeai?eoi oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?ai ? ?ic?iaee
athaeaeaoo a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e aaeoc?;

noi?ioeueiaaia oa aecia/aia i??i?eoaoia ?ieue “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e” ye
?ino?oiaioo ae??oaiiy caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ? caaea/;

— iaoeiai ?ice?eo? caaaeuei? i?eioeeie i?iaaaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
?aoi?ie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee aaeoc?;

— ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoai?ci i?eeiyooy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo no?aoaa?/ieo
??oaiue ia aeueo ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiaee oa eiie?aoi?
i?iiiceoe?? aoee /anoeiai aeei?enoai? a Eiioeaioe?? noai?aiiy
aea?aeaaii? nenoaie ?icaeoeo e caoenoo e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e, a oaeiae o
“Iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? Oe?a?ie “E?eoe/i? oaoiieia??” oa Iieiaeaii? i?i
iaoai?cie ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? oe?eae i?ia?aie, ye? caoaa?aeaeai?
iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 16 o?aaiy 1994 ?ieo ? 310
“I?i ?icaeoie ? caoeno e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e” oa ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo
aeoao, ui ?ic?iaeai? ia i?aenoaa? oeeo aeieoiaio?a. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i?iiiceoe?e, ocaaaeueiaieo o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?,
ciaeoee nai? ao?eaiiy o iiiia?ao?? “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii: aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe”, o iaa/aeueiiio
iin?aieeo “No?aoaa?y ? oaeoeea iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie” oa a i?iaeo? Eiioeaioe?? noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, yea ?ic?iaeaia
i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th oa ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?? ? cai?iiiiiaaia
?yaeii i?i?noa?noa ? a?aeiinoa, aaia?aeueieo oa aieiaieo eiino?oeoi??a
? oaoiieia?a, ea??aiee?a oa niaoe?ae?no?a i?ia?aeieo i?aei?e?inoa ?
i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie aeey caoaa?aeaeaiiy O?yaeii.

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
iiiaae 100 i?ia?aeieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a, eiino?oeoi?nueeeo
ath?i oa i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie. ?io? ?ic?iaee, i?iiiceoe?? oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee o
noai?aii? e ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? nenoaie IIA “nenoaie ia?niaeoeaiiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy – i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy – ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo”;
i?e oi?ioaaii? e ?aae?caoe?? aeiaaino?ieiai? i?ia?aie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo “Oe?a?ia – 2010”; oaeineiiaeaii?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie, ae?iaie/eie oa aeiiii?/ieie
i?ioeanaie; i?eeiyoo? oa ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ia aeueo
??aiyo oi?aae?iiy; ?ic?iaoe? e ?aae?caoe?? ?aeeii? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee; aaeineiiaeaii? no?aoaa?? e
oaeoeee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
i?e i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a o aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaaeao, i?aeaioiaee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo iaoa??ae?a ii
i?iaaaeaiith nai?ia??a, ia eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
niaoe?ae?no?a oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a oiui.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? eaae?o?eaoe?eiith iaoeiaith
i?aoeath, yea i?noeoue i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy (oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith), ye? caaacia/othoue
?ica’ycaiiy aaaeeeai? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie aea/aiiy no?aoaa?? ?ic?iaee oa
?aae?caoe?? no?oeoo?ii? oa ?iiiaaoe?eii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee. O
aeena?oaoe?? ia aeei?enoiaothoueny ?aea? oa ?ic?iaee, ui iaeaaeaoue
ni?aaaoi?ai A.A. Eoeiinueeiio, A.I. A?eai?ue?ao, TH.N. Ai?iae?io, N.A.
Ieeeiaieo, A.I. Ia/a?iao, A.I. Eoae?yoo, I.ss. Ia?a?a?, A.N. Oiieie/o,
A.I. Na?oee/iiio, A.I. Aeanaieo oa O.I. Aaeaeeio, ?acii c yeeie aoee
iaienai? iaoeia? i?aoe?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? oa ?o ?aae?caoe?y i?iaiaeeeenue
aaoi?ii ia ia?aae? aaia?aeueieo ? aieiaieo eiino?oeoi??a iai?iiieo
aaeocae i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie “No/ani? i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a ?ioa?anao i?aeaeuaiiy iai?iiicaeaoiino? oa
aoaeoeaiino? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee aea?aeaae” — Oa?e?a, 1995; ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ea??aiee?a oa niaoe?ae?no?a i?ia?aeieo
i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie: “I?iaeaie noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii?
nenoaie a?aeai?o, ?icaeoeo oa caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo “e?eoe/ieo
oaoiieia?e”, ye ?ino?oiaioo ae??oaiiy caaaeueii iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ?
caaea/” — Ee?a, 1994, 1995; ia ui??/ieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia?
Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoiaeieia?/ieo
nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee oa o?iain?a Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie — 1998, 1999,
i?i?noa?noa? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie — Ee?a, 1998, 1999,
i?i?noa?noa? Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoee ? oaoiieia?e — Ee?a, 1997, 1998, a
Aea?aeaaii? neoaea? Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue niaoe?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa
e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e — Ee?a, 1994, 1996; ?inoeooo? aeiiii?/iiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie — Ee?a, 1998.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe oaeiae i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th o i?ioean?
/eoaiiy eaeoe?e o Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
.

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii
iioae?eiaaia iiiia?ao?y oa iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee, 20 noaoae o iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao, ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
oanoe ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 400 noi??iie, i?noeoue 25 oaaeeoeue, 8
noai ? 7 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie, iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, ia’?eo, iaoiaee oa a?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, nooi?iue ai?iaaoe?? e ia?ae?e ioae?eaoe?e ?c
i?iaeaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. aeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea
?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “Nenoaiiee aiae?c iniiaieo aniaeo?a ?ie? aea?aeaae
a aaeoc? i?aai?caoe?? e oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie oa aeiiii?/ieie
i?ioeanaie a ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo oa a Oe?a?i?”
?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? no?aoaa?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo; nooi?noue ? oe?e? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee; i?eioeeie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, no?aoaa?/iiai
ieaioaaiiy, i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo; i?eioeeie e iaoai?cie
i?eeiyooy no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ia aeueo ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy; iaea?eueo
aaaeeea? aniaeoe ?ie? aea?aeaae a aaeoc? i?aai?caoe?? e oi?aae?iiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie (o oiio /ene? e
a?enueeiai-oaoi?/ieie), ae?iaie/eie e aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie a
?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo (NOA, ssiii?y, O?aioe?y,
I?ia//eia, ?oae?y, ?niai?y, Oaaoe?y, Eeoae oiui) oa a Oe?a?i?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaii, ui iniaeeaa ?ieue o aeinyaiaii? iaoe
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa aenieiai ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? e?a?i
a?aeaiaeeoueny aea?aeaaiiio e ainiiaea?nueeiio oi?aae?iith. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny e aiae?cii caei?aeiiiiai aeina?aeo, yeee
na?ae/eoue, ui o?yaee i?aeoe/ii an?o ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i
na?oo iaaeathoue iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy nenoaiiiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?iith
(?aaoethaaiith) ye aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie a oe?eiio, oae ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii cie?aia. Aoaeoeai?noue oi?aae?iiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii caeaaeeoue a?ae yeino? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee. Oe?e?, i??i?eoaoe, caaaeaiiy, iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy
e ?aae?caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? e i?iieneiai? iie?oeee aecia/athoueny,
aeoiaey/e c? noaio aeiiii?ee aeaii? e?a?ie, aea?aeaaieo ? nioe?aeueieo
i??i?eoao?a, niaoeeo?ee ?o ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo. I?eioeeiiaei
ieoaiiyi ? aca?iica’ycie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee c
eiioeaioe??th iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, no?aoaa?/ieie eiioeaioe?yie
aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai oa a?enueeiaiai ?icaeoeo.

O na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? niinoa??aathoueny oaiaeaioe?? ii?aeiaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee c i?iieneiaith e aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith. Ua
ia ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a a ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao aoea
aaaaeaia a i?aeoeeo oae caaia nenoaia IIA (nenoaia “no?aoaa?/iiai
ieaioaaiiy – i?ia?aioaaiiy – ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo”). A ?aaeyinueeiio
Nithc? aiaeia?/ia nenoaia aoea ai?iaaaeaeaia a a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaiio
eiiieaen?. Nenoaia aeiaaino?ieiaiai i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy
?icaeoeo ica?i?iiy oa a?enueeiai? oaoi?ee, aca?iiiia’ycaia ca oa?i?iaie
e iieacieeaie ?c ieaioaaiiyi ?icaeoeo iai?iiieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino? e
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa a oe?eiio ca?aeiiaiaeoaaei naaa c iiceoeaiiai
aieo, o ?acoeueoao? a iai?iiieo aaeocyo aoa aeinyaiooee aenieee
oaoi?/iee ? oaoiieia?/iee ??aaiue. Ca aenii?oii i?iaeoeoe?? a?enueeiaiai
i?ecia/aiiy ?aaeyinueeee Nithc aeeoia ia ae?oaa i?noea o na?o?.

Aaaaeaiiy a ssiii??, NOA, ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc? e ?ioeo ?icaeiooeo
e?a?iao na?oo nenoai ia?niaeoeaiiai i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy
?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoa e aeiiii?ee, o oe?eiio,
aeicaieeei ia o?eueee a?eueo aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaaeai? ia
nioe?aeuei?, ainiiaea?nuee?, a?enueeia? oa ?io? oe?e? o?iainia? e
iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne, aea e caaacia/eoe i?aaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th aeey i?eeiyooy iaa?oioiaaieo ??oaiue
uiaei i??i?eoaoiino? noai?aiiy e ae?iaieoeoaa iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeae?a
i?iaeoeoe?? oeea?eueiiai oa a?enueeiaiai i?ecia/aiiy, ia?oi/a?aiaiai
caaacia/aiiy ?o aneaioaaiiyie, iaoa??aeueieie e ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie,
aeinyaiaiiy caieaiiaaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?icaeoeo
e?a?ie.

Niinoa??aathoueny aea? ocaaaeueithth/? iiaeae? ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo –
cao?aeia (aia?eeainueea) ? yiiinueea. Ia?oa caniiao?oueny ia
iaiao?aeiino? ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae oiae?, eiee aeyaeythoueny iaaaea/?
?eieiaiai iaoai?cio (?aaeoeaia). Ae?oaa, iaaiaee, — nie?a?oueny ia
?noi?e/io o?aaeeoe?th, i???ioiaaio ia i?aaaioeai? caoiaee, ui
eiiiainothoue iaaeineiiae?noue ?eieo iaa?oue o aeiaaeeao aeinoaoiuei
ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio (i?iaeoeaia). Inoaiiy
iiaeaeue cae??ieth? ca aea?aeaaith a inia? o?yaeo eaa?oeiio ?ieue o
?ic?iaoe? e ?aae?caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee.

O oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia oa i?iieneiaa iie?oeea aeeth/a?
an? ae?? aea?aeaae, ni?yiiaai? ia i?ia?aneaiee ?icaeoie ? aeei?enoaiiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, ae?iaie/iai e
eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo a ?ioa?anao ae??oaiiy i??i?eoaoieo i?iaeai ?
caaaeaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae ?icaeiooeo o ?eieiaiio a?aeiioaii? e?a?i,
aieiaia oaiaeaioe?y ci?i aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee iieyaa? a iinooiiaiio ia?aoiae? a?ae ?aaoethaaiiy e oi?aae?iiy
ie?aieie aaeocyie, ae?iaieoeoa, oiaa?ieo ?eie?a (oi/ aiii a oiio /e
?ioiio aeaeyae? caeeoa?oueny) aei ?aaoethaaiiy e i?aeo?eiee no?aoaa?/ieo
aeey iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee oaoiieia?e. *ei a?eueoa oi?aa?naeueia
aenieioaoiieia?/ia nenoaia, /ei a?eueoa eiei eiie?aoieo naeoi??a
ainiiaea?noaa aiia ioiieth?, oei a?eueoith iiaeiia aooe aea?aeaaia
i?aeo?eiea. Iia?oi? oaoiieia?? noaee ia’?eoii aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee
noeioethaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo – a yeino? oaeoi?a i?aeo?eiee
?iaanoeoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo, a oaeiae aace aeey o?ainoi?iaoe?? aaeocaai?
oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueei? no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee.

