Державне регулювання економіки України в умовах соціально-економічної трансформації: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / В.В. Литвин, Донец. держ. ун-т

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 330.342: 338.2 (477)

Eeoaei Aaea??y A?eoi??aia

AeA?AEAAIA ?AAOETHAAIIss AEIIII?EE OE?A?IE A OIIAAO
NIOe?AEUeII-AEIIII?*II? O?AINOI?IAOe??

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 08.01. 01. Aeiiii?/ia oai??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Aeiiaoeuee).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee -eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeieo?e/aiei E?e?y ?aai?aia,

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???.Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi?
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ii/a?iee Noaiai Aaneeueiae/,

Oa?iii?euenueea Aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Oeiioaanueea Ethaeieea Aeieo??aia,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??.I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa
-Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i.
Oa?e?a), eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 11.051.01 a Aeiiaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
345015, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. *aethne?ioe?a, 198a, aoae. 405.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (340055, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea,
24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 30 na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iaa/ei A. N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeeaiea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?y, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny a Oe?a?i?, ciia iinoaaeea eiiieaen
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue i?i aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee.
Na?oiaa ?noi??y na?ae/eoue, ui yeeie a ?iciianthaeaeaieie ia aoee
caniae ?eieiai? naii?aaoeyoe??, yeith a aenieith ia aoea /anoea
i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a a aeiiii?oe?, aea?aeaaa aenooia? aeaeaei ia
ae?oai?yaeiei, a eeth/iaei oaeoi?ii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeiai?ee.

Aeiaaeueia oaiaeaioe?y na?oiaiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, yea iaoiiaeaia
noaiiaeaiiyi iiaiai oaoiieia?/iiai niiniao ae?iaieoeoaa, iiaeaeueoei
iiaeeaeaiiyi noni?eueiiai ?iciiae?eo i?aoe? oa ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??th
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy, coiiaeea ?noioia a?aenoaaaiiy ??aiy ?icaeoeo
iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i a?ae ?iaeono??aeueii ?icaeiaieo aea?aeaa.
Eiiieaen i?iaeai, ye? iia’ycai? c iaiao?aei?noth ia?ai???ioaoe??
aeiiii?ee a iai?yieo iiaeaaaeaiiy ? c?inoaiiy, ??aiii?aaiei aoiaeaeaiiyi
a na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai, aeiaaa? aeyaeaiiy iiai? ?ie? aea?aeaae ye
iniiaiiai noa’?eoa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ooi/iaiiy
nooiino? iiiyooy “aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee”, aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiai?ee iai?yie?a aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a ooieoe?iioaaiiy
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui
a ?aieao i?inoaaiiy aei iino?iaeono??aeueii? noaae?? ?icaeoeo,
iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea cacia? ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ye? iaoyaeai?
e?eciaith neooaoe??th. A oeueiio ca’yceo oi?ioethaaiiy i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/a? oae? aeooaeuei? aniaeoe, ye oai?aoe/ia
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ooieoe?e aea?aeaae, ?ino?oiaio?a, oi?i ?
iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia aeiiii?eo; aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae
o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo; neioaciaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy oeeo i?iaeai ia
iniia? aiae?co nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iieiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

Nueiaiaei? ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a ainiiaea?nuee? i?ioeane a ?iaioao
i?ia?aeieo a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo aeiiii?no?a ?icaeyaea?oueny ia
??ciiiai?oieo ??aiyo. Ii-ia?oa, oea iae?i??aaiue, aea ii-??ciiio
ioe?ith?oueny ?ieue aea?aeaae a aeiiii?oe? a oe?eiio. Ii-ae?oaa, oea
i?e?iaeiiii?/iee ??aaiue, yeiai oi?eathoueny o/ai? i?e aiae?c? i?aaeiaoo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Ooo eaeaoueny i?i o/anoue aea?aeaae a ?aaoethaaii?
ae?yeueiino? o??i, aecia/aii? oe?iiai? iie?oeee, i?i noai?aiiy
ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey ?iaioe an?o aaaio?a ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Ii-o?ao?,
— oea i?aeia?iaeiee ??aaiue. Ae?oaa iieiaeia OO no. oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
a?eueoei aieeaii na?oiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ioean?a ia
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nuee? iaoe?iiaeuei? eiiieaene. Oiio a aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? i?eae?ey?oueny aaaaoi oaaae aeai?e noa?? aea?ae?aaoethaaiiy.
Ii-/aoaa?oa, ?icaeyaea?oueny o/anoue aea?aeaae uiaei ae??oaiiy anueiai
eiiieaeno ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c i?aeo?eieith “ethaenueeiai oaeoi?o” a
ianooaaao, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai /ano ? c?inoath/i? eiieo?aioe??
a na?oia?e aeiiii?oe?.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a oai??? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee caeia?
i?iaeaia ?ie? aea?aeaae i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae ia?eieiai? aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie aei ?eieiai?. Ine?eueee iiaa nenoaia ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny ia
aaiethoe?eii, a ??ceith cai?iith aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee
ci?oaiith, yea aaco?oueny ia ?eieiaeo noeioeao, a?eueo?noue aeiiii?no?a
noeey?oueny aei iaiao?aeiino? i?aeneeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ooieoe?e aea?aeaae
a o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae.

?aeay ?aeiino? aea?aeaae oa aeiiii?ee a?aenoith?oueny a i?aoeyo
E.Aaaee?ia, A.Aiae??aiiaa, A.Aa/o??ia, A.Eaia?aa, A.Eiiae?aoiai?,
A.Eooe?ia, A.E?aoeoea, A.Ia?anueeiai, ?.Iia?eiai?, N.Oaa?ii?, E.Oiaeiaa,
TH.Oae?eiaa ? aaaaoueio ?ioeo o/aieo eieeoiueiai N?N?.

Na?aae o/aieo-aeiiii?no?a Oe?a?ie nooo?aee aeeaae a ?ic?iaeo
caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
?eieiai? ? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee aianee: A.A?ao?oei, A.Aieeinueeee,
A.Aa?oeue, ?.Eoe?iia, A.Ia?oeei, N.Ii/a?iee, A.Iaianthe, A.Iie?eoai,
A.*ooii, A.Oaa/aiei oa ?io?.

