Апаратурно-технологічна розробка сумісного виробництва етилбензолу і кумолу на базі етилен-пропіленових фракцій: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / В.Л

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee

o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

OAeE 66.0:66.071.4+661.7:665.652.4

THOEI

A?oae?e Ea?eiiiae/

Aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ia ?ic?iaea

noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo

ia aac? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.05.13 — Iaoeie oa aia?aoe

o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao?.

IAOEIAEE EIINOEUeOAIO:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith o?i?/ii? oa
aeieia?/ii? oaoi?ee Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

??IAEIA IAO?I IAO?IAE*

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? aaciaeeiai?ee ?
oaieiianiiai?io Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

EIAAEUe AIEIAeEIE? IAAEIAE*

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith oaoiieia?? e
aaoiiaoecaoe?? o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

AIEIOEI IEEIEA AeIEO?IAE*

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?i?/ii? oaoi?ee ?
i?iieneiai? aeieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

OAII??A AAEA??E IAAEIAE*

I?IA?AeIA I?AAI?CAOe?ss:

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo iaooiia?a?iaii? i?iieneiaino?
“IANIA”, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “___”________ 1999 ?. i aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.078.02 a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 320005, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?iniaeo Aaaa??ia, 8, aoae. 220.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “___”_______ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I. Nooee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi Oe?a?ie ia aeaiiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai? ? i?aeaeuaiiy
aeia?iaooo ia?iaeo ca ?aooiie caaacia/aiiy aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee, e?ea?aeaoe?? aeeni?iii?oe?e o ?icaeoeo ie?aieo aaeocae
ainiiaea?noaa, oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ano?ni- e aia?aicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e
oa ae??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai.

Iniaeeai aino?i noi?oue ieoaiiy caaacia/aiiy anueiai ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie aoaeaaiaeiaaith ne?iaeiith, ui ? aeaea?aeii ?icaeoeo
o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino? e aia?aaoeee; aino?i a?ae/oaa?oueny ianoa/a iaooe
oa i?e?iaeiiai aaco. Oaea neooaoe?y niiioea? aei ei??iiiai ia?aaeyaeo
no?aoaa?? aeei?enoaiiy oeeo ne?iaeiieo ?ano?n?a. C o?aooaaiiyi iaaooiai
na?oiaiai aeina?aeo oey i?iaeaia a Oe?a?i? aoaea ae??ooaaoenue o
eiiieaen? ??cieie iai?yiaie. Aaaeeeaa i?noea na?aae oeeo iai?yi?a
caeiooue oae? ye: eiiieaenia aaca?aeo?aeia ia?a?iaea iaooe, i?e?iaeiiai
aaco, aoa?eey oa neaioe?a; iiooee oeyo?a cai?ie aeei?enoaiiy iaooe oa
i?e?iaeiiai aaco a i?iieneiaino? ?ioith ne?iaeiith; ciaioaiiy aeo?ao
ne?iaeie oa aia?a??.

Iaei??th c iaa?aeeeaaeieo i?iaeai nueiaiaeaiiy aeey Oe?a?ie ?
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy iiiooieo aoaeaaiaeiaaeo aac?a oaeeo ye
cai?ioiee eieniaee aac eienio?i?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa ? aace eaoae?oe/iiai
e?ae?iao iaooiia?a?iaieo ae?iaieoeoa. Oe? iiiooi? aace iieeui ia
ciaoiaeyoue o iiai?e i??? naiai aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy. A /ano?
aeeeaee cai?ioiiai eieniaiai aaco ia na?/ee aeey niaethaaiiy
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ao?ao oeueiai oe?iiiai aaco ? iia??oothoue aeieia?/io
neooaoe?th a ?aeii?, aea ?icoaoiaai? eienio?i?/i? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Aeey i?enei?aiiy ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oeacaieo
iiiooieo aac?a iaiao?aei? iia? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? ?ic?iaee, iia(ycai? c ?o
aeei?enoaiiyi ye ne?iaeie aeey eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee a oe?ii? aeey
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?iaeoeoe.

Iaaieineii ia oiio, ui cai?ioiee eieniaee aac ? aace eaoae?oe/iiai
e?ae?iao iaooiaeo o?aeoe?e, ye ieao?i-ai?uoth/? aace, i?e i?aaiecaoe??
?o eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee a ai?ae, iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoenue ye aeaea?aea
aeey iaea?aeaiiy iiiooieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e. A oe? inoaii?
iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye oe?iio ne?iaeio aeey noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo iaoiaeii noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo a
i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

I?i aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy cai?ioiiai eieniaiai aaco oa aac?a
eaoae?oe/iiai e?ae?iao aeey eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee a ai?ae, aoeeaaicie oa
eoiie na?ae/aoue oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iaa?oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaeai?
i?ia?aeieie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie ? i?iaeoieie ?inoeoooaie Oe?a?ie oa
iao? iaoeia? i?aoe?.

Oaeei /eiii, ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeei?enoaiiy ieao?i-ai?uoth/eo iiiooieo
aoaeaaiaeiaaeo aac?a iia(ycoth?oueny c ?o eiiieaeniith ia?a?iaeith a
ai?ae, aoeeaaicie, eoiie oa ?io? i?iaeoeoe. I?e oeueiio iiiooia aei
ai?aeo ae?iaieoeoai aoeeaaicieo, eoiieo oa ?ioeo i?iaeoeo?a ia? ni?eyoe
cieaeaiith nia?aa?oino? ai?aeo. A oea inoaii? ia? a?aee?eoe oe?ie?
ia?niaeoeae aeey ia?a?iaee, ia?o ca ana, cai?ioiiai eieniaiai aaco ?
aac?a eaoae?oe/iiai e?ae?iao iaooiaeo o?aeoe?e ca ?ano?ni- e
aia?aicaa??aath/eie oaoiieia?yie.

O iao? /ane oe?ie?e ?aae?caoe?? noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ?
eoiieo ia aac? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e ia?aoeiaeaeathoue oae?
oaeoi?e ye i?aeaeuai? aeo?aoe ne?iaeie e aia?a??, a oaeiae aeieia?/i?
i?iaeaie. Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie iayaiino? oeeo ia?aoeiaeaeath/eo oaeoi??a
? i?enooi?noue a aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?yo iaaeiionoeii? e?eueeino?
oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie oa a?aenooi?noue i?eeiyoii? oaoiieia?? e aia?aoo?e
i/enoee oeeo o?aeoe?e; iaaeineiiae?noue oaoiieia?? e aia?aoo?e
noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo; iaaeineiiae?noue oaoiieia?? e aia?aoo?e
i/enoee aee?eaoo a?ae caeeoe?a oei?eaeo aethi?i?th oa iia’ycaia c
inoaii?i ooai?aiiy i?aeaeuaiii? e?eueeino? oe?aeeeai? no?/ii? aiaee;
oo?aoe oaieioe aecioa?i?/ii? ?aaeoe?? aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo, iaoiiaeai?
iaaeineiiae?noth oaoiieia?/ii? noaie.

Oaeei /eiii, ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? a aeena?oaoe?? caaea/? caiaeeoueny
aei aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ii? ?ic?iaee aeaio i?ioean?a: i?ioeano i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e a?ae oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie oa
?aaeoe?eii-ianiiai?iiiai i?ioeano noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie. ?acoeueoaoii aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
caaea/? iiaeiia aooe ?ic?iaea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo iniia iiai? ?ano?ni- e
aia?aicaa??aath/i? o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? iiiooieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e.

Ca(ycie aeena?oaoe?? c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. A iniiao
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iaoa??aeo i?aaenoaaeaii? aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeai?
i?aoe?, ui aeeiioaaeenue aaoi?ii o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iniiaieo
iai?yie?a iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? eaoaae?e iaeaaeiaiiy o?i?/ieo caaiae?a
(oaia? eaoaae?e o?i?/ii? oa aeieia?/ii? oaoi?ee) Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ia i?ioyc? ?yaeo ?ie?a.
Oe? ?iaioe i?iaeiaaeothoueny ? ca?ac. Iaoeiaee iai?yiie i?aoeue
ocaiaeaeaii c Oe?a?inueeei aea?aeaaiei ?inoeoooii acioii? i?iieneiaino?
oa i?iaeoeo?a i?aai?/iiai neioaco (Oe?Ae?AI), ? ?iaioa cae?enithaaeanue
o o?niiio eiioaeo? c oeei i?ia?aeiei ?inoeoooii.

Iaoeiaee iai?yiie ?iaioe ocaiaeaeo?oueny c “I??i?eoaoieie iai?yiaie
?icaeoeo iaoee ? oaoi?ee”, caoaa?aeaeaieie iinoaiiaaie Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie a?ae 16.10.1992 ?. oa a?ae 25.02.1994 ?., ? oeacaie I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie oa iinoaiiaaie Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue ?ano?ni- e
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy a iaeano? niiaeeaaiiy ? ia?a?iaee aoaeaaiaeiaai?
ne?iaeie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ic?iaeoe iia? aenieiaoaeoeai? ianiiai?ii? ?
?aaeoe?eii-ianiiai?ii? eieiii? oa??e/ano? aia?aoe c oe?ieei ae?aiaciiii
no?eei? ?iaioe ? iiaeeea?noth naii?aaoethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai
?aaeeio oa noai?eoe iaoeiaiiaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee ?o ?ic?aooieo,
eiino?othaaiiy ? i?iaeooaaiiy noiniaii aei ?ic?iaee iiai? ?ano?ni- e
aia?aicaa??aath/i? o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo iaoiaeii noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy
aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie c caaacia/aiiyi aenieiai ??aiy
aeieia?caoe?? nenoaie.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo iniia
i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii
o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iiai? aenieiaoaeoeaii? ianiiai?iii? aia?aoo?e
ia aac? oa??eie c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaieo ia?aeeaieie
i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie oa eii?/ieie ?iciiae?eueieeaie
??aeeie, iaiao?aeii? aeey ioi?ieaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaooeeoinoaoii i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao.