Eeth/iaeie ieoaiiyie IOII ? aea?? i??i?eoao?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo aeey aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, noai?aiiy
aea?aeaaii? nenoaie, yea a caaacia/eea oi?ioaaiiy e aoaeoeaio
?aae?caoe?th oe??? iie?oeee, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, cae?eniaiiy aoaeoeaiiai
aca?iica’yceo iae?iaeiiii?/ii? oa no?oeoo?ii? iie?oeee. O i?eioeei?
iaoeiaa-oaoi?/ia oa i?iieneiaa iie?oeea oea ?aeeia oe?ea, a ia i?aeoeoe?
ioiieth? ? noa?e ?aae?caoe?? oa niiaeeaaiiy.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?icaeiooeo e?a?i na?oo a Oe?a?i? i?ioiaeeoue neeaaeiee
i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? ainiiaea?nueei? nenoaie, nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy, noai?aiiy iiaeo oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo?, ye? ua aeaeae? a?ae
noaio noaa?eueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Iiaiith i??ith oea noino?oueny e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?, i?iieneiai? oa aeiiii?/ii? noa?.

Aiae?c aeina?aeo ?icaeoeo ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiooeo e?a?i oa Oe?a?ie
na?ae/eoue, ui aeey aeaaaeaiiy iaoi? e?a?ie c e?ece oa ia?aaaaeaiiy ??
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ia o?a?eoi??th aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo,
c iiaoaiiei aeinyaiaiiyi ia ia?oiio aoai?, iai?eeeaae,
na?aaeiuei?a?iiaenueeiai ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy, iaiao?aeii aianoe
nooo?a? ei?aeoeae a aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo iiiaoa?iiai oeio e ia?aianoe
oeaio? coneeue ia noeioethaaiiy i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa. ?aaoethth/?
ooieoe?? aea?aeaae ia iiaeooue aooe aoaeoeaieie, yeui a?aenooiy iaae?eia
eiiieaenia nenoaia aeiaaino?ieiaiai no?aoaa?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy oa
?iaeeeaoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, ae?iaie/iai oa
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. A Oe?a?i? i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth a?aenooi?e
aeina?ae ia’?eoeaiiai ia?niaeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue, iaiao?aeia aeey oeueiai noaoenoe/ia aaca ? a?aeiia?aeiee
?ino?oiaioa??e oa ?inoeoooe?eii? no?oeoo?e, yaii iaaeinoaoi? ieaioth/?
oa ?aaoethth/? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae.

Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe? e?a?ie ana a?eueoa caa?iaeo? ia aa?an?y c aieo
aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie, a aioo??oi?e noai aea?aeaae. O oiae? noaiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? c ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a aoei a?aeoeeaii oyaeaiiy
i?i oioiaei?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo ? aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a. Ca oeeo oiia
naii oyaeaiiy uiaei ?nioaaiiy oa iaiao?aeiino? caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a aoei i?iaieioaii ei?enieie ?ioa?anaie aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo. O
oie /an ieneeeiny ?oeioaaiiy aeaaee oeaio?aeueiiai aia?aoo e aieeao
aaeeeeo i?iieneiaeo no?oeoo?, ia?aoai?aiiy ethaeae o a?eueieo aeaniee?a,
a?aeiioaiiy i?ae yeeie iaee?auei /eiii neeaaeooueny ia iniia? ?eieiaeo
caeiiii??iinoae. ?aeaaeueiith aea?aeaaith aaa/aeanue “i?i?iaeueia
aea?aeaaa” oa o?iainiaa noaa?euei?noue, a ?ioa iiaeiia aoea c?iaeoe
a?eueia a?a aeanieo ?ioa?an?a oa ?eiie, ae?? yeiai iaiao?aeii
ai?iaaaeeoe o an? noa?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. ?icaeioo? aea?aeaae
?icaeyaeaeeny ye ?aeaae noni?eueiiai ono?ith oa c?acie eiie?aoii?
iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee. I?e oeueiio ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy ia
iaea oyaeaiiy i?i oaeoe/ii ae?th/? iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo ca?oa?aeieo
aea?aeaa. I?iaeaia aeinyaiaiiy eiinainono noiniaii iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a o oeae ia??iae i?aeoe/ii ia noaaeeany. Iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane
?icaeyaeaeeny a nooiino? ye noia ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ?ioa?an?a,
iaeneiaeueii aea?eueiaieo a?ae aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ?aaoethaaiiy e
eiio?ieth. Cia/iith i??ith oaeee i?aeo?ae aoa iaoiiaeaiee eia?eith
iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae.

Iie?oeea ?oeioaaiiy aaeeeeo ae?iaie/eo iiiiiieueieo ia’?aeiaiue,
?icae??aiaiiy i?aei?e?inoa ia e?eueea naiino?eieo i?ecaaea aei ii?ooaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo eaioethaee?a, caaacia/eea ?oeioaaiiy ?aeeii?
?ioaa?aoe?eii? ei?ii?aoeaii? nenoaie. O ae?eniino? o?ni? ei?ii?aoeai?
ca’ycee a no?oeoo?? aeiiii?ee iathoue ia o?eueee yaio aeaiaeo, aea e
i?eueeiie ethaeae caaacia/othoueny ?iaioith.

Nei?i/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa aei ??aiy, ui aeeeoo?oueny niiaeea/ei iiieoii ia
e?ioeaao i?iaeoeoe?th, aaaea aei aea?iaeono??ae?caoe?? Oe?a?ie. O
no/anieo oiiaao ca a?aenooiino? aeiaaino?ieiaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
i??i?eoao?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie,
aecia/aieo oe?eae ? caaaeaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia
aeaeaeo ? na?aaeith ia?niaeoeao, nenoaie i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai
ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee iaiiaeeeai aecia/eoe ia iniia? i?inoeo
?eieiaeo e?eoa???a, ye? i?aei?e?inoaa oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?aai?caoe??
iathoue ia?niaeoeao ?icaeoeo, a ye? i?.

Iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anii Oe?a?ie ia aeaiee /an aeioe?eueii aecia/eoe
iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeiiai aeeoo?caeaoiiai e aoaeoeaiiai
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, a?ae ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? yeiai
caeaaeeoue aeia?iaoo ia?iaeo e?a?ie, iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea. Oea iiaeiai
aooe aeeiai?/iee oa aio/eee i?aai?ci, on??th no?oeoo?ith i?enoiniaaiee
aei iaeneiaeueii aoaeoeaii? o/ano? a i?aeia?iaeiiio ?iciiae?e? i?aoe?,
ye ?aeeii? nenoaie, a ia ie?aieo ?? aeaiaio?a. Ia oe?e iniia? iiaea aooe
aeinyaiooee iaoe?iiaeueiee eiinainon uiaei aeiiii?/ii?,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee.

Iaiaa?oioiaaia a?aeiiaa a?ae ia?niaeoeaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy, iieeeeaiiai
ia?aaeaa/aoe e ?iia??i?noue oaiaeaioe?e o ae??oaii? no?aoaa?/ieo
caaaeaiue ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa oa ieaioaaiiy ye caniao iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaeei?iooeo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy iaoe, ui oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny o
na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?, ae?ae caoaii aieeaathoue ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie Oe?a?ie ? ye?noue aeeooy ?? ianaeaiiy. A oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee i?iaiice e ieaie ?ic?iaeythoueny ia i?aenoaa? iaoiaeieia?? oa
iaoiaeeee, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue ia aee?aeoeao, a ca?ae i?aaee ? caoiae?a
uiaei ia?aiao??a ??aiy ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, ye? aoaeooue aecia/aoe iniiae
aeeooy noni?euenoaa a iaeaooiueiio.

Aieiaia iaoa aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy e ?aaoethaaiiy – caaacia/aiiy
ia?a-oiaeo a?ae oaioe/ieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo, ae?iaie/eo ? aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a aei ?aaoethth/eo. Na?oeaaeiith ieaio ia ??ai? aea?aeaae,
?aa?iio e aaeoc? ? nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, yea
aeeth/a? oe?e?, i??i?eoaoe ?? ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae aeiiii?/i? e i?aaia?
aaaeae? ?o aeinyaiaiiy.

Iaei??th c oi?i aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie c e?ece oa aoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee, ye na?ae/eoue na?oiaee aeina?ae, ? noai?aiiy e oi?iaaaeaeaiiy
a i?aeoeeo nenoaie IIA (nenoaie “no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy –
i?ia?aioaaiiy – ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo”). Oey nenoaia aeicaiey? noai?eoe
oiiae, ca yeeo o ia?ic?eai?e ?aeiino? ?icaeyaea?oueny aa?iii?eiee
ca’ycie i?ae iaoeith, oaoi?eith, oaoiieia?yie e ae?iaieoeoaii, c iaeiiai
aieo, oa ia?oi/a?aiaeie iaoe?iiaeueieie iio?aaaie, e?eoe/ii aaaeeeaeie
aea?aeaaieie i?iaeaiaie e caaea/aie, iaoe?iiaeueieie i??i?eoaoaie oa
no?aoaa?/ieie oe?eyie aea?aeaae, c ?ioiai. Oey nenoaia ia iie?oeciaaia e
ni?yiiaaia ia eiinie?aeaoe?th noni?euenoaa, caeiiiaeaa/i? oa aeeiiaa/i?
a?eie aeaaee, ia?o?e, i?ioni?eie, ia ?ica’ycaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo
aea?aeaaieo i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue iie?auaiiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy,
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. Aiia iieeeeaia caaacia/eoe
o?ainoi?iaoe?th oe?eae ? caaaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, no?aoaa?/ieo
iieiaeaiue eiioeaioe?e aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai oa a?enueeiaiai
?icaeoeo a eiie?aoi? caoiaee uiaei ?o ?aae?caoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “I?eioeeie e iniiae noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie
?icaeoeo oa caoenoo “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e” ye ?ino?oiaioo ae??oaiiy
iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue” – iaaaaeaii
ii??aiyeueiee nenoaiiee aiae?c a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee e oaoiieia?e o
aca?iica’yceo c oe?eyie, caaea/aie e i?iaeaiaie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?icaeoeo oa eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aeiiii?ee, iie?auaiiy yeino? aeeooy
ianaeaiiy e caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. Aecia/aii aieea
?icaeoeo iaoee e oaoiieia?e ia ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa, iniiai?
?ino?oiaioe aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii, ?ieue
“e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”, iaoee ieaioaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy a no?aoaa??
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?, i?iieneiai? oa aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Iaa?oioiaai?
iniiai? i?eioeeie e e?eoa??? a?aeai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo i??i?eoao?a
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai aeey aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, iaoai?cie
i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy IAeAeE?.

Oaoiieia?y e iaoea a on? /ane a?ae?a??aaea ae??oaeueio ?ieue o ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa. Eaaecoia Oaoa?n? ?ic?iaea oai??th ?noi?e/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, a ye?e iia’ycaa o /aniaiio i?inoi?? ?icaeoie
iaoee e oaoiieia?e oa ?o aieea ia ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa. Ia i?eeeaaeao
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a ??cieo e?a?iao aaoi? noaa?aeaeo? oeae
aca?iica’ycie. Ae?aa?aia aeanyoe noaae?e ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa iaaaaeaia
ia ?en. 2.2.

Ia’?eoii i??i?eoaoii? oaaae noathoue ia i?inoi aaeoc? /e ie?ai? o??ie, a
iia?oi? oaoiieia??, a?aeiia?aei? i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?i?, i?aeaaeocaa? ?
i?aeia?iaei? i?ia?aie, aeeth/ath/e iaoai?cie ?ic?iaee, inai?iiy,
ae?iaieoeoaa, ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? oa oe?aaeoaaiiy oaoiieia?e ?
iiaiaaaaeaiue.

A oiiaao ?ano?nieo iaiaaeaiue, ye? iathoue i?noea i?aeoe/ii a on?o
e?a?iao na?oo, o?yaee aea?aeaa ia a ciic? oe?ieei o?iioii i?aeo?eioaaoe
an? iai?yie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano. Oiio inoaii?i /anii o iaea?eueo
?icaeiooeo e?a?iao, ye aeaiaio aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, noaa aeae?eyoeny e
i?eaa?oaoe oaaao iiaee i?aeo?ae aei i?aai?caoe??, i?aea?aeii/i?
eii?aeeiaoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii, iia’ycaiee c
a?aeai?ii, caoenoii ? ?icaeoeii iaea?eueo i??i?eoaoieo aeey eiie?aoii?
e?a?ie iai?yi?a oaoiieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Oe? i??i-?eoaoi? iai?yie
oaoiieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny ye ?aeeiee
?iiiaaoe?eiee i?ioean
“iaoea-oaoi?ea-oaoiieia?y-ae?iaieoeoai-niiaeeaaiiy”, io?eiaee iacao
“e?eoe/i? oaoiieia??”.