E?eoe/iee iaeyae iaoeiaeo ?ia?o ii i?iaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaa, ui
aeaye? iaoiaeieia?/i? ? oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy caeeoathoueny iaaeinoaoiuei
?ic?iaeaieie, ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeiaaathoue ooi/iaiiy a iiaeo
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiiaao. Oae, iaea?eueo neaaeith eaieith a
aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? a?aenooi?noue eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei
i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, iaia? /?oeiai
?iciaaeoaaiiy oi?i, cania?a ? ?ino?oiaio?a aieeao aea?aeaae ia
ainiiaea?nuee? i?ioeane, caeeoa?oueny iaeiaea/aiei ieoaiiy i?i
niaoeeo?eo aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue i?iaeai, ?o aeooaeuei?noue, aaeeea oai?aoe/ia
? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy coiiaeee aea?? oaie, iinoaiiaeo iaoe ? caaea/
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
a ?aieao aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie «Oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a
Oe?a?i?” eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0198U005511.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia
i?aenoaa? iaoiaeieia?/ieo iieiaeaiue oai??? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?iaanoe aiae?c iaoai?cio aieeao aea?aeaae ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
a?aeiineie a Oe?a?i? ? ae?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei eiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeaii
oae? caaea/?:

ocaaaeueieoe iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a aeiiii?eo;

aeaoe aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee ia iniia? aea/aiiy
iayaieo oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e ? oi/ie ci?o;

?ice?eoe aeiiii?/i? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae a oiiaao a?eueiiai ? ?aaeueiiai
?eieo, aeyaeoe ?o niaoeeo?eo a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie;

aecia/eoe iaae? aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a aeiiii?eo;

aeine?aeeoe ci?no iiiyooy “iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee”;

/?oei ?iciaaeoaaoe oi?ie, caniae, ?ino?oiaioe aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane;

i?iaiae?coaaoe iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy athaeaeaoieo,
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoieo, aaethoieo ? nioe?aeueieo ?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy c
iaoith ?aae?caoe?? noaa?e?caoe?eieo ooieoe?e aea?aeaae a ?eieia?e ?
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?;

aecia/eoe iai?yiee cae?eniaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee a
Oe?a?i? ? ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei ?? aaeineiiaeaiiy.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aiae?co. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?? ?
iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei
acaaae? ? a o?ainoi?iaoe?ei?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea a oe?eiio.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith ? iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith ?iaioe ? a?o/eciyi? ? caei?aeiii? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ?ic?iaee
o/aieo a iaeano? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieiai? ? o?ainoi?iaoe?eii?
aeiiii?ee, Caeiie Oe?a?ie, Oeace I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, Aeae?aoe ?
Iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, io?oe?ei? iaoa??aee, noaoenoe/i?
aeai?. Ia iniia? ?aoaeueiiai aea/aiiy oeeo aeaea?ae c?iaeaii
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? aeniiaee ii eieo ieoaiue, ye? ?icaeyaeaeeny.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? ? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee aacothoueny ia i?eioeeiao ae?aeaeoeee ye caaaeueiiai caniao
i?ciaiiy. Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue
aeei?enoaii caniae iae?iaeiiii?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, eia?/iiai
ocaaaeueiaiiy, nenoaiiee ? eiiieaeniee i?aeoiaee, aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iee
? ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c, ui caaacia/eei iaae?ei?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a
ianooiiiio:

1) aeaii aaoi?nueea aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, ye
nenoaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ui neeaaeathoueny a i?ioean?
ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a oaeiae
noaa?e?caoe?? ? i?enoinoaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie aei oiia , ye?
ci?iththoueny;

2) iaa?oioiaaii aaoi?nueea oeoia/aiiy iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, ye noeoiiino? oi?i, iaoiae?a, ?ino?oiaio?a
aieeao aea?aeaae ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, ui neeaaeathoueny
i?ae noa’?eoaie ? ia’?eoaie ?aaoethaaiiy a i?ioean? ocaiaeaeaiiy
?ioa?an?a;

3) nenoaiaoeciaaii ?ino?oiaioa??e iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy;

4) cai?iiiiiaaii iieacieee eo?n?a aeioiaeiino? a?eai? c iaoith
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy noai?aiiy a oe?a?inueeeo aaieao i?oeii?
?ano?nii? aace aeiaaino?ieiaiai ?iaanooaaiiy;

5) iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?iciiae?eo oeaio?aeueiiai athaeaeaoo
e?a?ie ia athaeaeao ?icaeoeo, ui a?aeia?aaea? oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo, ?
athaeaeao iioi/ieo aeo?ao;

6) cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue aeinyaiaiiy iae?inoaa?e?caoe?? e aeiiii?/iiai
i?aeeiio a Oe?a?i?, yea ia?aaeaa/a? aieea aea?aeaae ii aeaiaioao
noeoiiiai iiieoo: ia niiaeeaaiiy, ?iaanoeoe??, aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe,
/enoee aenii?o ca aeiiiiiaith athaeaeaoieo ? iiiaoa?ieo ?ino?oiaio?a
?aaoethaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeei?enoaiiy aeniiae?a ?
i?iiiceoe?e c i?iaeai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee,
iaoyaeaiith e?eciaith neooaoe??th, aeiiiiiaea a?aeiiaeoe a Oe?a?i?
iae?iaeiiii?/io noaa?euei?noue ? noai?eoe i?aea?oioy aeey iiaeaeueoiai
iiaeaaaeaiiy ? c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. Oeueiio aoaea oaeiae
ni?eyoe ?ic?iaea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo iniia aaeaiooaaiiy iaeiie/aiiai
na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aoaeoeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee aei eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oiia Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a
i?aeoeoe? aeeeaaeaiiy eo?n?a iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??, iae?iaeiiii?ee,
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, a oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? aeeieiiieo ?
eo?niaeo ?ia?o.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Eiie?aoia iniaenoa o/anoue aaoi?a a
iaea?aeaii? ?acoeueoao?a, aeeeaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o
iinoaiiaoe? oe?eueiaiai caaaeaiiy ? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy; cai?? oa
ia?iaoe? aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??; ocaaaeueiaii? ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo
aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo nenoai; ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue i?i aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy
?eieiai? oa ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee; ae?iaeaii? oa iaa?oiooaaii?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio nai?ia?? «I?aeia?iaeia eia?noeea ?
ia?eaoeia a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith», Ee?a-Aeiiaoeuee,
aa?anaiue-aeiaoaiue, 1996; ia iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a ?
ani??aio?a Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeiiii?ee ? oi?a?ae?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ca i?aenoieaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei?
?iaioe ca 1998 ??e, Aeiiaoeuee, ethoee, 1999; ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo a Aeiiaoeuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie; ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeei?enoai? a i?aeoeoe?
aeeeaaeaiiy eo?n?a: «Iae?iaeiiii?ea» ? «Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee» a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? aeiiii?ee ?
oi?a?ae? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,5 ae?. a?e., c ieo 2,2 ae? a?e. iaeaaeaoue
aaoi?o.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 164 iaeiaioaaiue ? 4
aeiaeaoe?a, i?noeoue noi??iie oaenoo, 15 oaaeeoeue, 5
iaethie?a.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaai? aeooaeuei?noue, i?aaeiao ? iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oai?aoe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iiiceoe?e ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee” ocaaaeueiaii iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae aea?aeaaiiai
ao?o/aiiy a aeiiii?eo, iiaeaii aaoi?nueea aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee. ?ice?eoi aeiiii?/i? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae a oiiaao
“a?eueiiai” ? ?aaeueiiai ?eieo, aeyaeaia ?o niaoeeo?ea a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie. Aecia/aii iaae? aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a aeiiii?eo.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue aeinyaiaiiy iae?inoaa?e?caoe?? e aeiiii?/iiai
i?aeeiio a Oe?a?i?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aieea aea?aeaae ia noeoiiee iiieo ?
eiai eiiiiiaioe.