?ic?iaea iaoeiaiiaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo oa eiino?othaaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaii? aia?aoo?e aeey ioi?ieaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

?ic?iaea e oi?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai onoaiiaee aeey i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaoeeoinoaoii i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea ?aaeoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a
i?iieneiaiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie
o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

?ic?iaea iaoeiaiiaa?oioiaaiiai iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo oa eiino?othaaiiy
?aaeoi?ii? aia?aoo?e aeey ioi?ieaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a noi?uaiiai
aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a
i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

?ic?iaea i?iieneiai? onoaiiaee aeey noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino?
oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

?ic?iaea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo iniia iiai? ?ano?ni- e aia?aicaa??aath/i?
OON noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac?
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e.

Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea ?ic?iaeaii? OON.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo
aenieiaoaeoeaieo ianiiai?iieo ? ?aaeoe?eii-ianiiai?iieo eieiiieo
oa??e/anoeo aia?ao?a c oe?ieei ae?aiaciiii no?eei? ?iaioe ? iiaeeea?noth
naii?aaoethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ?aaeeio oa noai?aii?
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiae?a ?o ?ic?aooieo, eiino?othaaiiy ?
i?iaeooaaiiy noiniaii aei ?ic?iaee iiai? ?ano?ni- e aia?aicaa??aath/i?
o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo
iaoiaeii noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie c caaacia/aiiyi aenieiai ??aiy
aeieia?caoe?? nenoaie.

O ii?yaeeo ?ic?iaee o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo iniia iiaeo
i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e noiniaii aei
aeiia aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th oia?oa
aeeiiaii oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaee.

Aeine?aeaeaii aca?iiae?th o?eaooeeoinoaoo c aaicieii o i?enooiino?
oei?eaeo aethi?i?th ? iieacaii, ui oeae neeaaeiee ao?? ieoo?ai ?aaao? n
aaicieii n ooai?aiiyi aooeeaaicie?a ? oinoi?ii? eeneioe – i?iaeoeo?a, ui
ia ? io?ooith aeey ??aeeiiiai eaoae?caoi?iiai eiiieaeno oei?eaeo
aethi?i?th.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeaaeiino? aonoeie, iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao oa a’yceino?
o?eaooeeoinoaoo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e e iaea?aeaii iaoaiaoe/i? oi?ioee aeey
?o aecia/aiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaii ?ic/eii?noue aoeeaio, i?ii?eaio, aoeaoeeaio, aeea?i?eo oa
n??eiieneaeo aoaeaoeth a o?eaooeeoinoao? a iaeano? aecia/aieo ia?aiao??a
oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo oa iaea?aeaii a?aeiia?aei? ?ic?aooieia? oi?ioee.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ia?niaeoeaieo noai i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e a?ae oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie iaoiaeii o?ce/ii?
aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii oa aeeiiaii ia aac? oeueiai ?ic?aooieo
aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo oeeo noai c iaoith aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iaioe aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eieo aia?ao?a.

O ii?yaeeo ?ic?iaee iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo iniia ?ic?aooieo e eiino?othaaiiy
aenieiaoaeoeaieo eieiiieo aia?ao?a c oa??eeaie c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo
oac, iaeaaeiaieo ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie,
oia?oa aeeiiaii oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaee.

Aeine?aeaeaii a?ae?iaeeiai?eo oa iania?aeaea/o oa??eee c aeaiia ciiaie
eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaii? ia?ae?aieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie
naia?aoi?aie oa eii?/ieie ?iciiae?eueieeaie ??aeeie. Iaea?aeaii
iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo
ia?aiao??a ?iaioe oa eiao?oe??io?a iania?aeaea/? aeey aa?aioaaeii? ?
ie?aeiai? cii oa??eee c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao oa?aeoa?enoeee n?oie
n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae ??aeeiii? oace.

Aeine?aeaeaii iae?ie?iaoeeo aani?aoe?? aoeaoeeaio o?eaooeeoinoaoii ia
neo/ano?e oa??eoe? i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao ? aeieacaii canoiniai?noue
iaoaiaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a iania?aeaea/?,
iaea?aeaieo ia noaiaea?oieo na?aaeiaeuao, aeey ?ic?aooieo i?ioeano
aani?aoe?? oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie c aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? i?e
i/enooe? inoaiiuei? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo aani?aa?a aeey i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

Oi/i?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eii?
eieiiii? aia?aoo?e ia?aa??aia a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao ia ?ic?iaeai?e
aaoi?ii aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?e onoaiiaoe?.

A?aeiia?aeii c iinoaaeaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi? ?ic?iaea oaeiae
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? iniiae aenieiaoaeoeaieo i?yiioi/ieo eieiiieo ?aaeoi??a
aeey noi?uaiiiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie
o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? ??aeeiiiai eaoae?caoi?iiai eiiieaeno oei?eaeo
aethi?i?th c caaacia/aiiyi oiia iai?aaeaiiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo ieao?iaie oa ia?aaee?eoaaiiy iie?aee?eaaicie?a ia
aaicie. O oeueiio iai?yieo aeeiiaii oia?oa oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
?ic?iaee.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui i?enooi?noue i?ii?eaio a aoeeai? aeoeao?
i?ioean aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo ? ia ni?e/eiy? a?ae/ooiiai i?aeaeuaiiy
eoaiaeo caeeoe?a. Oea noaei iniiaith aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino?
noai?aiiy ?aaeoi??a aeey noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? ??aeeiiiai eaoae?caoi?iiai
eiiieaeno oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

Aeine?aeaeaii a?ae?iaeeiai?eo eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a c aeno?aeiei
i?yiioieii aaci??aeeiiiai iioieo, naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii aenio? eeaiaiieie
oa??eeaie e iaea?aeaii a?aeiia?aei? iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey
aecia/aiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iaioe ?aaeoi?a.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo i?yiioi/iiai eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a,
naeoe?iiiaaiiai eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie, aeey o?eoaciiai aaci??aeeiiiai
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino?
??aeeiiiai eaoae?caoi?iiai eiiieaeno oei?eaeo aethi?i?th oa ia?aa??aii
oi/i?noue oe??? iaoiaeeee ia iiaeaeuei?e onoaiiaoe? a oiiaao
aeei?enoaiiy ?aaeueieo na?aaeiaeu.

sse ?acoeueoao, oia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? iniiae iiai?
?ano?ni- e aia?aicaa??aath/i? OON noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ?
eoiieo ia aac? iiiooieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e. Aeaii no?oeoo?io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo oe??? OON, aeeiiaii ye?niee aiae?c iieaciee?a
aeieia?/iino? oa aio/eino?, c?iaeaia aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea iniiaieo
iieaciee?a nenoaie. Iieacaii, ui ?ic?iaeaia OON ia? oe?ie? ia?niaeoeae
aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a iiaiiio ianyc? a Oe?a?i?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue caiaeeoueny aei ianooiiiai.

Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/ia e aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino?
aeei?enoaiiy o?eaooeoinoaoo ye aani?aaioo aeey i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e a oiiaao aeei?enoaiiy inoaii?o aeey
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino? ?ic/eiaiiy eiiiiiaio?a aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo
o?aeoe?e o o?eaooeeoinoao?.

Oia?oa iaoaiaoe/ii ?ica’ycaii caaea/o nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue
ia?aoieo ??aeeie /a?ac n?o/anoee naia?aoi? ia?aeeaiiai i?eno?ith
aa?aioaaeii? oa??eee oa iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aioneii?
caeaoiino? ia?aeeaiiai i?eno?ith ii ??aeei? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iaioe oa??eee.

?ice?eoi iaoai?ci naia?oth/i? ae?? n?o/anoiai naia?aoi?a a oiiaao
naia?aoe?? aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o aa?aioaaeii? ciie oa??eee i?e
aeei?enoaii? ??aeei, ui ia i?iyoueny, oa c?iaeai? a?aeiia?aei?
oai?aoe/i? aeeeaaeee.

Aeaii iaoeiaa iiyniaiiy aoaeoo caaacia/aiiy aeniei? ia?aioneii?
caeaoiino? ii ??aeei? n?o/anoiai naia?aoi?a a oiiaao ?iaioe aa?aioaaeii?
oa??eee.

Iiyniaii aoaeo naii?aaoethaaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe
aa?aioaaeii? oa??eee ca ?aooiie ia?aeeaieo i?eno?i?a c n?o/anoeie
naia?aoi?aie.

Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ianooaaiiai ia?aoiaeo aeey oa??eie, iaeaaeiaieo
??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaieie ii ieiu? oa??eee ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c
n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie, oeyoii noioaaiiy aa?aioaaeieo cii oa??eee,
aea?aaeaioieo iaeiiio ia?aeeaiiio i?eno?ith.