E?eoe/i? oaoiieia?? – oea ?ino?oiaio oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii iaoee,
oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?? e ae?iaieoeoaa a i??i?eoaoieo aaeocyo aeiiii?ee ca
?aooiie ia?iuoaaiiy oa aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano e oeaio?aeueiee aeaiaio caaaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ?iaeono??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy, noai?aiiy oa i?aai?caoe??
na??eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeo eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieo ia aioo??oiueiio e
ciai?oiueiio ?eieao aeae?a i?iaeoeoe?? oeea?eueiiai oa a?enueeiaiai
i?ecia/aiiy, ye? ? e?eoe/ii aaaeeeaeie aeey ae??oaiiy i??i?eoaoieo
i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie,
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, caaeiaieaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iio?aa, caa?aaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii?
oaoiieia?/ii? aace.

Iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e” ? iiaith
oi?iith aa?iii?eiiai ca’yceo i?ae iaoeith, oaoi?eith, oaoiieia??th oa
iaoei?iiei ae?iaieoeoaii, c iaeiiai aieo, oa ia?oi/a?aiaeie
iaoe?iiaeueieie iio?aaaie, e?eoe/ii aaaeeeaeie aea?aeaaieie i?iaeaiaie,
caaaeaiiyie oa no?aoaa?/ieie oe?eyie e?a?ie, c ?ioiai aieo. A iniia?
oeueiai iaoai?cio eaaeeoue i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaee iaoiae nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe??, i?aea?aeii/i? eii?aeeiaoe?? e oi?aae?iiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie, ae?iaie/eie oa
aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie ca nenoaiith IIA. A?i ia?aaeaa/a?
o?ainoi?iaoe?th oe?eae ? caaaeaiue eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee,
a?enueeiai? aeieo?eie, no?aoaa?/ieo eiioeaioe?e nioe?aeueiiai,
aeiiii?/iiai, ainiiaea?nueeiai ? a?enueeiaiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i o eiie?aoi?
caoiaee – i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoaa, ye?
ia’?aeiothoueny a Eiiieaeniee ieai ?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e,
ae?iaieoeoaa. Oeae Eiiieaeniee ieai (Ieai ?icaeoeo “e?eoe/ieo
oaoiieia?e”) ? iniiaith, aeoiaey/e c ?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae, aeey
oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia ia?niaeoeao e iioi/iee o?iainiaee
??e, aeey eiioeaio?aoe?? oeaio?ae?ciaaieo athaeaeaoieo oa
iicaathaeaeaoieo eioo?a ia eiai ?aae?caoe?th.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee ia?ae?e “E?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e” ioiieth? i?aeoe/ii an?
aieiai? iai?yie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie e aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeueie i?aaiaie aeaaee o ae?iaeaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?, i?iieneiai? e
o?iainiai? iie?oeee aea?aeaa a oiiaao ?ano?nieo iaiaaeaiue. Ia?ae?e
i??i?eoaoieo oaoiieia?/ieo iai?yi?a, ui aaaaea?oueny ae?ae aaaeeeaei,
(e?eoe/ieie) aecia/a?oueny, aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino? caaacia/aiiy
aeiiii?/iiai i?ioea?oaiiy e iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie.

Eiaeia ia?aia oaoiieia?/ia aaeocue aecia/a?oueny c o?aooaaiiyi e?ioeaai?
iaoe, iniiaieo oaeoi??a, ui aieeioee ia ?? aea??, o oiio /ene? e
aeiiii?/ieo ioe?iie, i?aeia?iaeieo oaiaeaioe?e o oe?e aaeoc?. Oaoiieia?y
naia ii nia? ia iiaea caaacia/eoe aeiiii?/ia i?ioea?oaiiy oa
iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo, aea iiaea aianoe cia/iee aeeaae o iaeaooi?
iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane, aea o?eueee a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee ie iaa/eiiny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?? a?eueo aoaeoeaii. ?ica’ycaoe oae? caaaeaiiy iiaeia
o?eueee aeei?enoiaoth/e aeina?ae no?aoaa?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy oa
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy ia aac? nenoaie IIA ca iayaiino?
?inoeoooe?eieo no?oeoo?.

sse na?ae/eoue i?aeia?iaeia i?aeoeea, cia/ia e?euee?noue e?a?i, ye ?
Oe?a?ia, iaee nai? iaoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie. Iaeiei c aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a
ae??oaiiy ? ?ic?iaea niaoe?aeueii? o?yaeiai? iie?oeee, yeo i?eeiyoi
iaceaaoe Aea?aeaaiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith oa i?iieneiaith iie?oeeith.
A?eueo?noue e?a?i i?iaiaeyoue iaoeiai-oaoi?/io oa i?iieneiao iie?oeeo,
i???ioiaaio ia ?icaeoie i??i?eoao-

Oai??y ?noi?e/ieo ?iiiaaoe?e

Ae?aa?aia aeanyoe noaae?e ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa

Eaaecoia Oaoa?n?

ieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino?, ye? aeaioiaeythoue i?iaeoeoe?th, ui ia? iiieo
ia na?oiaiio ?eieo.

O ?iaio? e?eoe/ii nenoaiii i?iaiae?ciaai? iniaeeaino? oa aoaie ?icaeoeo
oaei? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a ??cieo e?a?iao.

Iniaeea?noth ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ? aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai i?ia?aioaaiiy, ye? cia/ii ciaioeee aieea
i?eioeeio ?inoeoooe?eiiai o?iainoaaiiy aeine?aeieo oeaio??a.

Iniiaieie iniaeeainoyie i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ea??aieoeoaa ?:

— oe?eueiaa o?iainoaaiiy i?iaeo?a, a ia iaoeiaeo a?aeiinoa, c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiie?aoieo oi?i o?iainoaaiiy;

— a?aea?? i?iaeo?a ia eiieo?ni?e iniia? aeoiaey/e c i??i?eoaoieo i?iaeai
oa caaaeaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee;

— eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ano?n?a ia i??i?eoaoieo iai?yiao iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie c iaoith noai?aiiy oa i?aai?caoe??
na??eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa e?ioeaaeo aeae?a i?iaeoeoe??.

O ssiii?? iniiaiei iaoiaeii i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee e
oaoiieia?? ? aea?aeaaia ?iaeeeaoeaia ieaioaaiiy, yea caaacia/eei aenie?
oaiie a?aeaoaeiae aeiiii?ee, ?? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oa
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe??. Iieacaii, ui ?iaeeeaoeaiee oa?aeoa? ieaioaaiiy – oea
aea?aeaaia eiiieaenia i?ia?aia, yea i???ioo? oa iia?e?co? ie?ai?
neeaaeia? aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e ia aeeiiaiiy oeeo i?ia?ai. Oae c 1956
aei 1996 ?ieo aoei ?ic?iaeaii aeaaiaaeoeyoue aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee ssiii?? ia
iniia? Aea?aeaaiiai ieaioaaiiy aeicaieea aeiaanoe ui??/iee oaii c?inoo
AAI o?eueee a inoaii?e i’yoe??/oe? aei 4,8 % (ca ieaiii aoei 3,752 %).
Oeueiai iaiiaeia aoei aeinyaoe yeae i??i?eoaoi? iai?yie ?icaeoeo iaoee,
oaoi?ee oa oaoiieia?e ia aoee a cao?eniaai? o ieaiiaiio i?aeaaeocaaiio
aaeain?.

O NOA ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaiiiai i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy
ii/aeiny i?ney 1963 ?ieo. Nii/aoeo o a?enueeiaeo i?ae?icae?eao, a c 1965
?. o oeea?eueieo i?aai?caoe?yo. Aoei ?ic?iaeaii o?noue iniiaieo nenoai
?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo. A?ae i?inoi? ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo aei eiioeaioe??
“nainao”, iniiaith yei? ? aaoiiaoe/ia i?eieiaiiy o?iainoaaiiy i?ia?ai,
oa?i?i ae?yeueiino? yeeo cae?i/eany. Iaea?eueo iioe?aia no?aoaa?/ia
ieaioaaiiy a aaeoc? ?icaeoeo ica?i?iiy. Aiii neeaaea?oueny c oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo aaciaee, oi?ioaaiiy a?enueeiai?
aeieo?eie oa no?aoaa?/ieo eiioeaioe?e, ?icaeoeo a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa oiui. No?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy ?ic?iaey?oueny ia o?ueio
i?aai?caoe?eieo ??aiyo – ieaioaaiiy a aia?ao? i?i?noa?noaa iai?iie,
ia’?aeiaia ieaioaaiiy oa ieaioaaiiy o aeaeao ca?ieieo nee.

O ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo i?ia?aeieo
e?a?i aeey iiaeaeueoiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?, aeey yei?
iaea?eueo aeooaeueiei c aeina?aeo Oaaoe?? oa ?niai?? ? oae? no?aoaa?/i?
iai?yie aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee:

— ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa oa noa?e iineoa ia iniia? aca?iiae?? aeanii?,
aea?aeaaii? e eiiia?aoeaii? oi?i aeaniino? ca i?ia?aeii? ?ie? aea?aeaae
a ?iciiae?e? aeaa na?aae on?o a?iiaaeyi aea?aeaae;

— nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea nei?i/aiiy ??cieoe? a aeioiaeao aeniei
e iecueeiiiea/oaaieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, aeey /iai ?nio? aeaaaeaia
aea?aeaaia iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea;

— ??ciiiai?oia iie?oeea ia ?eieo i?aoe? c aeinyaiaiiy iiaii? caeiyoino?
i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy;

— aaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai, aaeocaaiai e ?aa?iiaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy;

— o?eia?oeci (aea?aeaaa, i?ioni?eee, anioe?aoe?? i?aei?e?inoa) a
oi?aae?ii? aeiiii?eith an?o ??ai?a;

— oaaaeia noaaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae, o?aaeeoe?e
ia?iaeo.

O ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui o?yaee i?aeoe/ii an?o ?icaeiooeo e?a?i
iaaeathoue iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?iith e ?aaoethaaiith
ye aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie a oe?eiio, oae ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii.

O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe??
“e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”, ui ia?aaeaa/a? oae? aoaie:

1) neeaaea?oueny ia?ae?e Iaoe?iiaeueieo “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”, yeee
iiaeiai aeeth/aoe an? aieiai? iai?yie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo e?a?ie;

2) o aieiaieo iai?yiao ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo iaoai?ci?a,
i?ioeaaeo? ? e?eoa???a, aeoiaey/e c iaiao?aeiino? ae??oaiiy e?eoe/ii
aaaeeeaeo aea?aeaaieo i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue, oi?iothoueny iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?
i?ia?aie, ye? io?eiothoue aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo;

3) aeey a?ae?a?aieo oa ioe?iaieo aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai aecia/athoue
aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy oa aeiaiaeyoue ?o aei ae?iaieoeoaa.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi e?eueea aa??aio?a ci?noo eaoaai??? “oaoiieia?y.
Oaoiieia?y – oea noeoii?noue iaoeiaeo ciaiue, a?aei?aoeueiaaieo
oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue oa ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a, ye? ? aacith ye aeey
oaeineiiaeaiiy e aeioneo iayaii?, oae aeey noai?aiiy e ae?iaieoeoaa
iiai? i?iaeoeoe?? oeea?eueiiai aai a?enueeiaiai i?ecia/aiiy. Oiaoi
oaoiieia?y — oea iniaeeaa oi?ia, ui caaacia/o? ia?ao?ae a?ae
?acoeueoao?a ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa i?eeeaaeieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
(ye? iiaeooue aooe a?aee?eooyie, aeiioiaeaie, “iio-oao” oiui) aei
oaoi?/iiai ciaiiy (o i?iaeoao, oaoi?/i?e aeieoiaioaoe??, c?aceao
oaoi?ee) ? o oaeiio cia/aii? ia’?eoea-iei i?iaeoeoii i?aoe?, a yeiio
?aae?ciaai? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaie, a cae?i/aia
?ic?iaeith oa aioiaa aei ?aae?caoe?? oaoiieia?y ia? aeeth/aoe e
i?ioeane, iaiao?aei? aeey ae?iaieoeoaa oe??? oaoi?ee (i?iaeoeoe??).

?ioa?ane Oe?a?ie iio?aaothoue neii?aeeiiaaieo ae?e i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee e noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy c ae?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? ?aeeii?
aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee a ?ioa?anao
caaacia/aiiy eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oa aoaeoeaiiai ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee,
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa iie?auaiiy yeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy e?a?ie.
Eiioeaiooaeuei? iniiae noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy e
?aae?caoe?? oaei? iie?oeee iaaaaeai? aaoi?ii o ?iaio?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Iniiae noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy
oa ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie” – iaaaaeaii oa ?ic?iaeaii noeoii?noue cania?a oa
i?eeii?a, ye? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey aoaeoeaiiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai e
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae.

O ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui a?aenooi?noue ?aeeii?, nenoaiii
a?aei?aoeueiaaii? no?aoaa?? e aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, yea a caaacia/eea
aca?iica’ycie ? aa?iii?ei? a?aeiineie iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee c aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith, a oaeiae ?o aca?iica’ycie ?c
nioe?aeueiith, a?enueeiaith, o?iainiaith, aaie?anueei-e?aaeeoiith,
aaei?i?no?aoeaiith, iiaeaoeiaith iie?oeeith e no?aoaa?/ieie oe?eyie,
caaea/aie oa i??i?eoaoaie ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, ae?ae iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee oa a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie aea?aeaae.
O?ainoi?iaoe?y nioe?aeueii? oa aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? neeaaeiei nenoaiiei
caaaeaiiyi, ae??oeoe yea i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai ca a?aenooiino?
a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai “i?iaeoo” e nenoaie, yea caaacia/eoue eiai
iine?aeiaio ?aae?caoe?th.

Oaeei /eiii, aeey aoaeoeaiiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe iniiai? neeaaeia? ?aeeii?
Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee. Oiio a ?iaio?
iaa?oioiaaii, ui a oiiaao e?ece aeiiii?ee oa noni?euenoaa iaei??th c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaea/ Oe?a?ie a i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy ?? aea?aeaaiino? ?
iaiao?aei?noue aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a ?one? i?aeia?iaeiiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
i?ia?ano. ?acoeueoaoeai?noue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano aecia/a?oueny
ye?noth aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee, yea ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, ui
iiaeia aeinyaoe, yeui ?ic?iaeoe no?aoaa?th i?ia?aneaiiai ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oa eiiieaenio aea?aeaaio nenoaio ?? ?aae?caoe??.
Iaei??th ?c neeaaeiaeo no?aoaa?? ? oi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy i??i?eoaoaie,
ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaie no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii
aeiiii?ee e noni?euenoaa ia an?o ??aiyo. Oey nenoaia iiaeiia aooe
iaoe?eaia ia iia?e?caoe?th iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie,
aeei?enoaiiy aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae eiai o?iainoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? oa
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai eai?oaeo oa oaoiieia?e ?ioeo
e?a?i.

Aieiaiith iaoith, ye i?aee?aneaii a ?iaio?, ? ia?ao?ae a?ae oaioe/ieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo, ae?iaie/eo ? aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a aei ?aaoeueiaaieo.
Iniiaith oaeiai ieaioaaiiy iiaeiia noaoe nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, ui neeaaea?oueny, ii-ia?oa, c nenoaie
aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy e ieaioaaiiy a Oe?a?i?; ii-ae?oaa,
i?iaiicoaaiiy ia aeiaai-, na?aaeiuei-, ei?ioeino?ieia? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo
ie?aieo aaeocae, ?aa?ii?a oa iai?yi?a.

sse a?aoiaioiaaii a ?iaio?, oaea nenoaia ieaioaaiiy iiaeiia iaa?oiooaaoe
o?e aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie: a) ui ae?iaeyoe; a) ye ae?iaeyoe (ca ?aooiie
yeeo ?ano?n?a); a) aeey eiai iaiao?aei? oiaa?e oa iineoae.

Ca oaeeo oiia ? aeey aeeiiaiiy oeeo caaaeaiue aaaeeeaei ? aeei?enoaiiy
iioaioe?aeo oa iiaeeeainoae i?i?noa?noa. Naia ia ieo, a oaeiae ia
i?aea?aeii/ee aea?aeaaiee eii?oao Aea?aeoaoi?ii Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeii
aoaea iieeanoe ooieoe?? aeae?eaiiy i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo
ainiiaea?noaa, ?ic?iaeo iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe??, aeiiii?/ieo, i?aaiaeo ?
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo aaaeae?a ? a oe?eiio iaoeiai-oaoi?/io e i?iieneiao
iie?oeeo, a oea ia iiaeeeai aac ?ic?iaee caeiiiaeaa/i? oa ii?iaoeaii?
iniiae, yea a iineea eiinoeoooe?eiee oa?aeoa?.

Iieacaii, ui caoiaeaie aeey aeinyaiaiiy oa ae??oaiiy iaa?oioiaaieo
oe?eae ? caaaeaiue aea?aeaae a ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie ?:

— noai?aiiy nenoaie IIA ( nenoaie “no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy –
i?ia?aioaaiiy – ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo”). Oe? caaaeaiiy iiaeii? ae??oeoe
ianaiia?aae i?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee, o?iain?a, i?iieneiaino? ?acii c
?ioeie i?i?noa?noaaie oa a?aeiinoaaie, ?aa?iiaeueieie i?aaiaie
aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee;

— noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie i?aai?caoe??, i?aea?aeii/i?
eii?aeeiaoe?? e oi?aae?iiy iaoe?iiaeueieie i??i?eoaoaie ca noaiith
“iaoea – oaoi?ea – oaoiieia?y — ae?iaieoeoai”;

— ci?ia ooieoe?e ie?aieo ea??aieo i?aai?a, oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy, eio?a neeaaeaeany a c ia?niaeoeaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy
(no?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy) ?inoo aeiiii?ee ia iae?i ??ai? c aeaiaioaie
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia i?e?i ??ai? ia iniia? i?aaiaeo, aeiiii?/ieo
? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo caoiae?a;

— noai?aiiy nenoaie a?aeai?o e caoenoo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?
ainiiaea?nueeeo noa’?eo?a (cieioee oiiae iaoe??) aeey ia?oi/a?aiai?
aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee;

— aaaaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo nenoaie aea?aeaaieo i??i?eoao?a, ye?
aeicaieythoue ae??oeoe e?eoe/i? aea?aeaai? i?iaeaie oa caaaeaiue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie;

— ?ic?iaea ?aeeii? nenoaie aenia?oece aeey iaa?oioiaaiiai i?eeiyooy
no?aoaa?/ieo ??oaiue ia on?o ??aiyo aeaaee;

— iieeaaeaiiy a iniiao aaeocaaiai e oa?eoi??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy noaie
?icaeoeo e ?ici?uaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo nee.

O ?iaio? aeae?eaii aeaa iniiaieo aniaeoe: no?aoaa?/iee ? oaeoe/iee.
No?aoaa?y ?ic?iaey?oueny ia i?aenoaa? aeiaaino?ieiaeo eiioeaioe?e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa oaoiieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae. Aea??
no?aoaa?? – oea aecia/aiiy aaia?aeueii? e?i?? e aieiaii? iaoe, a oaeiae
cania?a ?icaeoeo e aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, eaae?iaiai e
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. Ui noino?oueny oaeoeee, oi i?ae iath
?icoi??oueny aecia/aiiy iioi/ieo oe?eae c ?ic?iaeith eiie?aoieo caoiae?a
uiaei ?o aeinyaiaiiy. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? ye no?aoaa??, oae ? oaeoeee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai e aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaiao?aeii noai?aiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo aeiiii?/ieo ? i?aai?caoe?eieo oiia. Aiie ioiieththoue
na?aaeiaeoa e ianoaaeie (iie?oe/io, aeiiii?/io, i?aai?caoe?eio,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/io oiui), a yeeo cae?enith?oueny noni?eueia ae?iaieoeoai.

Iniiaith aeey i?eeiyooy iaeaaaeeea?oeo iie?oe/ieo ??oaiue iathoue aooe
caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a Oe?a?ie, ui iio?aao?
iiia?aaeiueiai /?oeiai oi?ioethaaiiy oeeo ?ioa?an?a o aeaeyae?
i?eeiyoiiio aeey iiaeaiiy O?yaeo, I?aceaeaioo Oe?a?ie e Aa?oiai?e ?aae?.
I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie a noa??
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, a?enueeiai-oaoi?/iiai e
a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo iiaeaii ia ?en. 4.3.3.

Nenoaia IIA – oea eiiieaeniee aaaaoioe?eueiaee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy, ui
ia?aaeaa/a? oaeo iine?aeiai?noue ae?e:

— no?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy – ia oeueiio aoai? oi?iothoueny iaoe?iiaeuei?
no?aoaa?/i? oe?e? ? iie?oeea iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, o oiio /ene?
no?aoaa?/i? eiioeaioe?? aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai, a?enueeiaiai,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai e ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, aecia/athoueny
iaoe?iiaeuei? i??i?eoaoe ? iaoe?iiaeuei? iio?aae, oi?iothoueny
eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo eiie?aoieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino?;

— i?ia?aioaaiiy – ia oeueiio aoai? ?ic?iaey?oueny aeiaaino?ieiaa ?aeeia
a aea?aeaa? caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai e
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo, ui eiie?aoeco?oueny “Aea?aeaaiei ieaiii
noai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoa”;

— ?ic?iaea athaeaeaoo – ia? ia iao? i?aeaioiaeo, aeoiaey/e c i?ia?ai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/iiai, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai e
i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, i?iaeoo aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia
/a?aiaee o?iainiaee ??e.

Aaaeeeaei ?ino?oiaioii oi?ioaaiiy Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee ia? aooe aeiiii?/iee oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?iaiic,
ui aeicaiey? ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe iane?aeee oeo /e ?ioeo aa??aio?a
aeo?aeieo oiia ? ? iaae?eiith aacith i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, ui iio?aaothoue
ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a o o? /e ?io? i?ioeane. Ne?ae aecia/eoe,
ui ia no/aniiio aoai? a iao?e aea?aeaa? ?ic?iaeythoueny aeiiii?/i?
i?iaiice o?eueee ia iaeaeeae/ee ??e ? ?o aeinoia??i?noue c ?yaeo i?e/ei
ia ? caaeia?eueiith.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy i?iaiicoaaiiy ia? a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee aeo?aeieo
aeaieo aeey ?ic?iaee aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai. Aeo?aeiei
iiiaioii i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy ? /?oea oi?ioethaaiiy oe?eae
?icaeoeo ia iniia? aiae?co noni?eueieo iio?aa, oaiaeaioe?e, ui neeaeeny
? aeinyaiooiai ??aiy. Uiaei ie?aieo i?ia?ai, — oe? oe?e? iiaeii? aooe
iiaeai? o aeaeyae? ii?iaoea?a ? oe?eueiaeo iieaciee?a. Aieiaia oe?eue,
??ci? oe?e? e i?aeoe?e? i?ia?aie neeaaeathoue nenoaio oe?eae –
???a?o?/io no?oeoo?o. I?e ia?aoiae? aei ieaei?o ??ai?a no?oeoo?e
i?aeaeuo?oueny eiie?aoi?noue ? e?euee?nia aecia/ai?noue oe?eueiaeo
ii?iaoea?a ? iieaciee?a. Oe?e? ieae/eo ??ai?a aeyaeythoueny o aeaeyae?
caaaeaiue c ae?iaieoeoaa eiie?aoieo i?iaeoeo?a aai cae?eniaiiy ie?aieo
aeae?a ?ia?o. Oaeei /eiii, o oe?eueiaee i?ia?ai? cae?enith?oueny
aa?oeeaeueiee aaeainiaee ca’ycie: “oe?e? – caoiaee – aeeiiaaoe? –
?ano?ne”.

I?aai?caoe?y i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e,
ae?iaieoeoa o i?ioean? i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee iaoi? aea?aeaae ia?aaeaa/a?:

— oi?ioaaiiy ia?ae?eo i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie (ia?ae?eo iaoe?iiaeueieo “e?eoe/ieo
oaoiieia?e”);

— ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?iciiae?eaiiy ?ano?n?a i?ae i??i?eoaoieie iai?yiaie;

I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie o noa??
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae.

?en. 3.

?en 4.3.3.

— noai?aiiy iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”.

Cae?eniaiiy oeeo caoiae?a iaiiaeeeai aac noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaaii? aenia?oece o aeaeyae? iaaea?aeii/i? ?aaee c
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? aenia?oece (?aaee Aaia?aeueieo eiino?oeoi??a ?
oaoiieia?a).

E?auith no?aoaa??th aeey Oe?a?ie ? iine?aeiaia oa iiaoaiia ae??oaiiy
aeiaaino?ieiaeo aea?aeaaieo i?iaeai. Aieiaia caaaeaiiy iieyaa? a
i?aeaeuaii? ?inoo oa aoaeoeaiino? noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?e
cina?aaeaeaii? coneeue ia aeione eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe?? e
iaeii/aniiio caaacia/aii? iiaii? caeiyoino? i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy.