Aeey a?aoiaioaoe?? iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee — i?ioean ia’?eoeaiee ? caeiiii??iee, a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii
? i?iaiae?ciaaii iaeaaaeeea?o? iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ao?o/aiiy
aea?aeaae a aeiiii?eo: nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, yeee coiiaeth? aeeiiaiiy
aea?aeaaiith aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith ooieoe?e ca’yceo; ?aae?caoe?y
“i?eioeeio ci?ooaaiiy”, yeee i?iyaey?oueny a ??ciiiai?oiino? nenoaie ?
a?aeia?aaea? ?? aioo??oith iio?aao; eiioeaio?aoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa ?
eai?oaeo, yea iineeth? iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a
aeiiii?eo; ?nioaaiiy “iaaeineiiaeinoae ?eieo”, onoiaiiy yeeo iiaeiia
acyoe ia naaa aea?aeaaa.

A?aenooi?noue ?aeeii? aeoiee uiaei aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???, caaeaaeaea ?icaeyaeo ? ioe?iee ??ciiiai?oieo
oi/ie ci?o ii aeaiiio ieoaiith, ui ni?eyei ae?iaeaiith aaoi?nueeiai
oeoia/aiiy aeaiiai iiiyooy. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui aoaeue-yea aea?aeaaia
ao?o/aiiy a aeiiii?eo i?eionea? ci?io oiia aca?iiae?? aeiiii?/ieo
aaaio?a, a oiae? yeiai a?aeaoaa?oueny ocaiaeaeaiiy i?eaaoieo ?
noni?eueieo ?ioa?an?a, aaoi? aecia/a? aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ye oe?ieo
nenoaio nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ui neeaaeathoueny a i?ioean?
ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a oaeiae
noaa?e?caoe?? ? i?enoinoaaii? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie aei oiia , ye?
ci?iththoueny.

Aiae?coth/e aca?iica’ycie eaoaai??e “aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee”
? “aea?aeaaia aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea”, aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i
oa, ui aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy — oea oi?ia ? niin?a ?aae?caoe??
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee c iiceoe?e nenoaiiiai
? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co aeicaieeei ?icaeyiooe eiai ye oe?e?nio nenoaio,
yea aeeth/a? ooieoe?iiaeueio, ?acoeueooth/o i?aenenoaie, ? i?aenenoaio
cai?ioiiai ca’yceo.

A aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii ni?iao aecia/eoe iaae? aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a
aeiiii?eo. C oe??th iaoith i?iaiae?ciaaii aeiiii?/i? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae
c oi/ee ci?o “a?eueiiai” ? ?aaeueiiai ?eieo.

I?e ?icaeyae? ieoaiiy i?i aeiiii?/i? ooieoe?? aea?aeaae a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, a ?iaio? aeae?eaii iniaeeaino?
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui a aeai?e neooaoe??
iaiao?aeii: i?aeneeaiiy noaa?e?caoe?eieo ooieoe?e aea?aeaae,
aeoea?caoe?y eiai caeiiiaeaa/i? ae?yeueiino? aeey i?enei?aiiai
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iae?ina?aaeiaeua, c?inoaiiy ?ie? ooieoe?? uiaei
ia?a?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a c iaoith nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, a
oaeiae i???ioaoe?y ia ca?eueoaiiy aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie.

Aieiai? caaaeaiiy aeey Oe?a?ie nueiaiaei? — coieieoe niaae ae?iaieoeoaa
? noai?eoe iniiae aeey aeiiii?/ii? aeoeaiino?. Aeinyaiaiiy oace
iiaeaaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee iiaeiii ae??ooaaoeny a aeaa aoaie: ia?oee —
iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?e?caoe?y ? aeo?ae c e?ece; ae?oaee — ia?ao?ae aei
aoaeoeaiiai c?inoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Oe?eae ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai aoai?a iiaeia aeinyaoe oeyoii aieeao
aea?aeaae ia aeaiaioe noeoiiiai iiieoo — niiaeeaaiiy, ?iaanoeoe??,
aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe, /enoee aenii?o:

C1 + I1 + G1 + Xn1 C0 + I0 + G0 + Xn0 , (1)

aea

C1, C0 – niiaeea/? aeo?aoe ianaeaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii a ca?oiiio ? aaciaiio
ia??iae?;

I1 , I0 — aaeia? i?eaaoi? aioo??oi? ?iaanoeoe??, a?aeiia?aeii a
ca?oiiio ? aaciaiio ia??iae?;

G1, G0 — aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe, a?aeiia?aeii a ca?oiiio ? aaciaiio
ia??iae?;

Xn1 , Xn0 — /enoee aenii?o, ye ??cieoey i?ae aenii?oii oa ?iii?oii
oiaa??a ? iineoa, a?aeiia?aeii a ca?oiiio ? aaciaiio ia??iae?.