Aeaii iaoeiaa iiyniaiiy aeniei? aoaeoeaiino? ianiiai?io aa?aioaaeieo
oa??eie c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac c ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie,
iaeaaeiaieie n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie.

?ic?iaeaii e noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? noi?uaiiai
aaci??aeeiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo noi?ooth aoeeaio c i?ii?eaiii.

Aeeiiaii aiae?c ?aaeoe?eii-ianiiai?iiiai i?ioeano a o?eoaci?e
aaci??aeeii?e nenoai? a oiiaao aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo ieao?iaie a
i?enooiino? ??aeeiiiai eaoae?caoi?iiai eiiieaeno oei?eaeo aethi?i?th. O
?acoeueoao? iieacaii, ui a ?icaeyaeoaaieo oiiaao a iniiao ?ic?aooieo
i?yiioi/ieo eieiiieo ?aaeoi??a, naeoe?iiiaaieo oa??eeaie, iiaea aooe
acyoi /an ia?aaoaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace o cii? ?aaeoe??, iaiao?aei?e aeey
caaa?oaiiy i?ioeanno ia?aaee?eoaaiiy iie?aee?eaaicie?a ia aaicie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaea?aeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino? o?eaooeeoinoaoo, oa aeai? c ?ic/eiiino? eiiiiiaio?a
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e o o?eaooeeoinoao?, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue
niaoe?aeueiee ? caaaeueiee ?ioa?an ? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a
aeia?aeeia?e e?oa?aoo??.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee ?iaeaia?iiai ?ic?aooieo iniiaieo i?ioean?a oa
aia?ao?a onoaiiaie i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii
o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?th i?iieneiaiai aani?aa?a c oa??eeaie c aeaiia
ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaiiai ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie
naia?aoi?aie, aeey cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano aani?aoe?? oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie c
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

?ic?iaeaii e oi?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai oaoiieia?/io onoaiiaeo c
i/enoee iiiooii? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? iaoiaeii o?ce/ii?
aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

Iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? iaoa??aee ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?/ii? onoaiiaee i/enoee
iiiooii? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? aeei?enoaii Oe?Ae?AI i?e ?ic?iaoe?
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy caaacia/aiiy ae?iaieoeoaa noe?ieueieo
ieanoee?a a Oe?a?i? a?o/eciyiith ne?iaeiith.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?iaeaia?iiai ?ic?aooieo ?aaeoe?eii-ianiiai?iii?
aia?aoo?e onoaiiaee noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?th i?iieneiaiai i?yiioi/iiai eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a,
naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii aenio? eeaiaiiieie oa??eeaie, aeey cae?eniaiiy
noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie
o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/io onoaiiaeo aeey noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino?
oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? iniiae iiai? ?ano?ni- e aia?aicaa??aath/i?
OON aeey noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac?
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Noai?aii ia?niaeoeae aeey aeei?enoaiiy iiiooieo aoaeaaiaeiaaeo aac?a
oaeeo ye cai?ioiee eieniaee aac oa aace eaoae?oe/iiai e?ae?iao iaooiaeo
o?aeoe?e aeey eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee a ai?ae, aoeeaaicie, eoiie oa ?io?
i?iaeoeoe c ae??oaiiyi aeieia?/ieo i?iaeai.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. On? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniaii
aaoi?ii iniaenoi. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeeiiai? a
ni?aaaoi?noa?, iaea?aeaii ca o/anoth aaoi?a ia an?o aoaiao ?iaioe.
Aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue iaoeia? ?aea? oa oi?ioethaaiiy i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioethaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue,
iinoaiiaea caaea/?, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a oa ?ic?iaea
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia oaeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, ia?aaeao: ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ?aae?
Ananithciiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai oaoiieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo c iaea?aeaiiy
e ia?a?iaee iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo ieao?i?a o 1970 ?ioe?, i. Aaeo; ia
a/ai?e ?aae? Aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo acioii? i?iieneiaino? a 1971 ?ioe?,
i. Iineaa; III ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
e oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa”, 1973 ?. i.
Euea?a; ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio aeoea? Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueei? o?e??
aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo acioii? i?iieneiaino? oa i?iaeoeo?a i?aai?/iiai
neioaco, 1982?., i. Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee; ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ?aae?
acioiiooeiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa Iiaie?iaoeueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo,
1984?., i. E?iaoeuee, (?in?y); i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aeieia?caoe?? i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa I?eaei?i?ia’y ? I?e/i?iiii?’y,
1995?., i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee; anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “A?aeoiaee oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy”, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1995?.; i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeieia?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ea?oaaiiy a?aeoiaeaie”, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996?.; ia
?aae? c iaoeiaiai iai?yieo Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i. Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1997?.; ia ?aae? c
iaoeiaiai iai?yieo Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee 1997?.; ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ?aae?
Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo acioii? i?iieneiaino? oa i?iaeoeo?a
i?aai?/iiai neioaco, i. Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1997?.; ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ?aae? AI «Aei?i?iacio», i.Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee, 1998?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii iaoa??aeao aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 48 ?ia?o (29
noaooae, 7 oac aeiiia?aeae, io?eiaii 8 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa ? 4
iaoaioe Oe?a?ie).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
9 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae.
?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 317 noi??ieao ? ia? 24 oaaeeoe?, 66 ?enoie?a, 216
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. Aeiaeaoee aei aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeaii ie?aiei
oiiii (Oii 1).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ioa?aeoa?eciaaii no/aniee noai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ?
eoiieo acaaae? ?, cie?aia, a Oe?a?i?. ?ice?eoi oe?ie? ia?niaeoeae
noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? iiiooieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e. Aecia/aii iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ??aaiue
oeueiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa i?iaeaie, ui iio?aaothoue naiai ?ica(ycaiiy.
Iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? noi?ioeueaaii iaoo
oa caaaeaiiy iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ?icae?e? 1 aeeiiaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??,
aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o ia’?i.

?icae?e 2 i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ? ?ic?iaoe? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iniia
iiaeo i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e
iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue aonoeie, iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao oa a(yceino?
o?eaooeeoinoaoo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. Iaea?aeaii a?aeiia?aei? ??aiyiiy aeey
?o ?ic?aooie?a:

(1)

(2)

(3)

-a’yce?noue, I.n/i2;

T — oaiia?aoo?a, E.

??aiyiiy (1) ae?enia a iaaeao oaiia?aoo? a?ae 253 aei 303E; ??aiyiiy (2)
— a?ae 233 aei 303E; ??aiyiiy (3) — a?ae 243 aei 303E.

Aeine?aeaeaii ?ic/eii?noue aoeeaio, i?ii?eaio, aoeaoeeaio, aeea?i?eo oa
n??eiieneaeo aoaeaoeth a o?eaooeeoinoao?.

?acoeueoaoe ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
caeaaei?noue ?ic/eiiino? aoeeaio a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo i?aeeyaa?
caeiio Aai?? e iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi:

P2=KaN2 (4)

Caeaaei?noue ?ic/eiiino? an?o ?ioeo eiiiiiaio?a a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo
ia? a?eueo neeaaeiee oa?aeoa? ? iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi aeaeyaeo:

(5)

, eiao?oe??io?a N ? D oa aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo oaieio Q ?ic/eiaiiy aac?a o
o?eaooeeoinoao? iaaaaeaii a?aeiia?aeii a oaae. 1, 2, ? 3.

Oaaeeoey 1

Cia/aiiy lgKa aeey aeine?aeaeaieo nenoai

Eiiiiiaio Oaiia?aoo?a, E

313 293 273 253 233 223

Aoeeai 1,6630 1,5420 1,4120 1,2520 1,0520 0,9930

I?ii?eai 1,1630 0,9275

0,5675

Aoeaoeeai 0,9012 0,6400 0,3404 -0,0065 -0,4130 -0,6435

Aeea?i?e 0,6140 0,3730 0,0925 -0,0233

N??eiieneae

aoaeaoeth 1,0241 0,8283 0,6038 0,3438 0,0391 -0,1285

Oaaeeoey 2

aeey aeine?aeaeaieo nenoai

Eiiiiiaio Oaiia?aoo?a, E

313 293 273 253 233 223

Aoeeai 0 0 0 0 0 0

I?ii?eai -0,275 -0,290

-0,329

Aoeaoeeai -1,258 -1,285 -1,306 -1,335 -1,368 -1,390

Aeea?i?e -0,183 -0,194 -0,203 -0,213

N??eiieneae aoaeaoeth -0,196 -0,200 -0,204 -0,208 -0,212 -0,214

Oaaeeoey 3

Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a C ? D oa aeeoa?aioeaeueieo

oaieio Q ?ic/eiaiiy o o?eaooeeoinoao?

Eiiiiiaioe C D Q, eAeae/eiieue

Aoeeai 3,450 -560,6 10700

I?ii?eai 3,673 -786,0 15050

Aoeaoeeai 4,731 -1199,4 21400

Aeea?i?e 4,182 -1117,0 23000

N??eiieneae aoaeaoeth 3,895 -899,0 17250

O ?icae?e? 3 c?iaeaii ioe?ieo o?eaooeeoinoaoo ye aani?aaioo aeey i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??.