Iiaecia nenoaie IIA iieyaa? a oiio, ui oeae iaoiae ? ii?yaeie eiai
?aae?caoe?? aeicaiey? ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaeoe ?aeeiee a Oe?a?i? aeiaaino?ieiaee ieai-i?iaiic ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee e?a?ie oa ia eiai iniia? i’yoe??/io i?ia?aio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, aecia/eoe ia?oi/a?aia?
iaoe?iiaeuei? iio?aae, caaaeueiiaea?aeaai? i?iaeaie e caaea/? oa ia ?o
i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeoe aea?aeaaia caiiaeaiiy ia eiie?aoi? e?ioeaa? aeaee
i?iaeoeoe??, ui caaeiaieueiythoue iaoe?iiaeuei? iio?aae e aenii?o
i?iaeoeoe??;

— ?ic?iaeoe ?aeeio a aea?aeaa? aeiaaino?ieiao caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueio
i?ia?aio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ? ia ??
iniia? i’yoe??/iee “Aea?aeaaiee ieai noai?aiiy e ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee,
oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoa”, yeee eiie?aoeco? oeth i?ia?aio e aeicaieeoue
iaeaaiaeeoe eii?aeeiaoe?th ae?yeueiino? oeaio?aeueieo oa i?noeaaeo
i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e c iaoith
aeinyaiaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a, ae??oaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo
aea?aeaaieo i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue;

— noai?eoe oiiae aeey e?auiai iia’ycaiiy no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy,
i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo a no?oeoo?iiio e /aniaiio ieai?;

— ?aaeaiaiooaaoe ?icaeyae ? aea?? iioeiaeueieo aa??aio?a aeey i?eeiyooy
??oaiue c eiiieaenii-oe?eueiaeo aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai ? ?o oac-oe?eueiaeo
i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a o aca?iica’yceo c ?ioeie aoaiaie nenoaie IIA.

Iniiaieie ooieoe?yie nenoaie IIA ?:

— i?aai?caoe?eia – oii?yaeeoaaiiy i?ioeano i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ca
aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueieo i?ioeaaeo?, aaaaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo nenoaie
i??i?eoao?a aeae?eaiiy ?ano?n?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeeaino? e
oa?i?iiaino? aeeiioaaieo caaaeaiue oa ae??ooaaieo aea?aeaaieo i?iaeai;

— eiio?ieueia – aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie IIA aeey eiio?ieth ca oiaeii
?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai;

— ieaiiaa e aiae?oeei-?ioi?iaoe?eia – caaacia/aiiy i?aeaioiaee aeaieo,
iaiao?aeieo aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ??oaiue c i?iaeai aeiaaino?ieiai?
no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai ? ?o o?iainoaaiith;

— iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ia – aeei?enoaiiy aeaieo nenoaie IIA aeey
iaa?oiooaaiiy athaeaeaoieo aneaioaaiue ? i?aeaioiaee i?aceaeaionueei?
aeiiia?ae? aai aeiiia?ae? O?yaeo o Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie i?e ?icaeyae?
i?iaeoo athaeaeaoo.

Oaeei /eiii, oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?th no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie aeioe?eueii
cae?enithaaoe i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaei iaoiaeii i?e nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? aei
i?aai?caoe??, i?aea?aeii/i? eii?aeeiaoe?? e oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei
i?ia?anii, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie oa ae?iaie/eie i?ioeanaie a o?niiio
aca?iica’yceo c aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie ia aac? nenoaie IIA.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Iniiae noai?aiiy eiiieaenii? nenoaie
i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy, oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? ?aeeii? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie” – ?ic?iaeai? oa
iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie
a aaeoc? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo ia aac? nenoaie
IIA, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue oae? i?aeoiaee e iaoai?cie i?aai?caoe??,
i?aea?aeii/i? eii?aeeiaoe?? e oi?aae?iiy, ca yeeo o ia?ic?eai?e ?aeiino?
oa aca?iica’yceo ?icaeyaea?oueny eiiieaen caoiae?a a?ae aiae?co e
ioe?iie oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue aca?iica’ycie i?ae iaoeith, oaoi?eith,
oaoiieia??th e iaoei?ieei ae?iaieoeoaii c iaeiiai aieo oa e?eoe/ii
aaaeeeaeie aeey iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee i?iaeaiaie e no?aoaa?/ieie
oe?eyie aea?aeaae c ?ioiai aieo. Aea?aeaaia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia oa
i?iieneiaa iie?oeea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaa?ae’?iia neeaaeiaa /anoeia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae,
nie?ath/enue ia noi?iiaai? oe?e?, i??i?eoaoe, ?ioa?ane oa iio?aae
Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy e oi?aae?iiy
a iaeano? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee, a oaeiae no?oeoo?ia
noaia oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? e
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie ia aac? nenoaie IIA (nenoaie “no?aoaa?/iiai
ieaioaaiiy – i?ia?aioaaiiy – ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo”) iaaaaeai? ia ?en.
4.3.5 oa 4.3.6.

O ?iaio? i?aee?aneaii, ui i?ioeane, ye? ?icaeaathoueny a iaoe?iiaeuei?e
aeiiii?oe? aea?aeaae, i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ia’?eoeaiei caeiiii??iinoyi
nioe?aeueiiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. O no/anieo oiiaao a?aeii?
caeiiii??iino? ia i?aoeththoue oa ia a?aeiia?aeathoue i?iaiiciaaiei
?acoeueoaoai, ine?eueee ae?? oe?eee ?yae i?ioe??/. Oi?iaaaeaeaii,
iai?eeeaae, ie?ai? neeaaeia? ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio a aeiiii?eo ? ia
a?aeoai?ai? i??i?eoaoe ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ei-nioe?aeueieo eiiieaen?a.

Oea coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue iiaoaeoaaoe a ?iaio? nenoaio iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie. Noai?eoe nenoaio
aoaeue-yeiai aeeiai?/iiai i?ioeano iaiiaeeeai aac o?aooaaiiy: aecia/aiiy
ia’?eoo, aeae?eaiiy ia?aiao??a; anoaiiaeaiiy ?icoaooaaiiy ia’?eoo a
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?; iioe?ioaaiiy ?ano?n?a. Oiaoi, o ?iaio? aoea
noai?aia ?ioi?iaoe?eia iiaeaeue na?aaeiaeua, aea iiaeeeaa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie.

No/aniiio aoaio ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei aeanoeaa iecea iniaeeainoae.
Na?aae ieo iiaeeeai aeae?eeoe iano?ee?noue i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua, yea ia
aeicaiey? aei?noei aecia/eoe aeo?aoe oa i?eaooie, cia/iee aieea
noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a oiui. O oeueiio eiioaeno? aaaeeeai iaoe ?aeeio
Iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie. sse cacia/aeinue, iniiaith oaei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie ?
?ic?iaea

No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy e oi?aae?iiy
a aaeoc? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie

i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie ia iaeaeeae/? 15-20 ?ie?a, ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, — oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ia?ae?eo “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”. Aeey oeueiai a ?iaio?
?ic?iaeaia i?eioeeiiai iiaa nioe?aeueia iaoiaeeea, ae?iaeai? e?eoa???.
Oe? e?eoa??? aoee ae?a?ai? oaeei /eiii, uia aeyaeoe aaaeeea?noue
eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai oaoiieia?/iiai iai?yio, eiaeii? eiie?aoii?
oaoiieia??.

Aei iniiaieo e?eoa???a a?aeai?o Iaoe?iiaeueieo “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”,
eiiieaenii-oe?eueiaeo aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai, oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a
a?aeianaii: i?iieneiaa eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue; ye?noue aeeooy;
iaoe?iiaeueia iai?iia; aia?aaoe/ia aaciaea; aacia?noue oaoiieia?/ieo
nenoai; cia/ou?noue; i??i?eoaoi?noue; caeaoi?noue ?aae?coaaoenue;
?iciianthaeaeai?noue; aoaeoeai?noue /aa?o?noue; nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee;
?ici??e ?eie?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaia a?oia e?eoa???a a?aeai?o i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a aeey
aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee ? niaoeeo?/iith aeey Oe?a?ie. Aiie ?ic?iaeai? ia
i?aenoaa? na?oiaiai oa a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
no/aniiai aeiiii?/iiai noaio Oe?a?ie. Oe? e?eoa??? ne?ae ?iciiae?eeoe ia
aea? a?oie. Ia?oa c ieo (i?iieneiaa eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue; ye?noue
aeeooy; iaoe?iiaeueia iai?iia; aia?aaoe/ia aaciaea; aacia?noue
oaoiieia?/ieo nenoai) a?aeia?aaea? aeeaae i?ia?aie a caaacia/aiiy
aeiiii?/ii?, a?enueeiai?, nioe?aeueii?, aeieia?/ii? oa ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. ?ioa a?oia e?eoa???a iineoue oa?aeoa? iaiaaeaiue
? a?aeia?aaea? ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino? aea?aeaae uiaei ?icaeoeo oeo /e
?ioeo aeae?a oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoa. Aeey oiai uia i?ia?aia
aoea aianaia a ia?ae?e Iaoe?iiaeueieo “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e” ? io?eiaea
aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo aiia iiaeiia oa?aeoa?ecoaaoeny aeinoaoiuei aenieei
??aiai i?i?ioi aeaio iieaciee?a, ye? neeaaeathoue ia?oo a?oio e?eoa???a,
a oaeiae caaeiaieueiyoe iaiaaeaiiyi, ui aecia/a? iiaeeea?noue ??
o?iainoaaiiy e ?aae?caoe??, ae?oai? a?oie e?eoa???a.

Iniiaiei i?eioeeiii i?e aenia?oec? oaoiieia?e ? a?aea?? oaeeo i?ia?ai,
ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei: io?eiaiiy iiaiai eiia?oe?eiiai i?iaeoeoo aai
i?ioeano oa c?inoaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie; iiaoaiiiai e
iine?aeiaiiai c?inoaiiy yeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy e?a?ie, ciaioaiiy
aac?ia?ooy; eiioeaio?aoe?? coneeue e?a?ie ia i?enei?aio
?iaeono??ae?caoe?th, ?icaeoie aenii?oieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino?.
Cacia/aia iiaeia a?aeianoe aei e?eoa???a aeai?o “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”.
Aea?ai? e?eoe/i? oaoiieia?? iiaeii? aooe i?aaenoaaeai? ye ?aeeiee
?iiiaaoe?eiee i?ioean “iaoea – oaoi?ea – oaoiieia?y – ae?iaieoeoai –
niiaeeaaiiy”. Aiie ? ?ino?oiaioii i?aai?caoe??, i?aea?aeii/i?
eii?aeeiaoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii ? aeaiaioii
caaaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?iaeono??aeueiiai ieaioaaiiy, noai?aiiy
na??eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeo eiieo?aioini?iiiaeieo e?ioeaaeo aeae?a
i?iaeoeoe?? oe?eueiaiai e a?enueeiaiai i?ecia/aiiy.

O ?iaio? iaaaaeaii ia?ae?e iaoe?iiaeueieo e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e Oe?a?ie.
Oeae ia?ae?e neeaaea?oueny c 20 iiceoe?e, ii/eiath/e c iaaee/ii? oaoi?ee
oa cae?i/oth/e – oaoiieia?yie oi?aae?iiy no?aoaa?/ieie i??i?eoaoaie.

Iaa?oioiaaii, ui i?e aoanoaoe?? iiaeo oaoiieia?e ia aeineoue
i???iooaaoeny ia aeniiaee ?ic?iaiee?a, e?aua aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeniiaee
iacaeaaeieo aenia?o?a aai i?aeia?iaei? noaiaea?oe ISO na??? 9000,
aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi yeeo ? caaacia/aiiy c?inoaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oaoiieia?e oeyoii iaa?oiooaaiiy aa?aio?e yeino?
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iio?aaaie niiaeeaa/a.

O ?iaio? oai?aoe/ii ocaaaeueiaii, ui i?ney neeaaeaiiy i??i?eoaoieo
oaoiieia?/ieo iai?yi?a-ia?ae?eo Iaoe?iiaeueieo “e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”
iiaeia oi?ioaaoe aea?aeaai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?ia?aie. I?eioeeie ?o
oi?ioaaiiy – oea aea??, caoeno oa ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueieo e?eoe/ieo
oaoiieia?e. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao
aeioe?eueii ?ic?iaeyoe iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?ia?aie aeaio aeae?a:

— aea?aeaai? eiiieaeni? oe?eueia? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?ia?aie noai?aiiy e
i?aai?caoe?? na??eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? oeea?eueiiai oa
a?enueeiaiai i?ecia/aiiy, yea ? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiith ia ciai?oiueiio e
aioo??oiueiio ?eieao;

— aea?aeaai? oe?eueia? i?ia?aie c ae??oaiiy aaaeeeaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
i?iaeai o i?iieneiaino?.