Iae?iaeiiii?/ia noaa?e?caoe?y ? aeo?ae c e?ece iiaeeea? ia iniia?
?ica’ycaiiy ??aiyiiy :

C1 + I1 + G1 + Xn1 = C0 + I0 + G0 + Xn0 (2)

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee”
iaaea?oueny aaoi?nueea oeoia/aiiy iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee; ?iciaaeiaaii oi?ie, iaoiaee ? ?ino?oiaioe aea?aeaaiiai aieeao
ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane; i?iaiae?ciaaii iiaeeeaino?
canoinoaaiiy athaeaeaoieo, a?ioiai-e?aaeeoieo, aaethoieo ? nioe?aeueieo
?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy c iaoith ?aae?caoe?? noaa?e?caoe?eieo ooieoe?e
aea?aeaae a ?eieia?e ? ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

Aiae?co iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee ia?aaeo? aeyaeaiiy eiai nooiino? ye aeiiii?/ii? eaoaai???. C
oi/ee ci?o aaoi?a, iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee yaey?
niaith noeoii?noue oi?i, iaoiae?a, ?ino?oiaio?a aieeao aea?aeaae ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? a?aeiioaiiy, ui neeaaeathoueny i?ae noa’?eoaie ?
ia’?eoaie ?aaoethaaiiy a i?ioean? ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui a iniia? ia’?eo?a ?aaoethaaiiy eaaeaoue
?aaeuei? ?ioa?ane oeo aai ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aa?noa oa a?oi, ?nioth/? ia
iae?i-, iaci- oa i?e?i??ai? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee. A i?ioean? ?o
ocaiaeaeaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny aecia/aiiy oa eiie?aoecaoe?y oe?eae, ia
aeinyaiaiiy yeeo ? ni?yiiaaii aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, a /ene? noa’?eo?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aenooiathoue aaciina?aaei? “aeeiiaaoe? aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a”:
iaaeiaoe?iiaeuei?, iaoe?iiaeuei? oa oeaio?aeuei? aai oaaea?aeuei?,
?aa?iiaeuei?, ioi?oeeiaeuei? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy.

Ine?eueee a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iaia? /?oeeo iiceoe?e, uiaei
?iciaaeoaaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a, oi?i oa iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia
aeiiii?eo, a aeena?oaoe?? aaeeoi ni?iao nenoaiaoecoaaoe oyaeaiiy i?i
iaeaaaeeea?o? aeaiaioe ?aaoethth/iai iaoai?cio. A yeino? iniiaieo oi?i
aeae?eai? ieaioaaiiy, i?ia?aioaaiiy, i?iaiicoaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo; a /ene? iaoiae?a — aeiiii?/iee,
aaei?i?no?aoeaiee ? i?aaiaee.

sse aaaaea? aaoi?, aei iniiaieo ?ino?oiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee a?aeiinyoueny: iiaeaoee, aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe, i?eueae,
noaneae?? — a athaeaeaoi?e iie?oeoe? aea?aeaae; iae?eiaa noaaea, ii?ia
iaia’yceiaiai ?aca?aoaaiiy, iia?aoe?? ia a?aee?eoiio ?eieo — a
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoi?e iie?oeoe?; aaethoi? ?ioa?aaioe??, aeaaaeueaaoe?y ?
?aaaeueaaoe?y, aaethoi? iaiaaeaiiy — a aaethoi?e iie?oeoe?; nioe?aeuei?
aeieaoe, oe?ie ia oiaa?e oa iineoae ia?oi? iaiao?aeiino?, i?i?iaeuei?
noaaee iieaoe i?aoe? — a nioe?aeuei?e iie?oeoe?.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c ie?aieo ?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy oa
?o aieeao ia aeiiii?eo, ui aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeaye? aeniiaee aeey
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae.

Athaeaeaoi? ?ino?oiaioe ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeooue ye noeioethaaoe, oae ?
no?eioaaoe aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie oa aenooiathoue, ia aeoieo eaein?aioe?a,
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei noaa?e?caoe?eiei caniaii.

Iaoai?ci o?neaeueii? iie?oeee, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, ianeeaaeiee: yeui a
e?a?i? ia? i?noea niaae, ?inoa aac?ia?ooy iaiao?aeii ca?eueooaaoe
aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe aai cieaeoaaoe iiaeaoee, a oiiaao ?ioeyoe?eiiai
c?inoaiiy ae?? aea?aeaae iiaeii? aooe i?ioeeaaeieie. Iaeiae ae?iaeaiiy ?
i?aeoe/io ?aae?caoe?th athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae oneeaaeiththoue:
i?iaeaie /ano, iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie, ?ioeyoe?ei? i?ioeane, ianiiae?aai?
iiae?? a na?oia?e aeiiii?oe?, aoaeo aeoeniaiiy aioo??oi?o ?iaanoeoe?e,
ci?ie aaethoiiai eo?no, iaia?aaeaa/ai?noue caeaaeiino? aeiiii?/ieo
noeioe?a a?ae ci?ie noaaie iiaeaoe?a. A oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo ?aaoeyoi??a c iaoith iiaeaaaeaiiy ae?eiai?
aeoeaiino? oneeaaeith?oueny iaiao?aei?noth iiaeieaiiy athaeaeaoii?
e?ece.

Iino?ei? ci?ie ainiiaea?nueei? eii’thieoo?e iaoiiaeththoue oeeee?/iee
oa?aeoa? canoinoaaiiy oeaio?aeueieie aaieaie aaaeae?a
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, yeee aecia/a? /a?aoaaiiy iie?oeee
“aeaoaaeo” ? “aei?iaeo a?ioae” c iaoith caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiino?
i?ae c?inoaiiyi a?ioiai? iane ? iane oiaa??a.

A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?niothoue cia/i? ?ica?aeiino? a?aeiinii oiai,
ye ci?ie a?ioiai? i?iiiceoe?? aieeaathoue ia aeiiii?eo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
eaein?aioe?a, i?aaenoaaieee iiiaoa?ecio aaaaeathoue, ui
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoi? ?ino?oiaioe a?eueo aoaeoeaii aieeaathoue ia c?inoaiiy
?iaanoeoe?e ? noeoiii? i?iiiceoe??, caiia?aaiiy ?ioeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a,
i?ae athaeaeaoi?. Ia ?o aeoieo, aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeiiii?ee iaiao?aeii noaea ca?eueoaiiy a?ioiai? iane a iaaeao 3-5% ia
??e.