Iieacaii, ui o?eaooeeoinoao ia? cia/ii aeuo aani?aoe?eio ?ii?noue o
ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie aani?aaioaie oaeeie ye aeeiaoeeoi?iai?ae,
aoeaoii, iaoaiie oa N-iaoeei??ie?aeii ii a?aeiioaiith aei aoeaoeeaio,
aeea?i?eo oa n??eiieneaeo aoaeaoeth — oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e. I?e oeueiio o?eaooeeoinoao ia? a?eueo
aeniea cia/aiiy naeaeoeaiino? ii a?aeiioaiith aei n??eiieneaeo aoaeaoeth
(eeth/iai? oe?aeeeai? aeii?oee), i?ae a?aeii? aani?aaioe. I?e/iio, oey
naeaeoeai?noue c?inoa? c? cieaeaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e ? i?aeaeuaiiyi
ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo.

Iieacaii, ui o?eaooee-oinoao ye aani?aaio aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe i?e
oaiia?aoo?? ia ieae/a 250 E, ai c? c?inoaiiyi a’yceino? aeieeathoue
o?oaeiiu? c o?ainii?ooaaiiyi aani?aaioo e i?aai?caoe??th
oaiei-ianiiai?io.

O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny aeai? c aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao
o?eaooeeoinoaoo ia i?i-oean aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo a i?e-nooiino? oei?eaeo
aethi?i?th.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui o?eaooeeoinoao o i?enooiino? oei?eaeo
aethi?i?th ieoo?ai ?aaao? c aaicieii c ooai?aiiyi aooeeaaicieo ?
oinoi?ii? eeneioe. Inoaiiy i?aeaeuo? aeoeai?noue eaoae?caoi?iiai
eiiieaeno oei?eaeo aethi?i?th. Oiio iiiaaeaiiy ia?e o?eaooeeoinoaoo a
?aaeoi? aee?eoaaiiy ?acii c i/euaiith aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th ia
aeeee/a a?ae/ooiiai cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? eaoae?caoi?iiai eiiieaeno, oei
ia/a, ui ia?oe?aeueiee oene ia?e o?eaooeeoinoaoo a i/euai?e
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiia?e o?aeoe?? iaa?ae/ooii iaeee, ai oaiia?aoo?a eei?iiy
o?eaooeeoinoaoo i?ae aoiinoa?iei oeneii neeaaea? +289iN.

Oaeei /eiii, on? iaea?aeai? aeai? oa?aeoa?ecothoue o?eaooeeoinoao ye
iaea?eueo i?aeoiaeee aenieiaoaeoeaiee aani?aaio aeey i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e.

?icae?e 4 i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo iniia iiaeo i?ioean?a oa
aia?ao?a i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii?
aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

Aeeeaaeaii iaoa??aee, iia(ycai? c ?ic?iaeith aeai?eoi?a ?ic?aooieo
aaee/eie ? neeaaeo iaoa??aeueieo iioie?a aeaio iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo
noai i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e a?ae oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie
iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?e-aooeeoinoaoii.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? oeeo aeai?eoi?a aeoiaeeee c i?eiouaiiy i?i aeinya-iaiiy
??aiiaaae ii eeth/iaiio eiiiiiaioo ia e?ioeyo aani?aa?a ? aeani?aa??a.
Iniiai? ??aiyiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai aeai?eoio noiniaii aei ?aeiiaiaeiaaii?
noaie, i?aaenoaaeaii? ia ?en. 2, iaaaaeaii ieae/a.

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

O ??aiyii? (17) I? – ao?aoe aoeeaio /e i?ii?eaio c aani?aaioii.

C?iaeaii oaeiae aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo iaio aa??aio?a noai i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e. I?e oeueiio, a iniiao aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee
acyoi aeo?aoe ia a?aeaeoaath/ee acio oa ioieiaeaeaiiy e ia?aea/eo
aani?aaioo.

O ?acoeueoao? iieacaia iiaeeea?noue i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo
o?aeoe?e a?ae oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie aei iaiao?aeieo ii?i ?, i?e iio?aa?,
iiaeeea?noue ie?aii aeae?eeoe aoai-aoeeaiiao, i?iiai-i?ii?eaiiao ?
aooai-aoo?eaiiao o?aeoe??.

Iieacaii, ui caaaeuei? aeo?aoe ia i/enoeo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e
iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao
caeaaeaoue a cia/i?e i??? a?ae aia?aiaeo?ao ia ioieiaeaeaiiy aani?aaioo.
O ?acoeueoao? nia?aa?o?noue aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e i?aeaeuo?oueny
ia 13-15%, Aecia/aii oaeiae aeiiii?/iiaei?aaaeai? oaiia?aoo?o ? oene a
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?ei?e aia?aoo??, iaiao?aei? aeey ?ic?aooieo oe???
aia?aoo?e e oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?? o ae?iaieoeoai. Iieacaii, ui ca caaeaiei
cia/aiiyi aaniethoiiai oeneo a aia?aoao (aa?), ?1=4; ?2=1.2; ?3=1.3
a?aeiia?aei? ?i cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo? (E) iiaeii? aooe a iaaeao:
O1=263…258; O2=273…278; O3=293.

?icae?e 5 i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ? ?ic?iaoe?
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eii? aia?aoo?e aeey i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo
o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii i?e i?ioniaeo
oaiia?aoo?ao.

Iniiai? aeiiae i?e aeai?? eiino?oeoe?? aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eii?
aia?aoo?e caiaeyoueny ei ianooiiiai:

Aeniea eiiiaeoi?noue ? i?inoioa eiino?oeoe??.

Aeinoaoiy oaoiieia?/ia ? eiino?oeoeaia aio/e?noue.

Aeniea aoaeo?ai?noue ?iaioe.

?en.3. Oa??eea c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaia ia?aeeaieie
i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie oa eii?/ieie ?iciiae?eueieeaie
??aeeie: 1 — neo/anoa iieioii oa??eee; 2 — eiioniee ceeaiee iao?oaie; 3
— eiioniee ?iciiae?eueiee ??aeeie; 4 — n?o/anoee naia?aoi?; 5 – ii??aeie

Caaaeath/e ia noi?ioeueiaai? aeiiae, aeey ioi?ieaiiy
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo
o?aeoe?e aea?aii eieiii? aia?aoe c oa??eeaie c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo
oac, iaeaaeiaieie ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie oa
eii?/ieie ??ciiae?eueieeaie ??aeeie.

Iioei?caoe?th iniiaieo eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a cai?iiiiiaaii?
eiino?oeoe?? oa??eee ?acii c ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie
naia?aoi?aie cae?eniaii c o?aooaaiiyi e?oa?aoo?ieo oa ?ic?aooieiaeo
aeaieo. Aoee acyo? oaeiae aei oaaae ?acoeueoaoe iiia?aaeiueicae?eniaieo
iiooeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy oaoiieia?/iino?
aeaioiaeaiiy ie?aieo eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a oa??eee. Eiino?oeoeaia
noaia oa??eee iieacaia ia ?en.3.

=13024’ ? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ia ci?ithaaeenue.

Aeeiiaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c a?ae?iaeeiai?ee ia?aeeaieo i?e-no?i?a c
n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai ??aiyiiy c
aecia/aiiy ?o ia?a-ioneii? caeaoiino? ii ??aeei? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a ?iaioe oa??eee, o?ce/-ieo aeanoeainoae
aaci??aeeiieo nenoai oa oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?a-eeaieo i?eno?i?a. I?e
oeueiio aeiio-neaeinue, ui ia n?o/anoeo naia-?aoi?ao ia? i?noea iiaia
a?aei-e?aieaiiy aaciai? oace a?ae ??aeeie. Noaia ?iaioe n?o/anoiai
naia-?aoi?a, i?eeiyoa i?e eiai aiae?c?, iieacaia ia ?en.4.

Iniiaiei ?oo?eiei oaeoi?ii aeo?eaiiy ??aeeie /a?ac n?oeo naia?aoi?a ?
iai??, iaoiiaeaiee oeneii aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o. ??aeeia i?io?ea? /a?ac
anth cii/aio aaci??aeeiiei oa?ii iiaa?oith n?oee, ia aeieiaaio aaciaeie
aoeueeaie; aaee/eia oe??? iiaa?oi? n?oee aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

(19)

aea (n – a?eueiee ia?a??c n?oee; ( — a?eueiee ia?a??c n?oee, aeieiaaiee
aoeueeaie aaco.