Iniaeea?noth oeeo i?ia?ai – ? ?o ???a?o?/ia no?oeoo?a, oiaoi aiie
neeaaeathoueny c ie?aieo caaaeaiue. Eiaeia caaaeaiiy ? eiie?aoiei
ia’?eoii iiai? oaoi?ee a iaoa??aeueiiio oa aeieoiaioaeueiiio aeaeyae?.
I?ney aeae?eaiiy an?o aoai?a i?ia?aie iaiao?aeii i?ea’ycaoe ?? aei
nenoaie ?ano?n?a (iaoa??aeueieo, o?iainiaeo, o?oaeiaeo, ?ioi?iaoe?eieo).

?ic?iaeai? i?aeoiaee noai?ththoue iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao iiaoaeiae
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai, ye aaeainiaiai ca’yceo “oe?e? – caoiaee –
aeeiiaaoe? – ?ano?ne”. O oae?e nenoai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy an?o neeaaeiaeo ?
aeeiai?/iei. Iaeiaeia? oe?e? iiaeia ae??oeoe ??cieie caoiaeaie,
aeeiiaaoeyie, ?ano?naie. O ?iaio? ?ic?iaeai? oeiia? aoaie noai?aiiy e
i?aai?caoe?? na??eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeo iaoei, iaeaaeiaiiy, i?eeaae?a
oa ?ioeo ae?ia?a iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy; oeiia? aoaie noai?aiiy oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai ? ?ic?aooieiaeo
oeaio??a; iaa?oioiaaii, ui ia caeeth/iiio aoai? i?ia?aie iaiao?aeii
aeiaanoe caaeia?eueio ye?noue iiaeo aeae?a ae?ia?a. Iniiaiei
aeieoiaioii, ui ?aaeaiaioo? i?aeia?iaeia ea??aieoeoai yeino?, ? –
“Nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ye?noth i?iaeoeoe?? ia aac? ISO 9001”.

AEeoo?caeaoi?noue iaaaaeaieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai iiaeiia
aacoaaoeny ia nai?/aniiio o?iainoaaii? ?o. Aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy ?
aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao, iicaathaeaeaoi? aeaea?aea, aaie?anuee? e?aaeeoe
oa — eiooe i?aei?e?inoa.

O ?iaio? iaaaaeaia iiaeaeue o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai. On? eiooe
aeey o?iainoaaiiy i?ia?ai aeoioeththoueny o Aea?aeaaiiio oiiae?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. ?iciiae?e
eioo?a Oiiaeo i?iaiaeeoue Aaia?aeueiee Aea?aeaaiee caiiaiee.
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeaa aa??aioe o?iainoaaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e – /a?ac
Aea?aeaaiiai aeeiiaaoey i?ia?ai oa Aea?aeaaiiai caiiaieea ?ia?o, ia
i?aenoaa? ?aeeiiai Aea?aeaaiiai ieaio noai?aiiy oa ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee,
oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoa.

Ii?yaeie aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a aecia/a?oueny aeiaiai?ii i?ae ??cieie
noi?iiaie. I?iaeo oaeiai aeiaiai?o iaaaaeaii a ?iaio?.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? o?iainoaaiith i?aeeyaathoue o?eueee
i?iaeoe, ui i?ieoee aenia?oeco I?aea?aeii/i? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?aaee,
yea aeeth/a? ??ci? no?oeoo?e, eio?? caeaaeaoue a?ae iniaeeainoae
aaeocae, iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a.

Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii i?aeoiaee aei caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?caeaoiino?
iiaeae? ia i?aenoaa? ioe?iee an?o i?iaeo?a ca aeiiiiiaith eiao?oe??io?a
yeino? “R”. ?ioaa?aeueiee eiao?oe??io yeino? “R” aeey eiaeiiai i?iaeoo
(i?ia?aie) aecia/a?oueny ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?oece ye oaoi?/ii?, oae ?
aeiiii?/ii?. Eiao?oe??io “R” aecia/a?oueny ye
ioeueoeie?eaoeaii-aaeeoeaia ooieoe?y naiino?eieo e?eoa???a e?eoe/iino?
(iaoe?iiaeueia iaiao?aei?noue, ?aae?caoe?y, aeieia?/i?noue, aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue…). ?ioa?aae cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo “R” aei??aith? ?ioa?aaeo
a?ae 0 aei 10, aeey oeueiai aeei?enoaia iaoiaeieia?y /eneiai? ioe?iee
ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaeo?a (i?ia?ai) ia i?aenoaa? ia/eneaiiy
iieaciee?a, ye? iiaeooue iaoe e ia iaoe e?euee?niiai aei??thaaiiy. Oea
aeaei ciiao ?ioaa?oaaoe ??ci? iai?yiee oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeo oaoiieia?e ?
oia?aaeaeoaaoe ?o.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? – “I?eioeeie e iniiae oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeii?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie ye ?ioaa?iaaii? noeoiiino? iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie” – aecia/aii, ui
oi?iith ?aae?caoe?? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie ? Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, ?? no?oeoo?a iaaaaeaia ia iae.5.1.7.

Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie ?:

— ooiaeaiaioii aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeaeae, i?ia?ai, ieai?a ?icaeoeo iaoee,
oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoa a ?ioa?anao ae??oaiiy ia?oi/a?aiaeo
aea?aeaaieo i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie ? iayeii aeey caaithaaiiy oa oo?eiaiiy
i?oeieo iiceoe?e ia na?oiaiio ?eieo aenieioaoiieia?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? aeey
noai?aiiy e ?icaeoeo iiaeo aeae?a i?iaeoeoe?? oeea?eueiiai oa
a?enueeiaiai i?ecia/aiiy; iaoa??ae?a oa ae?iaie/eo nenoai, oeaio?aeueiei
aeaiaioii caaaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?iaeono??aeueiiai
ieaioaaiiy;

— ?ino?oiaioii ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?, i?iieneiai?,
aenii?oii? oa o?iainiai? iie?oeee, aeai?o i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, ae?iaeaiiy
iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oaoiieia?e ? i?iaeoeoe?? ia
na?oiaiio ?eieo, i??i?eoaoiiai aeae?eaiiy ?ano?n?a oe?a?inueeei
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei oa ae?iaie/ei noa’?eoai o caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaaeeeaino?, oa?i?iiaino? aeeiioaaieo caaaeaiue ? ae??ooaaieo i?iaeai, a
oaeiae aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?;

— ?ino?oiaioii noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie i?aai?caoe??, i?aea?aeii/i?
eii?aeeiaoe?? e oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie, ae?iaie/eie oa aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie, caaeiaieaiiy
ia?oi/a?aiaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iio?aa, caaacia/aiiy aaciaee, noaa?ai?oaoo
Oe?a?ie, i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy;

— ooiaeaiaioii on??? nenoaie IAeAeE? oa IAeAeO?, aei?iaoaaiue, ioe?iie
oa i?aai?caoe?? na??eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?
i?iaeoeoe??;

O ?iaio? cacia/a?oueny, ui iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie iiaeiia noaoe iniiaiei
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/iei ? ?icii?yae/ei aeieoiaioii, ia i?aenoaa?
yeiai cae?enith?oueny ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo noa’?eo?a o noa??
aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? – “Iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? Aea?aeaaiiai
ieaio noai?aiiy oa ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e ? ae?iaieoeoa, ?ic?iaee
athaeaeaoo o noa?? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie” – ?ic?iaeai? oa iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaeieia?/i? caniae oa e?eoe/i?
aniaeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a nenoaio aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeaiaio?a
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy, aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee,
oaoiieia?e ? ae?iaieoeoa o ?aeeiiio ?iiiaaoe?eiiio oeeee? c
aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie, a oaeiae cai?iiiiiaai? eiie?aoi? oeyoe
o?iainoaaiiy ?ia?o oa ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo, i?aeia?iaeiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa o noa?? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee.

Aea?aeaaiee ieai noai?aiiy e ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e oa
ae?iaieoeoa neeaaea?oueny c 21 aea?aeaaii? eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?ia?aie: 20 ?c ieo noi?iiaai? ca?aeii c
iaoe?iiaeueieie i??i?eoaoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ? aeiaeaoeiai? 21 eiiieaenii? oe?eueiai? i?ia?aie
“Eiiaa?n?y ? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y iai?iiieo aaeocae i?iieneiaino?”, ui
a?aoiao? aaeee? iiaeeeaino? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, ae?iaie/iai e?
eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo a?enueeiai-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno e noino?oueny
?icaeoeo i?aeoe/ii an?o iaoe?iiaeueieo i??i?eoao?a.

I?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai ieaio noai?aiiy e ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee,
oaoiieia?e oa ae?iaieoeoa ia?aaeaa/athoue, ui:

— ieai oi?io?oueny ia iniia? eiiieaenieo aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai,
ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue aaeeeei caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiei caaaeaiiy;

— i?ia?aii? aeaiaioe yaeythoue niaith noeoii?noue o?ce/ieo ?ano?n?a
(iaoa??aeueieo cania?a, o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, aeae?a iineoa ? oaea ?ioa) ?
o?iainia? aeo?aoe, ui ?i a?aeiia?aeathoue;

— a?aea?? i?ia?ai ? i?iaeo?a aeey ia?oi/a?aiai? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee
a?oioo?oueny ia ioe?ioe? aaaeeeaino? eiaeii? c ieo aeey caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, ae??oaiiy i??i?eoaoieo caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo
i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo c o?aooaaiiyi
na?oiaeo oaiaeaioe?e aeinyaiaiue, caaacia/aiiy i?oeieo iiceoe?e ia
na?oiaiio ?eieo i?iaeoeoe??;

No?oeoo?a Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oaainiiaea?nueeiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

ia noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo oe?eueiaeo i?ia?ai ?ic?iaeythoueny ?o
eiioeaioe??, caaaeuei? ea??ai? iieiaeaiiy uiaei oa?aeoa?o e oe?eae
i?ia?aie oa iaoai?ci?a ?? ?aae?caoe??, aecia/athoueny i?ia?aii?
aeaiaioe, i?iaiaeeoueny aeaoaeueiee a?aea?? i?iaeo?a, ioe?iea
iiaeeeainoae uiaei ?o ?aae?caoe??, aecia/a?oueny oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue, ea??aiee i?ia?aie oa ?? eii?aeeiaoi?e-i?aaenoaaieee
iaeaeueo i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee, i?i?no??a, a?aeiinoa, i?aai?a
i?noeaai? aeaaee – caiiaiee ? aeeiiaaaoeue i?ia?aie;

— oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeoo i’yoe??/iiai Aea?aeaaiiai ieaio noai?aiiy e
?icaeoeo oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e oa ae?iaieoeoa ? eii?aeeiaoe?th eiai
aeeiiaiiy cae?enith? Aea?aeoaoi?ii Oe?a?ie ?acii c I?aea?aeii/ith
?aaeith aaia?aeueieo eiino?oeoi??a ? aieiaieo oaoiieia?a Oe?a?ie.

Caeeth/iei noaiii ieaioaaiiy ? ?ic?iaea i?iaeoo aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo
a /anoei? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? e i?iieneiai? iie?oeee. Aacith aeey ?ic?iaee
athaeaeaoo ? a?aeiia?aeia aeaiiio ?ieo /anoeia i’yoe??/iiai Aea?aeaaiiai
ieaio noai?aiiy e ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e oa ae?iaieoeoa. O
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoo ae?iaeythoueny inoaoi/i? ??oaiiy uiaei
?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai, ia?aaeaa/athoueny iaiao?aei?
iaoa??aeueii-o?iainia? ia?aaeoiiae ?o ?aae?caoe??.

Iiaiee ia??iae oeeeeo nenoaie IIA neeaaea? iiiaae aeaa ?iee.

Iaa?ae’?iiei eiiiiiaioii eiioeaioe?? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee ? iie?oeea a aaeoc? i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
ca’yce?a (IIOC), aac yei? i?iaeoeoeaiee ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee iaiiaeeeaee. Aieiaieie oe?eyie aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a aaeoc?
IIOC iathoue aooe: noai?aiiy iiieoo ia iaoei?ii? aenieioaoiieia?/i?
i?iaeoeoe (IAI), ?aaoethaaiiy caeaoiino? aei aani?aoe?? oa aaeaioaoe??
io?eiaii? /e ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia??.