Canoiniaoth/e eiioeaioe?th iiiaoa?eno?a uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy ia?ao?aeieo
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ?? aeei?enoaiiy i?eionea?
iayai?noue ?icaeiaiiai ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua oa ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo oi?i
eiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, yeeo iiee ui ia iathoue e?a?ie c ia?ao?aeieie
aeiiii?eaie.

A oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aoaeoeai?noue
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee oeaio?aeueiiai aaieo iiaea ??cei cieceoeny a
neeo caaino?aiiy ?? neaaeeo noi??i. O ca’yceo c oeei aaoi? aaaaea?
aeioe?eueiei: aeeeth/aiiy iiaeeeaino? iiiaaeaiiy aeiiii?ee a e?ea?aeio
ianoeo i?e ei?ioeino?ieiaiio aea?aeaaiiio ?aaoethaaii? a?ioiaiai ?eieo;
iie?ioaiiy caaaeueiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo i?e i?iaaaeaii? iie?oeee
“aeaoaaeo a?ioae”; aan?iiy aaeaioeaieo ?ioeyoe?eieo i/?eoaaiue a oiiaao
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? ?ano?eeoe?? c iaoith nei?i/aiiy oaeaeeino? a?ioiaiai
ia?ao; ci?io no?oeoo?e a?ioiai? iane a a?e ciaioaiiy a i?e /anoee
aio?aee a oiiaao a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? aeniain?? c iaoith caiia?aaiiy
cieaeaiith oaeaeeino? ia?ao a?ioae; ae??oaiiy aeeeaie oe?eae
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee ia i?aenoaa? aeiaea?aeaiiy i?aaeea, ca?aeii
c yeei ei?ioeino?ieiaa a?ioiaa oaeoeea uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy ii?ie
a?aenioea iiaea i?iaiaeeoeny a ?aieao aeiaaino?ieiai? a?ioiai?
no?aoaa??, yea aaco?oueny ia ??aiyii? ??aiiaaae I. O??aeiaia.

A ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, aea ia?oi?yaeiei caaaeaiiyi ? iae?iaeiiii?/ia
noaa?e?caoe?y, iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue iaaoaa? i?iaeaia no?eeino?
aaethoieo eo?n?a.

Canoiniaoth/e ?ino?oiaioe aaethoiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui
aaethoi? ?ioa?aaioe?? aoaeoeai? eeoa a aeiaaeeo iacia/ii?
iaa??aiiaaaeaiino? ieao?aeiiai aaeaino. sseui ia? i?noea o?ii?/iee eiai
aeao?oeeo, iaiao?aeii aaeaaaoeny aei ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i aaethoieo
iaiaaeaiue. Iaaaoeaiei iiiaioii i?aeaeuaiiy aeeneiioii? noaaee c iaoith
i?eieeao eai?oaeo a e?a?io ? i?aeo?eiee eo?no iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe ?
iiaei?iae/aiiy e?aaeeoo, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ?icaeoie ae?iaieoeoaa.

??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ia iniia?
aeei?enoaiiy ?ino?oiaio?a nioe?aeueiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeiii aoaeoaaoeny
c o?aooaaiiyi o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae aea?aeaae, iaiao?aeiino? ?ic?iaee
noeioethth/iai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, anoaiiaeaiiy oaeeo ?ici???a nioe?aeueii?
aeiiiiiae aac?ia?oiei, ui ia iineaaeyoue o ieo noeioee aei iiooeo
?ia?oie/eo i?noeue.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie” aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ae?iaeaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae?
a?aeiiaeaiiy iae?inoaa?eueiino? e aeiiii?/iiai i?aeeiio a e?a?i? ia
iniia? canoinoaaiiy athaeaeaoieo ? iiiaoa?ieo ?ino?oiaio?a ?aaoethaaiiy,
?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aea?aeaaii?
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee.

Aiae?c canoinoaaiiy athaeaeaoieo aaaeae?a ?aaoethaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
iieacaa, ui aeai? ?ino?oiaioe iiee ui ia noaee ae??aei caniaii
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a?o/eciyiiai oiaa?iae?iaieoeoaa: no?oeoo?a aea?aeaaieo
aeo?ao ci?ith?oueny a a?e ca?eueoaiiy /anoee eioo?a, ui ni?yiiaothoueny
a iaae?iaie/o noa?o, a aenieee ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noa’?eo?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia?aoeiaeaea? aeinyaiaiith noaa?e?caoe?? e ?icoe?aiith
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? aeoeaiino? a e?a?i?.

sse aaaaea? aaoi?, o?neaeueia iie?oeea a Oe?a?i? iiaeiia noeioethaaoe
ae?iaieoeoai, ui iiaeeeai ia iniia? ca?eueoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? ?
niiaeea/i? eiiiiiaio noeoiiiai iiieoo, a oaeiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao oeyoii:

— cieaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaa ? a?iiaaeyi a
?acoeueoao? aaeineiiaeaiiy iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeo, nei?i/aiiy
iaia’yceiaeo a?ae?aooaaiue a niaoe?aeuei? oiiaee ? cieaeaiiy noaaie
i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo;

— iie?ioaiiy caaaeueiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy
eiiieaeno ?iaanoeoe?eieo iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea aeey i?aei?e?inoa, aaie?a ?
o?ce/ieo in?a — iaea?aeoaa/?a a?eueo aenieeo aeioiae?a;

— iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao caaaeyee iiae?eo
oeaio?aeueiiai athaeaeaoo e?a?ie ia athaeaeao iioi/ieo aeo?ao, ui
a?aeaeaa? noni?eueia niiaeeaaiiy, ? athaeaeao ?icaeoeo, ui iieaco?
oi?ioaaiiy eai?oaeo.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?, aeioe?eueii iaiaaeeoe eiai
?iaanoeoe?yie, caeaoieie i?eianoe aea?aeaa? aeioiaee, ui iie?ethoue
aii?oecaoe?th aeeaaeaiiai eai?oaeo, a?aenioee ii iiceeao ? iioi/i?
cao?aoe. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, o?iainoaaiiy aeo?ao athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo ne?ae
cae?enithaaoe oeyoii caeo/aiiy aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee,
a aeey iie?eooy aeo?ao iioi/iiai athaeaeaoo — aeei?enoaoe iiaeaoeia?
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy. Oaeee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae oeaio?aeueiiai athaeaeaoo
e?a?ie aoaea ia o?eueee ni?eyoe caaacia/aiith o?iainiai? noaa?eueiino? a
Oe?a?i?, aea ? noeioethaaoe iaoe?iiaeueia ae?iaieoeoai caaaeyee
c?inoaiith oeaio?ae?ciaaieo eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue a aenieiaoaeoeai?
i?iaeoe.