I?e aenieioo?aoe?ciaai?i ?aaeei? ?iaioe oa??eee ? iaaenieeo caianao
??aeeie ia oa??eoe? (aei 0,06 i) iiaeia i?eionoeoe c aeayeei
iaaeeaeaiiyi, ui aith?a ?iciiae?eaiiy a?ae?inoaoe/iiai iaii?o,
noai?thaaiiai oeneii aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o, ia? oi?io o?eeooieea, ieaeiy
iniiaa yeiai ??aia aaee/ei? caiano ??aeeie ia oa??eoe? hcm, a aenioa
o?eeooieea ??aia aenio? aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o Hn. Oaeei /eiii, oaeaee?noue
aeoieo ii aenio? n?o/anoiai naia?aoi?a aoaea ??ciith. Oiio oaea
aeo?eaiiy iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aeo?eaiiy /a?ac i?yiieooiee ioa??
aaeeeiai ?ici??o c i?noeaaei iii?ii o aeaeyae? n?oee. A?aeiia?aeii c
?en.4 ieiua aeeaiai ia?a??co nioaeee aeiaaeeiith (Dc ? aenioith do ia
a?aenoai? o a?ae ieiueie oa??eee ae?aceoueny ye:

(20)

I?e noaeiio ?on? ia?ao?e ??aeeie /a?ac aeae?eaio aeaiaioa?io ieiuaaeeo
neeaaea?:

(21)

Aeey aecia/aiiy oaeaeeino? ??aeeie Ux aeei?enoa?ii a?aeiia ??aiyiiy
Ae.Aa?ioe? aeey ia?a??co 1-1 ? 2-2

(22)

aea P1/(L, P2/(L — iaii?e, iaoiiaeai? oeneii aaco a iaeano?
?icaeyaeoaaieo ia?a??c?a, i;

— aeiaeaoeiaee iai??, noai?thaaiee iioieii aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o, i.

iiaeia ciaoooaaoe. Iiieeea a ?ic?aooieo i?e oeueiio ia aoaea
ia?aaeuoaaoe 3,5%. O?aoiaoth/e oaeiae, ui P1=P2 ? cia/aiiy (2 o oeueiio
aeiaaeeo iiaeia i?eeiyoe ??aiei iaeeieoe?, i?ney a?aeiia?aeieo
ia?aoai?aiue ?ica’yaeaii ??aiyiiy (22) a?aeiinii hcmx:

(23)

I?aenoaaeyth/e a ??aiyiiy (23) ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy e?eoa??th Re,
iaea?aeeii:

(24)

/a?ac a i 22(Lg/dy(L /a?ac b,

??aiyiiy (24) iaaoaea aeaeyaeo:

(25)

?ica’ycaiiy ??aiyiiy (25) a?aeiinii Ux c i?aenoaiiaeith a iueiai
hcmx=hcm(Hn-x)/Hn aea?:

(26)

I?aenoaaeaoe ae?ac (26) o ??aiyiiy (19) ? i?i?ioaa?oaaaoe eiai a
a?aieoeyo a?ae hn aei Hn, iaea?aeeii ??aiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy
ia?aioneii? caeaoiino? ii ??aeei? Q n?o/anoiai naia?aoi?a a oiiaao
?iaioe aa?aioaaeii? oa??eee:

(27)

Aeey ??oaiiy ??aiyiiy (27) iaiao?aeii ciaoe a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e
Hn, hcm oa aeieth iiaa?oi? n?oee (, aeieiaaio aaciaeie aoeueeaie. O
?acoeueoao? ia?iaee aaeeeiai ianeao aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo,
iaea?aeaiiai aaoi?ii ia ??cieo aaci??aeeiieo nenoaiao ia n?oeao,
caaacia/oth/eo i?aeoe/ii iiaia a?aeae?eaiiy aaco a?ae ??aeeie (n?oea c
dy iaioa 0,0007 i), aecia/aii aaee/eio (. Inoaiiy aeyaeeanue ??aiith
0,84.

??aiyiiy (27) iiaea aooe ?ica’ycaia a?aeiinii hcm. Oiae?:

(28)

??aiyiiy (28) iiaeia ?ica’ycaoe ca iaoiaeii Iuethoiia aai i?inoith
?oa?aoe??th i?ney i?aenoaiiaee a iueiai ae?aco aeey aecia/aiiy Hn.

Aeeiiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? aenioe
aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o Hi ia neo/ano?e oa??eoe? a?ae a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii?
ianoaiiaee ia oa??eoe? oa o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae aaci??aeeiieo nenoai. O
?acoeueoao? iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy:

(29)

— iiaa?oiaaee iaoya ??aeeie, I/i.

a?ae 27,53.10-3 aei 74,01.10-3 I/i. Ooo ? aeae? ei?aeyoe?y aeine?aeieo
oi/ie c ?ic?aoiaaieie ca iaea?aeaieie oi?ioeaie ia aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? (
(12 ( 20%).

Aeine?aeaeaii aa?oith a?aieoeth no?eei? ?iaioe oa??eee c aeaiia ciiaie
eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaii? ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie
naia?aoi?aie. Ca ia?aiao?, ui oa?aeoa?eco? aa?oith a?aieoeth no?eei?
?iaioe oa??eee i?eeiyoa a?aie/ii aeiionoeia oaeaee?noue aaco W0max a
ioai?ao aa?aioaaeiiai iieioia oa??eee. Iieacaii, ui i?e iayaiino? a
ia?aeeaieo i?eno?iyo n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a inoaii? ?noioii aieeaathoue
ia ?iaioo oeeo i?eno?i?a ? oa??eee a oe?eiio. *ei e?aua naia?aoe?y
aaci??aeeiii? aioeuen?? ia n?ooe?, oei a?eueo ina?oeaia ??aeeia aoaea
iiiaaeaoe a ia?aeeai? i?eno?i? ? oei aeuith aoaea i?iioneia caeaoi?noue
ii ??aeei? ia?aeeaiiai i?eno?ith oa??eee a oe?eiio, a, oaeei /eiii, ?
aeua aa?oiy a?aieoey no?eei? ?iaioe oa??eee. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue,
iaaaaeaieo ia ?en.5, na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aaee/eia aea?aaeaioiiai
ae?aiao?a dy /a?oiie n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a ia?aeeaieo i?eno?i?a ?noioii
aieeaa? ia aa?oith a?aieoeth ?iaioe oa??eee. Iioeiaeueia iaeanoue
cia/aiue dy n?oee naia?aoi?a a oiiaao aa?aioaaeii? oa??eee ciaoiaeeoueny
a iaaeao a?ae 0,0002 aei 0,0004 i.

Aa?oi aeoiaoe, ui i?e dy n?-oie a iaaeao aei 0,0004 i ia? i?noea
i?aeoe/ii iiaia a?aei-e?aieaiiy aaco a?ae ??aeeie.

Aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue, ui iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 6, na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui
aa?oiy a?aieoey no?eei? ?iaioe oa??eee c n?o-/anoeie naia?aoi?aie a
aei-ne?aeaeai?e iaeano? iaei caea-

aeeoue a?ae aeeaiai ia?a??co (n n?oie n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a. I?i oea
aiai?eoue aeecuee?noue ?icoaooaaiiy e?eaeo 1,2,3,4 ia ?en.6 i?e cia/i?e
??cieoe? ia?aiao?a (n, ui ci?ithaaany a iaaeao a?ae 26 aei 53%. Oaea
yaeua iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui ciaioaiiy (n aaoiia-oe/ii i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?inoo aenioe aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o Hn ? caiano ??aeeie hcm ia oa??eoe? aei
iiiaioo caaac-ia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? ieiu? ceeao, ii/eiath/e c yei? ?iaioa
oa??eee noaa?e?co?oueny. Naii?aaoethaaiiy a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aeo?ao
??aeeie /a?ac ia?aeeai? i?eno?i? ( oa?aeoa?ia iniaeea?noue oa??eie c
ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie. Oey iniaeea?noue
oa??eee cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoe?? aa?aioo? ?e iaae?eio ?iaioo a oiiaao
/anoeiaiai

aeieoaaiiy /a?oiie n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a ye ca ?aooiie aaciaeo aoeueie,
oae ? ca ?aooiie aioeuen?eieo ? aeenia?nieo caaen?a. Aa?oiy a?aieoey
no?eei? ?iaioe oaei? oa??eee ia 40 — 50% aeua, i?ae a aiaeia?/ieo
oa??eeao aac n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a, i?i ui na?ae/aoue aeai? a?ao?e?a,
iaaaaeaieo ia ?en.6. Oea aeicaiey? a cai?iiiiiaai?e oa??eoe? ciaioeoe
/anoeo ?? ieiu?, caeiyoo i?ae ia?aeeai? i?eno?i? aei 5(7% ? caaacia/o?
iaeneiaeueio u?euei?noue c?iuaiiy oa??eee ia ??ai? 60 — 75 i3 /(i2* a).

Aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy (30) aeey aecia/aiiy
aaee/eie caiano ??aeeie hcm ia oa??eoe? c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie:

(30)

— iaaaioaaeaiiy oa??eee ii ??aeei?, i3/ a; Dc — ae?aiao? n?o/anoiai
naia?aoi?a, i; (n — a?eueiee ia?a??c n?oee n?o/anoiai naia?aoi?a; n —
/enei ia?aeeaieo i?eno?i?a; hn — aenioa iiioaaeiiai ii??aeea, i; dy —
aea?aaeaioiee ae?aiao? /a?oiie n?oee n?o/anoiai naia?aoi?a, i; (L, (L —
a?aeiia?aeii aeeiai?/ia a’yce?noue (I.n/i2) oa iiaa?oiaaee iaoya (I/i)
aani?aaioo; (a, (a — a?aeiia?aeii aeeiai?/ia a’yce?noue oa iiaa?oiaaee
iaoya aiaee.

??aiyiiy (30) ae?enia a iaaeao: i=5(18 i3/(i.a); hn=0,005(0,010i;
dy=0,00037(0,00159 i; (L=0,027(0,074 I/i; (L=0,0008(0,037 I.c/i2.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo aa?oiuei? a?aieoe? no?eei? ?iaioe
oa??eee, iaeaaeiaii? ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie ?
eii?/ieie ?iciiae?eueieeaie ??aeeie (?en.3). I?e oeueiio aoee
aeei?enoai? oae? aeo?aei? oiiae:

(31)

aea he — aenioa eiioniiai iao?oaea, i; hn — aenioa ii??aeea, i; hc —
ao?aoe iaii?o aaco ia iiaeieaiiy iii?o nooi? oa??eee, i; h( — ao?aoe
iaii?o aaco ia caeieaiiy nee iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao, i; hl — ao?aoe iaii?o
??aeeie a ia?aeeai?i iao?oaeo ca ?aooiie nee oa?oy, i; (h —
a?ae?inoaoe/iee iai??, caaacia/oth/ee aecia/ai? aeo?aoe ??aeeie /a?ac
ia?aeeaiee iao?oaie, i; hcm — caian ??aeeie ia oa??eoe?, i.