AENIIAEE

O aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaii, ui a iniia? e?eciaeo yaeu o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e oa a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/i?e noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie ciaoiaeeoueny ni?iuaia oeoia/aiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee. Oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ia oeyoo aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei i?aeoaa?aeea, ui iaiiaeeeai aeiiiaoeny iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
ia aecia/eaoenue ia o?eueee a oiio, ui “ia?aaoaeiao?ii”, aea aieiaia
“ye” ? “iaa?ui”, ia ioe?ieaoe iiaeeea? iane?aeee aea?aeaaieo ??oaiue, ui
i?eeiathoueny. Aacia?niaeoeaieie ? o? i?ia?aie ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo, a
yeeo a?aenooiy no?aoaa?y i??i?eoaoiiai ?icaeoeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
i?iieneiaiai iioaioe?aeo ye aea?aeaae a oe?eiio, oae ? ia?aeiieo ??
eaioetha?a. Caii/aoeoaaaoe aac iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy e noi?iaiaeaeaiiy
aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ianoaiiaoe? iineaaeaiiy
oi?ioth/iai e ?aaoethth/iai aieeao aea?aeaae ia oa?aeoa? ? aeeiai?eo
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, iaoa e?a?ia aeaiiino?o? niaoeeo?/i?, a?aei?ii?
a?ae onoaeaieo aeiiii?e ?eieiaiai oeio ?aaeoe??, ye? aeieeathoue o
a?aeiia?aeue ia iae?iaeiiii?/ia ?aaoethaaiiy iiiaoa?ieie iaoiaeaie.
Oe?a?ia i?oea oeyoii iaea?iaaiiai “oieiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy” aeiiii?ee c
iaae??th ia iiceoeai? iane?aeee a?ae ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo aeaiaio?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui i?ecaaei aei c?inoaiiy e?eciai? neooaoe?? a
aeiiii?oe? e noni?euenoa?.

Iaiaa?oioiaaia a?aeiiaa a?ae ia?niaeoeaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy, iieeeeaiiai
ia?aaeaa/aoe eiia??i?noue oaiaeaioe?e i?e ae??oaii? no?aoaa?/ieo
caaaeaiue ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ? ieaioaaiiy ye caniao iaa?oiooaaiiy
iaeei?iooeo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy iaoe, ye? oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny o
na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?, ae?ae caoaii aieeaathoue ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie e?a?ie ? ye?noue aeeooy ?? ianaeaiiy. A oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee i?iaiic ? ieai ?ic?iaeythoueny ia i?aenoaa? iaoiaeieia?? e
iaoiaeeee, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue ia aee?aeoeao, a ca?? i?aaee ? caoiae?a
uiaei ia?aiao??a ??aiy ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, ye? aoaeooue aecia/aoe iniiae
aeeooy noni?euenoaa a iaeaooiueiio.

No/ania aeiiii?/ia e?eca caa?iaeo? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio oa i?iieneiaiio
iioaioe?aeo, noaaeoue i?ae noii?a eiai iaeaooi?. sseui oe? oaiaeaioe??
ia ci?iyoueny, oi aaeeea e?euee?noue oe?a?inueeeo i?ia?aeieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ui iathoue cia/iee oaoiieia?/iee iioaioe?ae, aoaeooue
onoioo? a?ae iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano, yeee ? ia?aeiiith
i?iaeoeoeaiith neeith oa aieiaiith iniaeea?noth noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo,
ui aecia/a? aca?iiiia’ycaiee iinooiiaee i?ioean aaiethoe?? iaoee,
oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e oa ae?iaieoeoa.

Nenoaiiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c caei?aeiiiiai oa a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? e aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei
i?ia?anii, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieie, ae?iaie/eie oa aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie
na?ae/eoue, ui a no/anieo oiiaao, i?e ??cieo nioe?aeueieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
aaia?ao?/ieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo, ?noi?e/ieo oa ?ioeo iniaeeainoyo
e?a?i-e?aea??a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ae?oai? iieiaeie aeaaaeoeyoiai
noi??//y ? iaeia, ui ?o ia’?aeio?, – oea oeaio?ae?ciaaia
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaa ieaioaaiiy ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee oa oi?aae?iiy
i??i?eoaoaie, a oaeiae a?aenooi?noue oaino ? iaae?e ia naiiieeiiee
?icaeoie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ye iniiaii? ?oo?eii? neee.

Aeey aeaaaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ?c e?ece oa ia?aaaaeaiiy ?? ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno ia o?a?eoi??th aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaiao?aeii aianoe nooo?a?
ei?aeoeae a aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo iiiaoa?iiai oeio e ia?aianoe oeaio?
coneeue ia noeioethaaiiy i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa. ?aaoethth/? ooieoe??
aea?aeaae ia iiaeooue aooe aoaeoeaieie, yeui a?aenooi? no?aoaa?y e
oaeoeea, nenoaia no?aoaa?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy e i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai
ieaioaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ?aeeia
Aea?aeaaia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia oa i?iieneiaa iie?oeea, oaoiieia?y aeai?o e
oi?aae?iiy i??i?eoaoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e oi?ioaaii? iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe na?oiaee aeina?ae, iaoe /?oeo eiioeaioe?th e
i?ia?aio i?aeo?eiee oa noeioethaaiiy aeaniiai oiaa?iae?iaieoeoaa, a
oaeiae nenoaio e?eoa???a aeey aeai?o iai?yie?a, i??i?eoao?a ?
aca?iiiia’ycaio noaio ae?? a aeiiii?/i?e iie?oeoe?, ae?iaie/?e noa??.
Iaa?oioiaaii, ui ?ino?oiaioii ae??oaiiy caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai
? caaaeaiue ? nenoaia IIA (nenoaia “no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy –
i?ia?aioaaiiy – ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo”) oa ia ?? iniia? iiaoaeiaa iiaeae?
nenoaiiiai oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co iaa?oioiaaiiai i?eeiyooy
aea?aeaaieo ??oaiue. Nenoaia IIA ? i?eioeeiiai iiaith oi?iith ca’yceo
i?ae ia?niaeoeaiei ieaioaaiiyi nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa
a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?
ainiiaea?nueeei ?icaeoeii e?a?ie oa ?ic?iaeith athaeaeaoo.

O ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia oai??y eiiieaeniiai aaaaoioe?eueiaiai ?ino?oiaioo
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai oi?aae?iiy o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?eae ? caaaeaiue
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai,
a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/iiai, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie /a?ac eiie?aoi? caoiaee uiaei ?o aeinyaiaiiy ia iniia? nenoaie
IIA. ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/i? aniaeoe noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie oi?ioaaiiy
e ?aae?caoe?? ?aeeii? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, i?eioeeie e e?eoa??? a?aeai?o iaoe?iiaeueieo
i??i?eoao?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo, iniiae
noai?aiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie ?icaeoeo e caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo
“e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e”, i?eioeeiiai iia? i?eioeeie e iaoai?cie
oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai aeey aea?aeaaii?
i?aeo?eiee, i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? oai?/iai
caiice/aiiy e aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo ?iaeono??aeueii
?icaeiooeo e?a?i na?oo, ui iaeiie/eea na?oiaa i?aeoeea aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ? noaio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae aea?aeaaii? nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? e oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii o
?aeeiiio ?iiiaaoe?eiiio i?ioean? iaoee, oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoa
c iaeiiai aieo, oa ae??oaiiyi e?eoe/ii aaaeeeaeo caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue o nioe?aeuei?e, aeiiii?/i?e oa a?enueeia?e noa?ao, c
?ioiai aieo, a oaeiae aaaaeaiiy a ae?th nenoaie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa
aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiico, ?aea? ii?aeiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee c
i?iieneiaith iie?oeeith, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae ? caaaeaiue
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii i?eioeeie e iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeii?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie, ye ?ino?oiaioo ?aae?caoe?? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee, ?ic?iaeaii iniiai? i?ioeaaeo?i? iaoai?cie
oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? Aea?aeaaiiai ieaio noai?aiiy ? ?icaeoeo
oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e oa ae?iaieoeoa, a oaeiae iniiae oi?ioaaiiy
athaeaeaoo, i?eioeeie o?iainoaaiiy ?ia?o o noa?? Aea?aeaaii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oaoi?ee e oaoiieia?e, iaoai?cie ia?aaea/?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? o ae?iaieoeoai oa iaa?oioiaaiiai i?eeiyooy
??oaiue ia aeueo ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy, i?iaaaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
?aoi?ie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ye? cae?eniththoue oi?ioaaiiy e
?aae?caoe?th aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e, ainiiaea?nuee?e
oa aeiiii?/i?e noa?ao ae?yeueiino?, oiui.

nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue

ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. ?eaeeo A.I. Ainoaea?noaaiia oi?aaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii:
yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou: Iiiia?aoey. – O.: I?aii?, 1998. – 398 n.

2. ?eaeeo A.I. No?aoaaey e oaeoeea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey Oe?aeiu: O/aaiia iiniaea.– O.: I?aii?, 1998.–381 n.

3. ?eaeeo A.I., Eoeiinueeee A.A., A?eai?’?a A.I. Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia
Oe?a?ie «E?eoe/i? oaoiieia??». – E.: Aea?aeoao?ioi?ineoaeaa Oe?a?ie,
1994.–52 n.

4. ?eaeeo A.I. Eoeiinueeee A.A., A?eai?’?a A.I. Eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy
aea?aeaaii? nenoaie ?icaeoeo ? caoenoo e?eoe/ieo oaoiieia?e E.:
Aea?aeoao?ioi?ineoaeaa Oe?a?ie, 1994. – 16 n.

5. ?eaeeo A.I. Iieiaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci ?ic?iaeaiiy oa ?aae?caoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie Oe?a?ie «E?eoe/i? oaoiieia??». – E.:
Aea?aeoao?ioi?ineoaeaa Oe?a?ie, 1994. – 8 n.

6. ?eaeeo A.I. Aea?aeaaia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy e?eoe/ieie oaoiieia?yie –
iaeaaaeeea?oee aeaiaio oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ae?yeuei?noth – E.:
Aea?aeoao?ioi?ineoaeaa Oe?a?ie, 1994. – 41 n.

7. ?eaeeo A.I. «E?eoe/aneea oaoiieiaee» – eino?oiaio ?aoaiey
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuo caaea/ // Aunieea oaoiieiaee a iaoeiino?iaiee. – O.:
OAIO, 1999. – N. 251-255.

8. ?eaeeo A.I. Oaoiieiae/aneay iieeoeea a n?aaieoaeueiie ia?niaeoeaa,
aaaeiaeoea iai?aaeaiey a? ?acaeoey // Aanoiee OAIO. – 1999. – ? 63. – N.
21-25.

9. ?eaeeo A.I. I?eioeeiu e e?eoa?ee ioai?a iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?ia?aii
aeey ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaea?aeee // Aanoiee OAIO. – 1999. – ? 60. – N.
131-137.

10. ?eaeeo A.I. I?eioeeiu oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee iaoeeiiaeueiie
iieeoeee Oe?aeiu a iaeanoe aiaiii-oaoie/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
// Aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey. – 1999. – Aui. ? 10. –
N. 2-5.

11. ?eaeeo A.I., Ai?iaeei TH.N., Ieeeiaiei N.A. e ae?. Iaoiaeeea
enneaaeiaaiey iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey nenoaiu
«aeeueca-aeie oeeeeiae?ia» aeecaeueiiai aeaeaaoaey n i?ioeaiiieiaeii
aeaeaeoueieny ii?oiyie // Aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey.
– 1999. Aui. ? 9. – O.4: Eiio?oeoeey e i?i/iinoue. – N. 396-402.

12. Ai?iaeei TH.N., Ia/a?ia A.I., ?eaeeo A.I. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea
oa?aeoa?enoeee aunieiiaii?iiai oeaio?iaaaeiiai eiii?anni?a //
Aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey. – 1999. – Aui. ? 9. – O.2:
Iauea aii?inu, oai?ey e ?aai/ea i?ioeannu. – N. 138-143.

13. ?eaeeo A.I., Eoae?yo A.I., Ai?iaeei TH.N., Ia?a?aa I.ss. ?aca?au
oeo/oaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeecaeueiuo aeaeaaoaeae a Oe?aeia //
Aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey 1999. – Aui. ? 9. – O.1:
Iauea aii?inu aeaeaaoaeano?iaiey. – N. 22-26.