C iaoith ca?eueoaiiy aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie athaeaeaoieie
caniaaie aeioe?euei?: /anoeiaa aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea aoaeoeaieo
aenii?oii???ioiaaieo i?iaeo?a; iaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea aenii?oa?ai
ie?aieo aeae?a i?iaeoeoe??; cai?ia iaia’yceiaiai 50%-ai i?iaeaaeo
aaethoe ?icoiiei iiaeaoeii ia aaethoi? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy; aeei?enoaiiy
i?aeoeee noai?aiiy aenii?oa?aie iaiiiaeaoeiaaieo oiiae?a ?icaeoeo
aenii?oo; iiaa?iaiiy aea?aeaaith /anoeie iiaeaoe?a ae?iaieeai aenii?oii?
i?iaeoeoe??.

Ae?iaeaiith ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iiiaoa?ii? iie?oeee a
Oe?a?i? ia?aaeo? aiae?c neooaoe??, yea neeaeany a a?ioiai-e?aaeeoi?e
noa??, oa ioe?iea ?ino?oiaio?a, ui canoiniaothoueny a aeaiee iiiaio IAO.
Aeeiai?ea iniiaieo iiiaoa?ieo iieaciee?a Oe?a?ie a 1991-1997 ??.
na?ae/eoue i?i iiceoeai? oaiaeaioe??, ye? iai?oeeeny a aeai?e iaeano?:
c 39,7% a 1996 ?. aei 10,1% a 1997 ?. cieceeeny oaiie ?ioeyoe??;
aeae?eueea c??n ??aaiue iiiaoecaoe?? aeiiii?ee (c 11,5% a 1996 ?. aei
13,3% a 1997 ?.); iiceoeaia noaaea aeaiiceoiiai a?aenioeo (c 1996 ?.)
noaea caoe?eaaethaaoe aeaniee?a aeeaaeaoe nai? a?euei? a?ioia? eiooe ia
?aooiee oe?a?inueeeo aaie?a.

Iaeiae, c ae?oaiai aieo, aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei
?ioeyoe?eiei iioaioe?aeii, cia/iei aeaaaeueaaoe?eiei oeneii ia
iaoe?iiaeueio a?ioiao iaeeieoeth, aeai?aneaiei noaiii ?aaeueiiai
naeoi?a.

A aeai?e neooaoe?? iaiao?aei?noue no?eioaaiiy a e?a?i? ?ioeyoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, i?aeo?eiaiiy noaa?eueiino? aaethoiiai eo?no, noai?aiiy oiia
aeey aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy oeyoii noeioethaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? oa
aenii?oii? eiiiiiaio noeoiieo aeo?ao aenoaa? ia ia?oee ieai i?iaeaio
ia’?aeiaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? ? a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo i?aeoiae?a aei ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaii?
i?iaeaie, aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui noeioethaaiiy
c?inoaiiy aioo??oi?o ?iaanoeoe?e ? a?o/eciyiiai aenii?oo iiiaoa?ieie
caniaaie iiaeiii ia?aaeaa/aoe:

— ci?io no?oeoo?e a?ioiai? iane a a?e nei?i/aiiy a i?e /anoee aa?aaaoo
I0 oeyoii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie aacaio?aeiaeo
?ic?aooie?a, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?, aaaaeaiiy iiaeo
aeae?a aeeaae?a aeey ianaeaiiy ? i?ia?aneaieo oi?i e?aaeeooaaiiy
th?eaee/ieo in?a;

— cieaeaiiy ii?ie iaia’yceiaiai ?aca?aoaaiiy ? eiiaa?ooaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo ianea?a eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a ?iaanoeoe?ei? iae?aaoe??;

— aeei?enoaiiy i?eueaiaiai e?aaeeooaaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaieo i?iaeo?a;

— ?aaoethaaiiy aea?aeaaith iiieoo ia e?aaeeoi? ?ano?ne oeyoii naeaeoe??
i?aei?e?inoa ia ieaoini?iiiaei? ? iaieaoini?iiiaei? ia iniia?
a?aeiia?aeieo iieaciee?a ?o o?iainiaiai iieiaeaiiy;

— noai?aiiy nenoaie no?aooaaiiy e?aaeeoieo ?ecee?a;

— ae?iaeaiiy ni?eyoeeai? aeey aenii?oii???ioiaaieo aaeocae iie?oeee
iai?iiiai eo?no, cie?aia, aeei?enoaiiy ?aaeeio iiaea?eiiai aaethoiiai
eo?no.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeii? caaacia/eoe aaie?anueeo nenoaio
Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeieie ?ano?naie, ia i?iaieoth/e ?icaeoie ?ioeyoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, ui, aeoia?oueny, noai?eoue ?aaeuei? oiiae aeey cieaeaiiy
iice/eiaiai a?aenioea, ca?eueoaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eiiai oa aenii?oiiai
iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie ? c?inoaiiy noeoiii? i?iiiceoe??.

C iaoith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy noai?aiiy a oe?a?inueeeo aaieao
i?oeii? ?ano?nii? aace aeiaaino?ieiaiai ?iaanooaaiiy a aeena?oaoe??
i?iiiiothoueny iieacieee ?ici???a aeioiae?a a?ae aeeaaeaiiy a?ioiai?
iaeeieoe? a aeoeae a?eueoiai aai iaioiai nooiaith e?ea?aeiino? — eo?ne
aeioiaeiino? a?eai?. Ca aeiiiiiaith aeaieo iieaciee?a, ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
iiaeia aeyaeyoe iai?yiee iaea?eueo i?eaooeiaiai ?ici?uaiiy a?ioiaeo
eioo?a, a?aenoaaeoaaoe ? i?iaiicoaaoe aeeiai?eo iaeaaaeeea?oeo
oaiaeaioe?e a a?ioiai-e?aaeeoi?e noa??. Oae, ci?ia eo?no aeioiaeiino?
a?eai? (EAeA) a?ae aeeaaeaiue a aeiea?e oa?aeoa?eco? iai?yiie ?icaeoeo
i?ioeano aeiea??caoe?? aeiiii?ee; aeeiai?ea EAeA a?ae aeeaaeaiue a
oiaa?e aecia/a? oaiaeaioe?th ?ice?o/oaaiiy ?ioeyoe?? iiieoo; ci?ia EAeA
a?ae aeaiiceoieo aeeaaeaiue iieaco? iiaeeeaino? ?icoe?aiiy ?ano?nii?
aace e?aaeeooaaiiy.