I?e a?aenoai? i?ae oa??eeaie 0,3 i he ? hn ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a?aoe
a?aeiia?aeii 0,095 ? 0,005 i. I?ioa o?aaa caoaaaeeoe, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi
a?aenoai? i?ae oa??eeaie, iia’ycai?i, iai?eeeaae, c? ca?eueoaiiyi
ae?aiao?a eieiie, aaee/eie ia?aiao??a he ? hn iiaeooue aeaui c?inoaoe. A
oea inoaii? aeeee/a ??no aa?oiuei? a?aieoe? no?eei? ?iaioe oa??eee.
Ia?aiao?e hc ? h( aecia/athoueny ca iienaieie a e?oa?aoo?? ??aiyiiyie.
Ia?aiao?e hl ? (h ?ic?aoiaothoueny c o?aooaaiiyi eiino?oeoeaieo
iniaeeainoae cai?iiiiiaaii? oa??eee. Aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aiao?a hcm
i?iiiiothoueny iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy (28) aai (30). Aeio?eioth/enue
i?eeiyoiai ii?yaeeo caieno ia?aiao??a o ??aiyii? (31), e?ioeaaee aeaeyae
oeueiai ??aiyiiy aoaea:

(32)

aea he , hn, d0, de — eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e oa??eee oa ia?aeeaieo
i?eno?i?a c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie, ui i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en.4; n —
/enei ia?aeeaieo i?eno?i?a; Qo — iaaaioaaeaiiy oa??eee ii ??aeei?,
i3/n; (L ? (G — ieoiia aaaa ??aeeie ? aaco, I/ i3; (L — iiaa?oiaaee
iaoya ??aeeie, I/ i; ( — eiao?oe??io iii?o iioieo aaco /a?ac ioai?e
iieioia oa??eee, ??aiee 1,8 — 1,9; ( — eiao?oe??io a?ae?aae?/iiai oa?oy;
( — eiao?oe??io aeo?aoe ??aeeie /a?ac eii?/iee iao?oaie i?e eooo (,
??aiiio 13024’; (=3,14; g — i?enei?aiiy nee caiiiai oyae?iiy, ??aia 9,8
i/n2; hcm aecia/a?oueny ca ??aiyiiyi (30).

*a?ac oa, ui W0max aoiaeeoue ? o ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy hcm, oi ??oaiiy
??aiyiiy (32) a?aeiinii W0max iiaeeeaa ?oa?aoe?eiei iaoiaeii.Aeey
ii??aiyiiy ia ?en.8 iieacai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo aa?oiuei? a?aieoe?
no?eei? ?iaioe oa??eee

ca ??aiyiiyie (32) ? (30) oa aeine?aei? aeai?, iaea?aeai? ia oa??eoe?
ae?aiao?ii 0,525 i ia nenoai? aiaea ( iia?o?y. sse aeaeii c aeaieo
?en.7, ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy W0max, iaea?aeai? ca ??aiyiiyi (32),
eaaeaoue aeaui ieae/a aeine?aeieo cia/aiue. Oea iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui
aeine?aei? cia/aiiy W0max a?aeiia?aeathoue iiiaioo caoeeiaiiy, a
?ic?aooieia? – iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiio cia/aiith no?eei? ?iaioe oa??eee.
A?ao?/i? aeai?, iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 7, i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?eaeaoi?noue
??aiyiiy (32) aeey aecia/aiiy aa?oiuei? a?aieoe? no?eei? ?iaioe oa??eee,
iaeaaeiaii? ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie.

?ic?iaeaii oaeiae iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo caaaeueiiai a?ae?aae?/iiai iii?o
oa??eee c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaii? ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie
c

n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie ? eii?/-ieie ?iciiae?eueieeaie ??aeeie.
Ae-o?aei? oiiae ?ic?iaee oe??? iaoiaeeee caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai:

(?caa=(?n+(?(+(?cm+(?i e, Ia (33)

aea (?caa — caaaeueiee a?ae?aae?/iee ii?? oa??eee; (?n — ii?? nooi?
oa??e-ee, Ia; (?( — ii?? oa??eee, iaoiia-eaiee neeaie iiaa?oiaaiai
iaoyao, Ia; (?cm — ii?? aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o ia oa??eoe?, Ia; (?ie — ii??
ie?aeiai? ciie oa??eee, Ia. Ia?aiao?e (?n ? (?( aecia/athoueny ca
iienaieie a e?oa?aoo?? ??aiyiiyie. Ia?aiao? (?cm aecia/a?oueny ye
(?cm=hnm (L c aeei?enoaiiyi cia/aiiy hnm, ?ic?aoiaaiiai ca ??aiyiiyi
(30) aai (28), a (?ie aecia/a?oueny ca iaea?aeaiith iaie oi?ioeith ye:

(34)

C o?aooaaiiyi neacaiiai, e?ioeaaee aeaeyae ??aiyiiy (33) aoaea:

(35)

??aiyiiy (35) aeicaiey? c aenieith oi/i?noth ?ic?aooaaoe (?caa. Aa?aioii
oe??? oi/iino? ? aeniea oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy (?cm oa (?ie.

Aeae? o oeueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iania?aeaea/? ia oa??eoe? c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaii?
ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie ? eii?/ieie
?iciiae?eueieeaie ??aeeie.

.

o aeine?aeaeai?e iaeano? ia?aiao??a iaei caeaaeaoue a?ae oaeaeeino?
aaco a eieii? We.i?., oiaoi aoaeoeai?noue oa??eee ii aacia?e oac? ?
noaa?eueiith a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? We.i?..

aoee acyo? aei oaaae ?iaioe a?aeiieo a/aieo A.I.Nieiiaoe, I.N.*aoiaa.
O ?acoeueoao? aoee iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy aeey aa?aioaaeii? ciie oa??eee:

(36)

? aeey aa?aioaaeii? oa ie?aeiai? cii:

(37)

a?aeiia?aeii c ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie A.I. Nieiiaoe. E?ioeaaee aeaeyae
iaea?aeaieo ??aiyiue a e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?i? aoaea:

aeey aa?aioaaeii? ciie oa??eee:

(38)

? aeey aa?aioaaeii? oa ie?aeiai? cii:

(39)

— e?eoa??e ?aeiieueaena, ??aiee We.i?.* hcm/(G.

aeey oe??? oa??eee ia 20-30% aeu?, i?ae aeey cae/aeieo neo/anoeo, ?
aeecuee? aei oaeeo oa??eie c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac aac n?o/anoeo
naia?aoi??a.

a?ae hcm ? aaciiaiiaiaiiy ( , ui ia noia?a/eoue e?oa?aoo?iei aeaiei. O
?acoeueoao? iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy aeaeyaeo:

(40)

.

aeey cae/aeieo neo/anoeo oa??eie c ia?ao?aniith oa/??th ??aeeie.

I?e ocaaaeueiai? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee
ianiiai?io a ??aeeii?e oac? ie?aeiai? ciie oa??eee iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy:

(41)

.

O ?acoeueoao? cae?eniaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaii, ui cai?iiiiiaaia
oa??eea ia? aenieo aoaeoeai?noue a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ci?i
iaaaioaaeaiue ii aaco e ??aeei? ? ia iinooia?oueny aiaeia?/iei oa??eeai
aac n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a ? oa??eeai c cae?eoeie ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? oaeiae i?aae-noaaeai? aeai? c aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?ie?iaoeee aani-?aoe?? aoeaoeeaio ia neo/ano?e
oa??eoe? i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao. Nia-oe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaia
i?ea?iaeueia eiino?oeoe?y aenia?eiaioaeueii? on-oaiiaee oa oiiae
cae?eniaiiy aenia-?eiaio?a i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??.

Ia ?en.8 (a, a) nenoaiaoeci-aai? o aeaeyae? a?ao?e?a ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? eiao?oe?-?io?a ianiia?aaea/? KGf a?ae
eii-oeaio?aoe?? aoeaoeeaio a aac? ia aoiae? ia oa??eeo yao i?e ??cieo
cia/aiiyo We.i?. ? hcm. ?c aeaieo ?en.8 aeieeaa?, ui KGf iaei caeaaeeoue
a?ae yao oa We.i?. ? a a?eueo?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae hcm. Aeine?aei? ?
?ic?aooieia? cia-/aiiy KGf aeia?a ei?aeththoueny. ?iceeae oi/ie ?
aeecueeei aei ( 20%.

Oaeei /eiii, aeoiaey/e c iaea?aeaieo aeaieo c aani?aoe?? aoeaoeeaio
o?eaooeeoinoaoii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ??aiyiiy,
iaea?aeai? a noaiaea?oieo oiiaao aeey ?ic?aooieo ianiia?aaea/? ia
oa??eeao c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaieo ia?aeeaieie
i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
?ic?aooieo aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eii? aia?aoo?e i?ioeano i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e a?ae oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie oeyoii aani?aoe??
?o o?eaooeeoinoaoii i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao.