14. ?eaeeo A.I., Aieiia TH.A., Iao?aiei TH.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie
?aaeoeaiinoe i?eaiaeiiai oo?aieiii?anni?a aeaoooaeoiiai o?ainii?oiiai
AeAN // Aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey. – 1999. – Aui. ?
9. – O.5: Eniuoaiea e yenieoaoaoeey. – N. 144-148.

15. Ai?iaeei TH.N., Ia?a?aa I.ss., Oiieie/ A.N., ?eaeeo A.I. I?eiaiaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee e i?iyeoe?iaaieth AeNA //
Aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey. – 1999. – Aui. ? 9. – O.3:
Nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e aeeaaiinoeee. – N. 149-155.

16. ?eaeeo A.I., Na?oee/iee A.I., A?eai?’?a A.I. oa ?i. Eiioeaiooaeuei?
iniiae oi?ioaaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaii? i?iieneiai-oaoi?/ii?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie. – E.: Aea?aeoao?ioi?ineoaeaa, 1995. – 54 n.

17. A.n. 1471813 NNN?. Aeicaoi? ii?ioeiauo iaoa?eaeia aeey iaianaiey
aeaoiiaoeeiiiuo iie?uoee / A.I.Aeanaiei, O.I.Aaeaeeia, A.I.?eaeeo e ae?.
(NNN?). – ? 4278949; Cayaeaii 06.07.87; Ca?aaano?e?iaaii a
ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aano?a ecia?aoaiee 08.12.88.

18. AeNOO 3504-07. AC ? 11-96/188. Ooaiie aeey oieiaeiiai eenoiaiai
ooaiioaaiiy: aeiee, ieeoe aeie?a oa iaeao?a ?c i?ieaoo; Aaaae. oia?oa
31.01.97. – E.: Aea?aeeiinoaiaea?o Oe?a?ie, 1997. – 29 n.

19. ?eaeeo A.I. Io e?eoe/aneeo oaoiieiaee – e iiaie oaoie/aneie iioeea
no?aiu // Aeaeiaay Oe?aeia. – 1995. – ? 86 (338).

20. ?eaeeo A.I. Eiioeaioeey nicaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu
oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee oaoie/aneie iieeoeee Oe?aeiu: i?iyeo //
Aeaeiaay Oe?aeia. – 1995. – ? 86 (338).

AIIOAOe?ss

?eaeeo A.I. Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii:
aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 25.00.05 – aaeocaaa oi?aae?iiy:
oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith. Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeaiai, iaoiaeieia?/iei ?ic?iaeai,
oai?aoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, ui ni?yiiaai? ia oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? e
oaeoeee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie; oi?ioaaiith
?aeeii? Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa i?iieneiai? iie?oeee e?a?ie;
noai?aiith eiiieaenii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, ui caaacia/eoue ?aae?caoe?th
oe??? iie?oeee, aeicaieeoue nenoaiii oa oe?eani?yiiaaii ea?oaaoe
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii o i?iieneiaino?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa iaa?oioiaaii aea?? i??i?eoao?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie; ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co
iiaoaeiaaii iniiai? iiaeae? i?eeiyooy aea?aeaaieo ??oaiue; noai?aii
eiiieaenio aca?iica’ycaio nenoaio i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii
iaoee, oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, iaoeii?noeeo ae?iaieoeoa o ?aeeiiio
?iiiaaoe?eiiio oeeee? c aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie; iaa?oioiaaii iiao
nenoaio IIA (nenoaie “no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy-i?ia?aioaaiiy-?ic?iaee
athaeaeaoo”); oi?ioaaiiy e ?aae?caoe?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai oa ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
Aea?aeaaiiai ieaio ?icaeoeo iaoee, oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, ae?iaieoeoa ?
Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia iniia? nenoaie IIA.

Nenoaia IIA ? iiaith oi?iith ca’yceo i?ae ia?niaeoeaiei ieaioaaiiyi
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei oa ainiiaea?nueeei ?icaeoeii
aea?aeaae e ?ic?iaeith athaeaeaoo, ui aeicaiey? noai?eoe oiiae, ca yeeo
o ia?ic?eai?e ?aeiino? oa aca?iica’yceo ?icaeyaeathoueny aa?iii?ei?
a?aeiioaiiy i?ae iaoeith, oaoi?eith, oaoiieia?yie e ae?iaieoeoaii, c
iaeiiai aieo, oa ia?oi/a?aiaeie iaoe?iiaeueieie iio?aaaie, e?eoe/ii
aaaeeeaeie aea?aeaaieie i?iaeaiaie e caaaeaiiyie, iaoe?iiaeueieie
i??i?eoaoaie oa no?aoaa?/ieie oe?eyie aea?aeaae, c ?ioiai aieo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaaia nenoaia i?aai?caoe?? e oi?aae?iiy,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia oa i?iieneiaa iie?oeea, iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee i?ia?an,
nenoaia IIA (nenoaia “no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy-i?ia?aioaaiiy-?ic?iaee
athaeaeaoo”), nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee oa a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie, iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea, iaoe?iiaeuei? i??i?eoaoe, «e?eoe/i?
oaoiieia??».

ABSTRACT

Ryzhykh V. M. State’s Management of Techno-Scientific Progress: Economic
Issues. – Manuscript.

The Thesis for a Doctor of Sciences Degree (Public Administration) by
speciality 25.00.05 – Management of Specific Sector of Public
Administration: Economic Policy. – Ukrainian Academy of Public
Administration, Office of the President of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

This dissertation addresses the methodological and theoretical research
and advances which are intended to facilitate tactics and strategies
with respect to techno-scientific progress and economic development of
Ukraine. These advances are also intended to establish a comprehensive
national techno-scientific and industrial policies, fostering a
complete system of management which would insure the realization of
such policies and of the comprehensive and systematic guiding,
monitoring and managing the industry’s techno-scientific progress.

This dissertation, for the first time, documents the choice of
priorities in the area of techno-scientific and economic development in
Ukraine; it creates the models for adopting of state decisions; it draws
the complex interdependent and intertwined system of organization and
management of science, technology, science-based industry as they
integrate with economic processes into a single innovative cycle; it
documents the new system of strategic budgetary planning programing and
development (BPPA); it analyzes creation and implementation of the
national policy of techno-scientific and economic growth of Ukraine, as
well as the state’s plan of development in the areas of science,
technology , production and state’s budget based on BPPA.

The system of BPPA is a new form of direct interdependence between
prospective planning of economy’s development, techno-scientific and
economic development and budget planning, which help to set up
conditions, necessary for analyzing the harmonious interplay between
science, technology, and production, on one hand, and top priority
national needs, goals and strategic objectives, on the other hand.

Key words: state system of organization and management,
techno-scientific and industrial politics, techno-scientific progress,
the system of BPPA (budgetary planning, programing and development),
social-economic and military-economic development, national security,
national priorities, “vital technologies”.

AIIIOAOeEss

?uaeeo A.I. Ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii:
yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 25.00.05. – io?aneaaia
oi?aaeaiea: oi?aaeaiea yeiiiieeie. Oe?aeineay Aeaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai, iaoiaeieiae/aneei ?ac?aaioeai,
oai?aoe/aneei enneaaeiaaieyi, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iaania/aiea iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe, aic?iaeaeaiea e yooaeoeaiia ?acaeoea yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu,
oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa aeecie ianaeaiey no?aiu a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ca
n/ao nicaeaiey eiiieaeniie ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu i?aaiecaoeee e
oi?aaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie e yeiiiie/aneeie
i?ioeannaie, yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey aeinoeaeaiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e
eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea no?aiu.

A iae ?ac?aaioaiu iniiau: oi?ie?iaaiey no?aoaaee e oaeoeee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey Oe?aeiu; oi?ie?iaaiey
aaeeiie Ainoaea?noaaiiie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie e i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeee
no?aiu, nicaeaiey eiiieaeniie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ay iaania/eo
?aaeecaoeeth yoie iieeoeee, iicaieeo nenoaiii e oeaeaiai?aaeaiii
oi?aaeyoue iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a oaeaea
iaania/eoue iiauoaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oe?aeineeo oaoiieiaee e
i?iaeoeoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea, oaeiaeaoai?eoue iaoeeiiaeueiua
iio?aaiinoe, ?aoeoue i?ei?eoaoiua i?iaeaiu e caaea/e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
ainoaea?noaa; iino?iaiey iniiaiuo iiaeaeae nenoaiiiai aiaeeca
iainiiaaiiiai i?eiyoey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aoaiee; nicaeaiey eiiieaeniie
acaeiinaycaiiie nenoaiu i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey ?acaeoeai iaoee,
oaoieee, oaoiieiaee, iaoeiaieeo i?iecaiaenoa a aaeeiii eiiiaaoeeiiiii
oeeeea n yeiiiie/aneeie i?ioeannaie; nicaeaiey nenoaiu IIA (nenoaiu
“no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey – i?ia?aiie?iaaiey – ?ac?aaioee
athaeaeaoa”); oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee Iaoeeiiaeueiie i?ia?aiiu
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey Oe?aeiu, a oaeaea
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaia ?acaeoey iaoee, oaoieee, oaoiieiaee,
i?iecaiaenoa e ?ac?aaioee athaeaeaoa ia iniiaa nenoaiu IIA.

A Oe?aeia i?ienoiaeeo neiaeiue i?ioeann o?ainoi?iaoeee oicyenoaaiiie
nenoaiu, nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Iia noieeioeanue n
na?ueaciui auciaii a?aiaie, oae eae no?oeoo?iay ia?ano?ieea aa yeiiiieee
e ia?aoiae e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi o?aaotho i?aeoe/anee iieiiai
?aoi?ie?iaaiey oicyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey no?aiu, a yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue,
oyiao ca niaie no?oeoo?ioth ia?ano?ieeo cia/eoaeueiie /anoe eioaeaeoa
yeiiiieee — aa iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?u.

Eioa?anu Oe?aeiu o?aaotho neii?aeeie?iaaiiuo aeaenoaee caeiiiaeaoaeueiie
aeanoe e i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ieienoa?noa, aaaeiinoa, i?aaiia ianoiie
eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, oicyenoaaiiuo noauaeoia ii au?aaioea e
i?iaaaeaieth yooaeoeaiie aaeeiie iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai, oicyenoaaiiiai, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e
aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa n oeaeueth aic?iaeaeaiey e
yooaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, iaania/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe, oeo/oaiey ea/anoaa aeecie ianaeaiey no?aiu. Yoa no?aoaaey,
eaeaieiaey e iaoea oi?aaeaiey ninoaaeytho iniiao aeenna?oaoeee, eae
nenoaio ia?ii?eyoee e iaoaieciia i?aaiecaoeee, iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiie
eii?aeeiaoeee e oi?aaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneeie e yeiiiie/aneeie
i?ioeannaie, a iniiao eioi?ie iieiaeai i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaie iaoiae
nenoaiu IIA.

Nenoaia IIA yaeyaony iiaie oi?iie nayce iaaeaeo ia?niaeoeaiui
ieaie?iaaieai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee, iao/ii-oaoie/aneei e oicyenoaaiiui
?acaeoeai e ?ac?aaioeie athaeaeaoa. Yoa nenoaia iicaieyao nicaeaoue
oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo a ia?ac?uaiii aaeeinoaa e acaeiinayce
?anniao?eaathony aa?iiie/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iaoeie, oaoieeie,
oaoiieiaeyie e i?iecaiaenoaii, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e ia?aii/a?aaeiuie
iaoeeiiaeueiuie iio?aaiinoyie, e?eoe/anee aaaeiuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie
i?iaeaiaie e caaea/aie, iaoeeiiaeueiuie i?ei?eoaoaie e no?aoaae/aneeie
oeaeyie ainoaea?noaa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu.

Nenoaia IIA i?ecaaia iaania/eoue o?ainoi?iaoeeth oeaeae e caaea/
?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa, iieiaeaiee eiioeaioeee iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe (iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee), no?aoaae/aneeo eiioeaioeee
nioeeaeueiiai, yeiiiie/aneiai, aiaiiiai ?acaeoey a eiie?aoiua
ia?ii?eyoey, i?ia?aiiu e athaeaeaoiua eaoaai?ee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noaaiiay nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneay e i?iiuoeaiiay iieeoeea, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann,
nenoaia IIA (nenoaia “no?aoaae/aneiai
ieaie?iaaiey-i?ia?aiie?iaaiey-?ac?aaioee athaeaeaoa”),
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia e aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea,
iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueiua i?ei?eoaou, “e?eoe/aneea
oaoiieiaee”.

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