Ii??aiyiiy eo?n?a aeioiaeiino? a?eai? ia iaaiee iiiaio /ano iiaea
iieaaoeoe ae?iaeaiiy iioeiaeueii? a?aenioeiai? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ?
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, a oaeiae ni?eyoe a?eueo iaa?oioiaaiiio i?eeiyooth
??oaiue ainiiaea?thth/eie noa’?eoaie ? ianaeaiiyi a iaeano? ?ici?uaiiy
a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a.

Aeeaiea aeiiii?/ia e?eca, yea noi?iaiaeaeo? o?ainoi?ioaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio a Oe?a?i?, ni?eyea caaino?aiith nioe?aeueieo
i?iaeai a e?a?i?: cieaeaiith ??aiy aeeooy a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy,
c?inoaiith ianooaa?a i?eoiaaiiai ? a?aee?eoiai aac?ia?ooy, iia??oaiith
caoenoo o?oaeiaeo i?aa a?iiaaeyi, e?eoe/iiio iieiaeaiith a nenoai?
iieaoe i?aoe?.

C o?aooaaiiyi aaeaioaoe?? na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aoaeoeaiiai ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeai nioe?aeueii? noa?e aei oiia Oe?a?ie, a aeena?oaoe??
i?iiiio?oueny eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee a iaeano? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy ? iaaeaiiy
nioe?aeueieo iineoa c aeoeaioii ia ?ic?iaoe? aeoeaii? iie?oeee
caeiyoino?.

A aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i?, oai?aoe/i? ?
i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe?? c i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny. Nooue ?o iieyaa?
a iaa?oiooaaii? eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eii?
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ?aae?caoe?y yei? aeicaieeoue a?aeiiaeoe
iae?iaeiiii?/io noaa?euei?noue ? noai?eoe oiiae aeey aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a oaeeo ?iaioao:

1. Aeieo?e/aiei E.E., Naeeaoiaa A.A. Eaeineainoai e i?iaeaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa ia Oe?aeia / Oacenu aeieeaaeia aocianeie
iao/iie eiioa?aioeee i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa ii eoiaai
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou: yeiiiie/aneea iaoee. — Aeiiaoee,
1995, 0,3 i.e. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue
canoinoaaiiy eaein?ainueeeo i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeae? iae?iaeiiii?/iiai
?aaoethaaiiy a Oe?a?i? (0,15 ae?oe. a?e.).

2. Aeieo?e/aiei E.A., I?iaeaiiaa E.A., Naeeaoiaa A.A. Ainoaea?noaaiiue
iaiaaeaeiaio e i?iaeaiu eioaineoeeaoeee aini?iecaiaenoaa a oneiaeyo
ia?aoiaea Oe?aeiu e ?uieo / O/aiua caienee
i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa o/aoii-oeiainiaiai oaeoeueoaoa
AeiiAO “Yeiiiieea e oeiainu a oneiaeyo iiaeaioiaee ?aoi?i ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa Oe?aeiu”. — *anoue ?. — Aeiiaoee, 1995, 0,3 i.e. Iniaenoee
aianie aaoi?a: anoaiiaeaii, ui iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oi?i ? iaoiae?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ??aith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie
aaeueio? o?ae a?aeoai?thaaeueieo i?ioean?a, cieaeo? aoaeoeai?noue
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio (0,1 ae?oe. a?e.).

3. Aeieo?e/aiei E.E., Einothe O.E., Naeeaoiaa A.A. I?aiiaeaaaiea
oai?ee ainoaea?noaaiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa a eo?na anaie?iie enoi?ee
yeiiiie/aneie iunee / Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee AeiiAAO
— eaeie ae auoue: noaiiaeaiea. ?acaeoea. Ia?niaeoeau. — Aeiiaoee,
1995, 0,3 i.e. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: ia aac? ?noi?e/iiai iaoiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai iaa?oioiaaii
ia’?eoeai?noue eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee o
no/aniiio oeea?e?ciaaiiio na?o?. ?icaeyiooi i?eioeeie oa eiie?aoiee
iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo, eaein?ainueeeo
oa iaie?aa?aeueieo iiaeaeyo (0,1 ae?oe. a?e.).

4. Eoaeaeaa I.A., I?iaeaiiaa E.A., Naeeaoiaa A.A. Naiaiaeiua
yeiiiie/aneea ciiu: i?iaeaiu eioaineoeeaoeee e yeiiiie/aneay ?ieue
ainoaea?noaa / Oacenu aeieeaaeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneiai
naieia?a “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiaenoeea e ia?eaoeia a no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieeie”. — Eeaa-Aeiiaoee, naioya?ue-ieoya?ue, 1996, 0,2 i.e.
Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaiiai
noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo a?eueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii, ye iaeiiai ?c cania?a
i?aeo?eiee aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie (0,06 ae?oe. a?e.).

5. Aeieo?e/aiei E.E., Naeeaoiaa A.A. Noa?u e iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. / Nai?iee iao/iuo noaoae
“Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae”. —
Aeiiaoee, 1996, 0,4 i.e. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: nenoaiaoeciaaii
noa?e ? iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei. I?iaiae?ciaaii ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeuei? a?aeiineie, oi?ie,
?ieue ? iaoiaee oi?aiaaeueieo aa?’???a (ieo ? aiaa?ai) (0,2 ae?oe.
a?e.).

6. Aai?iaa O.I., Naeeaoiaa A.A. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
yeiiiieee: iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee. / Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia “I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae e i?eaea/aiey
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee: ?aaeiiaeueiue aniaeo. — Aeiiaoee, 1998, 0,3
i.e. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a iaeano? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e. C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue eiai oaeineiiaeaiiy c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a ca?oa?aeieo ?iaanoi??a
a aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie (0,15 ae?oe. a?e.).

7. Eeoaei A.A. Athaeaeaoi? aeo?aoe ye ?ino?oiaio aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee. / Oaiaoe/iee ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c i?iaeai
oi?a?ae? ? a?iiaaenueeiai oa?/oaaiiy “Oi?a?aey ? ?eiie Oe?a?ie”. —
Aeione 7. — Aeiiaoeuee, 1998, 0,4 ae?oe. a?e.