I?aaenoaaeai? oaeiae aeo?aei? aeai? oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aani?aa?a aeey i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe??
iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aani?aa?a i?eeiyoi eiai i?ioeoi/io
noaio c? nooi?i/anoei eiioaeoii. I?e oeueiio aoee acyo? aei oaaae oae?
oiiae: 1) aani?aoe?y ? aaaaoieiiiiiaioiith; 2) ye eeth/iaee eiiiiiaio
aea?aia iaea?eueo aaaeei?ic/eithaaia oe?aeeeaa aeii?oea, yeith ?
n??eiieneae aoaeaoeth; 3) aani?aaio — iaeaoea ??aeeia. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy oaei? iaoiaeeee a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? ioa?aeoa?eciaai? o
a?aeii?e iiiia?ao?? A.I.?aiia.

. Aoee oaeiae ooi/iai? oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy i?ia?ii/ieo
eiao?oe??io?a Ujk, Vjk oa Wjk o ??aiyii? aeey ?ic?aooieo j — ai
eiiiiiaioa ia e-o?e oa??eoe?, ui ia? aeaeyae:

(42)

Ooi/iai? oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy oeacaieo i?ia?ii/ieo eiao?oe??io?a
iaaiaeyoueny ieae/a.

(43)

(44)

(45)

(46)

, ooo LN — aeo?aoe aani?aaioo ia aoiae? a aani?aa?, eiieue/a; Ljk —
aeo?aoe aani?aaioo ii j-iio eiiiiiaioo ia k-o?e oa??eoe?, eiieue/a;
l=LN/G1, ooo G1 — aeo?aoe aaco ia aoiae? a aani?aa?, eiieue/a; gk=G1/Gk,
ooo Gk — aeo?aoe aaco ia k-o?e oa??eoe?, eiieue/a.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo aani?aa?a aeey i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai?
o?aeoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee iieacothoue, ui
aeinoaoiuei 16 oa??eie, uia i/enoeoe oeth o?aeoe?th ca caaeaieo oiia aei
aeiionoeii? caeeoeiai? eiioeaio?aoe?? n??eiieneaeo aoaeaoeth — eeth/iai?
oe?aeeeai? aeii?oee.

Oi/i?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aani?aa?a noiniaii i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? ia?aa??aia a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao ?
iaea?aeai? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe.

?ic?iaeaii i?ea?iaeueio eiino?oeoe?th eieiiiiai oa??e/anoiai aani?aa?a
aeey i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii. Aeey eiai
?ic?iaee aeei?enoai? oa??eee c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiai?
ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie ? eii?/ieie
?iciiae?eueieeaie ??aeeie. Aani?aa? ca nai?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
a?aeiia?aea? an?i aeiiaai i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe??. A?i
aieiae?? aenieith aio/e?noth, aoaeoeaiee o ?iaio?, iaeneiaeueii
eiiiaeoiee, caaacia/o? iaiao?aeia aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy oa iaiao?aeio
naia?aoe?th i/euaiiai aaco a?ae e?aiaeue ? ooiaio o?eaooeeoinoaoo.
Iniiae ?ic?iaee eiino?oeoe?? aani?aa?a caoeuai? iaoaioii Oe?a?ie.
Eiino?oeoeaia noaia aani?aa?a i?aaenoaaeaia a aeena?oaoe??.

O ?icae?e? 6 i?aaenoaaeaii iaoa??aee c ?ic?iaee ?ano?ni- e
aia?ai-caa??aath/i? oaoii-eia?/ii? onoaiiaee i/enoee iiiooii?
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? iaoiaeii o?-ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?e-aooeeoinoaoii i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia-?aoo?ao oa ?acoeue-oaoe
aei?iaoaaiue ?ic?iaeaii? oaoii-eia?? e aia?aoo?e a i?iieneiaeo oii-aao.

Iiooaei?noue onoaiiaee ca aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th neeaea 2000
i3/a ? caaeia?eueieea iio?aae oeaoo aoeeaaicieo. Aeo?aoe o?eaooeeoinoaoo
aoee ia ??ai? 30-40 i3/a. Aaniethoiee oene a aani?aa?? 2, aeani?aa?? 8 ?
?aaaia?aoi?? 12 neeaa a?aeiia?aeii(aa?): 4; 1,2; 1,3 ? oaiia?aoo?a
a?aeiia?aeii, (E):260…265; 273…280; 293…295. I?e aei?iaoaaii? an? o?e
ianiiai?ii? eieiii? aia?aoe 2, 8, 12 iaee ii 16 oa??eie c aeaiia ciiaie
eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaieo ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie
naia?aoi?aie; ae?aiao?e aia?ao?a aoee a?aeiia?aeii ??ai?, i: 0,8; 1,0;
1,0. E?euee?noue oa??eie ? ?ici??e ianiiai?iieo aia?ao?a aoee aecia/ai?
ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiiy onoaiiaee i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe??
eieniaiai aaco iaaaaeaii a aeena?oaoe??. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i
oa, ui ?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?y ? ianiiai?iia aia?aoo?a caeaoi? caaacia/eoe
iaiao?aeio aeeaeio i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? a?ae oe?aeeeaeo
aeii?oie. Aeey oeueiai aeinoaoiuei aeei?enoaoe
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?ei? aia?aoe c 16 oa??eeaie, ui na?ae/eoue oaeiae
i?i oi/i?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aani?aa?a. ?ic?iaeaia
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa onoaiiaea i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe??
oi?ioi aaeaioiaaia aei ae?iaie/eo oiia ? o?nii iia’ycaia c ?nioth/eie ia
i?aei?e?inoa? oaoiieia?/ieie e aia?aaoe/ieie iioieaie. O ?acoeueoao?
i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? oe?ia ?? i?aeaeueeanue ia 14,5%.
Oe? aeo?aoe ia i/enoeo ia?ae?eaathoueny aeae?eueea ?ac?a ca ?aooiie
io?eiaiiai aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a?ae oi?iaaaeaeaiiy onoaiiaee i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? o ae?iaieoeoai. I?aeaeueany aeione
aoeeaaicieo ia 6%, cieceeanue eiai nia?aa?o?noue ia 20%, oa iie?aueeanue
aeieia?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaeaia iiaa oaoiieia?y e ianiiai?iia aia?aoo?a i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaooeeoinoaoii noai?th? oe?ieo ia?niaeoeao aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e ??ciiai
iioiaeaeaiiy c i?i?iaeueieie aeo?aoaie ne?iaeie oa aia?a??. I?i
i?ea?iaeuei?noue ? iiaecio oeeo ?ic?iaie na?ae/aoue io?eiai? iaoaioe oa
aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa.

?icae?e 7 i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ? ?ic?iaoe? ?aaeoe?eii-ianiiai?iieo
i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui i?ii?eai oa i?iaeoeoe eiai aee?eoaaiiy
aaicieo a oiiaao noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie
o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th aeoeaothoue i?ioean
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeaiii oa i?ioeann ia?aaee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
iie?aoeeaaicieaie ? ia ni?e/eiythoue i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo eoaiaeo
caeeoe?a. Oea a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeao aeey iiooeo ? ?ic?iaee iioeiaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e ?aaeoi??a aeey ?aae?caoe?? a i?iieneiaino? i?ioeano
noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie.

Aeeiiaii ia eieaeueiiio ??ai? aiae?c ?aaeoe?eii-ianiiai?iiiai i?ioeano a
oiiaao aaci??aeeiiiai o?eoaciiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo ieao?iaie a
i?enooiino? i?i?iaeueiiiaiao?aeii? e?eueeino? ??aeeiiiai
eaoae?caoi?iiai eiiieaeno oei?eaeo aethi?i?th. Aeneacaia oi/ea ci?o i?i
oa, ui a oaeeo oiiaao i?ioean aee?eoaaiiy ia? i?noea ia?aaaaeii o oac?
aee?eaoo, a noiooi?e eiio i?ioean ia?aaee?eoaaiiy iie?aee?eaaicie?a — o
oac? ??aeeiiiai eaoae?caoi?iiai eiiieaeno. C?iaeai? iiyniaiiy iaoai?cio
ianiia?aiino a oiiaao aaaaoioacii? nenoaie aee?eoaaiiy ?
ia?aaee?eoaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui e?i?ooth/a noaae?y anueiai i?ioeano
aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo ciaoiaeeoueny a ??aeeii?e oac?. ?
oe??th noaae??th ? noaae?y ia?aaee?eoaaiiy iie?aee?eaaicie?a, ai
oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe?e ia?aaee?eoaaiiy iie?aee?eaaicie?a ia aaicie a?eueo
i?ae ia ii?yaeie ieae/a oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe?e aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
ieao?iaie. Oaea iaa?oioiaaia oi/ea ci?o aea? iiaeeea?noue i?e ?ic?aooieo
?aaeoi??a aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo ieao?iaie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo
aethi?i?th aeei?enoaoe /an ia?aaoaaiiy ??aeeiii? iane, iaiao?aeiee aeey
i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?aaeoe?? ia?aaee?eoaaiiy iie?aee?eaaicie?a ia aaicie ye
e?iaoe/iee oaeoi? aeey ?ic?aooieo ?aaeoi?a aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo.
I?aaeeuei?noue oe??? oi/ee ci?o i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aaoi?ii
aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Iieacaii, ui aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?ioeano noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino?
oei?eaeo aethi?i?th iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie ? i?yiioi/i? c aeno?aeiei
aaci??aeeiiei iioieii eieiii? ?aaeoi?e, naeoe?iiiaai? ii aenio?
eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie. O oaeeo ?aaeoi?ao i?e ?ioaineaiiio ia?ai?ooaaii? c
?iaa?n??th oac caaacia/othoueny oiiae aeey cae?eniaiiy ?aaeoe?e
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo ia?aaaaeii a ieaei?e /anoei? ? ia?aaee?eoaaiiy o
na?aaei?e ? aa?oi?e i?e aenie?e aeoeaiino? ??aeeiiiai eaoae?caoi?iiai
eiiieaeno ? ??aiii??i?i eiai ?iciiae?eaii? ii an?e aenio? ?aaeoi?a. Ana
oea a oe?eiio ni?ey? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano ? ciaioaiith aeo?ao
ne?iaeie e aia?a??.