8. Aeieo?e/aiei E.E., Eeoaei A.A. Athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo e
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea a yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu: i?e/eiu, iineaaenoaey,
niiniau oi?aaeaiey. // A?niee Aeiiaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — Na??y A. —
Aeiiii?ea ? i?aai. — 1999. — ? 2, 0,5 ae?oe. a?e. Iniaenoee aianie
aaoi?a: i?iaiae?ciaaii ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee ie?aieo cania?a iie?eooy
aeao?oeeoo aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo a Oe?a?i?: ai?n?eiiai o?iainoaaiiy ,
aioo??oi?o iicee, ciai?oiueiai e?aaeeooaaiiy. C?iaeaii aeniiaee
a?aeiinii a?aieoeue aeei?enoaiiy ai?n?? a?ioiaeo eioo?a oa oe?iieo
iaia??a aeey o?iainoaaiiy athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo. Aecia/aii iai?yiee
ye?niiai oi?aae?iiy ciai?oi?i ai?aii c iaoith iii’yeoaiiy eiai
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia aeiiii?eo Oe?a?ie (0,25 ae?oe. a?e.).

9. Aeieo?e/aiei E.?., Eeoaei A.A. Iaoai?ci iie?oeee noaa?e?caoe?? ?
aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy a Oe?a?i?. // No?ae. — 1999. — ?3, 1,0 ae?oe.
a?e. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue aeinyaiaiiy
iae?inoaa?e?caoe?? ? aeiiii?/iiai i?aeeiio a Oe?a?i?, ui i?eionea?
eiiieaeniee aieea aea?aeaae ia noeoiiee iiieo ? eiaeiee eiai eiiiiiaio
ca aeiiiiiaith o?neaeueieo ? iiiaoa?ieo aaaeae?a ?aaoethaaiiy (0,5
ae?oe. a?e.).

Aiioaoe?y

Eeoaei A. A. Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01. 01 — Aeiiii?/ia oai??y. Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Aecia/aii nooi?noue eaoaai??e “aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee”,
“iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee”. Nenoaiaoeciaaii
?ino?oiaioa??e iae?iaeiiii?/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Iaa?oioiaaii eiioeaioe?th
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue aeinyaiaiiy iae?inoaa?e?caoe?? e aeiiii?/iiai
i?aeeiio a e?a?i?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? eiiieaeniee aieea aea?aeaae ia
noeoiiee iiieo ? eiai eiiiiiaioe ca aeiiiiiaith athaeaeaoieo ?
iiiaoa?ieo aaaeae?a ?aaoethaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, athaeaeao ?icaeoeo, eo?n aeioiaeiino? a?eai?.

Aiiioaoeey

Eeoaei A.A. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 — Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao. Aeiiaoee, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa enneaaeiaaia nouiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee eae yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee. Enoiaey ec oiai,
/oi ethaia ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a yeiiiieeo i?aaeiieaaaao
eciaiaiea oneiaee acaeiiaeaenoaey yeiiiie/aneeo aaaioia, a oiaea
eioi?iai i?ienoiaeeo niaeaniaaiea /anoiuo e iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania,
aaoi? ii?aaeaeyao ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea eae oe?ieoth nenoaio
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, neeaaeuaathueony a i?ioeanna
niaeaniaaiey eioa?ania noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey, a oaeaea noaaeeecaoeee
e i?eniiniaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi.

A aeenna?oaoeee naeaeaia iiiuoea ii?aaeaeeoue a?aieoeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo. N yoie oeaeueth i?iaiaeece?iaaiu
yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa a oneiaeyo “naiaiaeiiai” e
?aaeueiiai ?uieia, auyaeaia eo niaoeeoeea a ia?eiae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee.

Iiae/a?eeaay iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey noaaeeecaoeeiiiuo ooieoeee
ainoaea?noaa a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu, aaoi? i?aaeeaaaao iiaeaeue
ainnoaiiaeaiey iae?inoaaeeueiinoe e yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia a no?aia,
i?aaeoniao?eaathuoth eiiieaeniia aicaeaenoaea ainoaea?noaa ia niaieoiiue
ni?in e aai eiiiiiaiou.

Ia iniiaa oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca eaoaai?ee “iaoaieci ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee” e aai iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia, a ?aaioa
enneaaeiaai iaoaieci ?aaoee?iaaiey o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiie yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu
e au?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aai niaa?oainoaiaaieth, /oi iicaieyao
eniieueciaaoue i?aaeeiaeaiioth iiaeaeue ia i?aeoeea.

N oeaeueth anooieaiey Oe?aeiu a oaco yeiiiie/aneiai iaeeaeaiey e ?inoa a
aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeaaaaony oi?ie?iaaoue ainoaea?noaaiioth
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo ia iniiaa: nieaeaiey iauaai o?iaiy
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey; oeo/oaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
eeeiaoa; aeaeaiey oeaio?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa no?aiu ia athaeaeao ?acaeoey
e athaeaeao oaeoueo ?anoiaeia; nicaeaiey ?aaeueiuo oneiaee aeey
nieaeaiey nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa aeaaiaea?y eciaiaieth no?oeoo?u iiiaoa?iie
iannu n eniieueciaaieai iieacaoaeae eo?nia aeioiaeiinoe a?eaie;
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoaiecia ?aaoee?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie noa?u n aeoeaioii
ia ?ac?aaioea aeoeaiie iieeoeee caiyoinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea yeiiiieee, iaoaieci
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee, athaeaeao ?acaeoey, eo?n
aeioiaeiinoe a?eaie.

Annotation

Litvin V.V. State regulation of the Ukrainian economy under
social-economic transformation. — Manuscript.

The thesis on competition for a scientific degree of the candidate of
economic sciences by specialty 08.01.01 — Economic theory. Donetsk state
university. Donetsk, 1999.

The dissertation defines the essential content of the categories “state
regulation of the economy” and “mechanism of state regulation of the
economy”.

The dissertation systematizes the instrumentation of macroeconomic
regulation and justifies a concept of the state regulation of the
Ukrainian transformation economy.

The dissertation offers a model to achieve a macrostabilization and
economic upturn in Ukraine, that assumes state influence on the overall
demand and its components with the help of budgetary and monetary
instruments of regulation.

Key words: state regulation of the economy, mechanism of state
regulation of the economy, development budget, rate of hryvna’s
profitability.

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