Cae?eniaii aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?ee oeacaieo ?aaeoi??a. O
?acoeueoao? iaea?aeaii a?aeiia?aei? ??aiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo
na?aaeiueiai /ano ia?aaoaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace a naeoe?yo ?aaeoi?a oa
a?ae?aae?/iiai iii?o naeoe?e.

Na?aaei?e /an ia?aaoaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace a ieaei?e ? i?ii?aei?e naeoe?yo
?aaeoi?a aecia/a?oueny a?aeiia?aeii ca ??aiyiiyie:

(47)

(48)

Caaaeueiee a?ae?aae?/iee ii?? ieaeiuei? ? i?ii?aeii? naeoe?? ?aaeoi?a

Ia (49)

Ia (50)

A?ae?aae?/iee ii?? aaci??aeeiiiai oa?o a ieaei?e ? i?ii?aei?e naeoe?yo
?aaeoi?a:

Ia (51)

Ia (52)

Iicia/aiiy ia?aiao??a, ui aoiaeyoue o oi?ioee (47) -(52): Dp — ae?aiao?
?aaeoi?a, i; Ho — a?aenoaiue i?ae naeoe?iioth/eie ?aaeoi? oa??eeaie
(aenioa naeoe??), i; Wa ? Wp — a?aeiia?aeii oaeaeeino? aaciai? ?
??aeeiii? oac, a?aeianai? aei a?eueiiai ia?a??co ?aaeoi?a, i/n; (a ? (p
— a?aeiia?aeii aonoeia aaciai? ? ??aeeiii? oac, ea/i3; g — i?enei?aiiy
nee caiiiai oyae?iiy, ??aia 9,8 i/n2. Oi?ioee (47) — (52) ae?eni? a
iaaeao cia/aiue Ho = 0,1 — 0,3 i; L= 10 — 30 i3/(i2.a); Wa= 0,5 — 1,4
i/n.

I?aaenoaaeaii aeo?aei? aeai? oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo
i?yiioi/iiai c aeno?aeiei aaci??aeeiiei iioieii eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a,
naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii aenio? eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie.

Aa?o/e aei oaaae, ui a?aenoaiue i?ae naeoe?iioth/eie oa??eeaie
cai?iiiiiaaiiai ?aaeoi?a ia ia?aaeuo? 0,3 i, a iniiao ?ic?iaee eiai
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo cai?iiiiiaaii iieeanoe iaeiiia?aiao?e/io
a?ae?iaeeiai?/io iiaeaeue. A?aeiia?aeii c inoaiiueith /an ia?aaoaaiiy
??aeeiii? oace a ?aaeoi?? i?eaeecii ??aiee na?aaeiueiio /ano ia?aaoaaiiy
??aeeie, ?ic?aoiaaiee ca N-e?eaeie. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui e?i?ooth/ith
noaae??th anueiai i?ioeano a ?aaeoi?? ? i?ioean ia?aaee?eoaaiiy
iie?aee?eaaicie?a, oaeaee?noue yeiai a?eueo i?ae ia ii?yaeie iaioa
oaeaeeino? aee?eoaaiiy, iaie cai?iiiiiaaii ni?iuaio iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo
naeoe?iiiaaiiai ?aaeoi?a aee?eoaaiiy. A iniiao ?ic?aooieo iieeaaeaii /an
ia?aaoaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace a ?aaeoi??, iaiao?aeiee aeey cae?eniaiiy
e?i?ooth/iai i?ioeano ia?aaee?eoaaiiy iie?aee?eaaicie?a. A?aeiia?aeii c
?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith ?ic?aooieo aenioa ?aaeoe?eii? ciie ?aaeoi?a Lp
aecia/a?oueny ca ??aiyiiyi:

(53)

aea n aecia/a?oueny ye:

(54)

O ??aiyiiyo (53) ? (54): Ho — aenioa naeoe??, i; n — /enei naeoe?e; (p
? (n? — a?aeiia?aeii na?aaei?e /an ia?aaoaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace a
?aaeoi??, iaiao?aeiee aeey caaa?oaiiy ?aaeoe?e ia?aaee?eoaaiiy
iie?aee?eaaicie?a, oa na?aaei?e /an ia?aaoaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace a iaei?e
naeoe??, n.

Aei?iaoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?yiioi/iiai eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a,
naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii aenio? eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie ia iiaeaeuei?e onoaiiaoe?
i?e aee?eoaaii? aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th o i?enooiino?
oei?eaeo aethi?i?th i?aeoaa?aeeee i?aaeeuei?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee
?ic?aooieo oeueiai ?aaeoi?a. O ?acoeueoao?, aoei oaeiae iieacaii, ui
i?ioean noi?niiai aaci-??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th iiaea
aooe cae?eniaiee o i?iieneiaiio ianooaa? c aeo?aoaie ia iaeio oiiio
aoeeaaicieo (ea): oei?eaeo aethi?i?th 3 — 7; aaicieo 760 — 780. Oea
icia/a?, ui ca nai?ie aeo?aoieie eiao?oe??ioaie ii ne?iaei? ae?iaieoeoai
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iiaea aooe
aeaaaeaii ia ??aaiue ae?iaieoeoa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac?
eiioeaio?iaaieo aoeeaio ? i?ii?eaio.

?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?th eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a, naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii aenio?
eeaiaiaie oa??eeaie aeey aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeaii-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.
?aaeoi? neiino?oeiaaii ca aei/iei i?eioeeiii ? caiaoaioiaaii ye
neeaaeiao /anoeio ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?/ii? onoaiiaee aee?eoaaiiy
aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th. Eiino?oeoeaio noaio ?aaeoi?a
i?aaenoaaeaii a aeena?oaoe??.

O ?icae?e? 8 aeaii ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?/ii?
onoaiiaee o?eoaciiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith

Ioe?ieo oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo oa ?ioeo iieaciee?a oe??? onoaiiaee c?iaeaia
o neeaae? an??? ?ic?iaeaii? OON o ?icae?e? 9. Iniiai? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy
?ic?iaeaii? onoaiiaee caoeuaii iaoaioii Oe?a?ie.

O ?icae?e? 9 aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo cai?iiiiiaaii? ?ano?ni- e
aia?aicaa??aath/i? o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? iiiooieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e.
No?oeoo?ia noaia OON aeeth/a? aea? oaoiieia?/i? onoaiiaee: onoaiiaeo
i/enoee iiiooii? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? iaoiaeii o?ce/ii?
aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao (?en.9) oa
onoaiiaeo noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo i/euaiith a?ae
oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th o i?enooiino?
oei?eaeo aethi?i?th (?en.10). Onoaiiaea ?aeoeo?eaoe?? aee?eaoo oiiaii ia
a?aeianaia aei cai?iiiiiaaii? OON. Iaaieineii ia oiio, ui oa?aeoa?enoeea
aeie?a i?ea’ycee ?ic?iaeaii? no?oeoo?ii? noaie OON aei aeaea?aea
iaea?aeaiiy aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e caeaaeeoue a?ae neeaaeo
inoaii?o, ?o oeneo oa oaiia?aoo?e. Aeiee i?ea’ycee iiaeooue aeeth/aoe
aeiee eiii?eioaaiiy, inooee aaco oa ?io?. Cai?iiiiiaaia no?oeoo?ia noaia
OON iaaaaeaia ia ?en.11.

Aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo aio/eino? cai?iiiiiaaii? OON. I?iaiae?ciaaii
iaoiaee ? i?eioeeie ?? caaacia/aiiy. Iieacaii, ui a oe?eiio ?ic?iaeaia
OON aieiae?? aenieith aio/e?noth. Oey inoaiiy caaacia/o?oueny ca ?aooiie
aia?aoo?ii-eiino?oeoeaieo oa ?aaeeiii-oaoiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a. Aiai?y/e
i?i aia?aoo?ii-eiino?oeoeai? iaoiaee, caa?iaii oaaao ia oa, ui
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?ei? oa ?aaeoe?ei? aia?aoe, ?ic?iaeai? iaie, ?
aia?aoaie c aaeaioeaieie i?eno?iyie ? iathoue oe?ieee ae?aiacii no?eei?
?iaioe o iaaeao (40 ( (50%. Aiai?y/e i?i ?aaeeiii-oaoiieia?/i? iaoiaee,
caa?oa? ia naaa oaaao oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy ?aoee?eoeyoe?eieo iioie?a,
ci?ie no?oeoo?e aaci??aeeiieo iioie?a oa noi?uaiiy ie?aieo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a.

Iaaaaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i aeieia?caoe?th cai?iiiiiaaii? OON. Iieacaii, ui
oey OON oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei nooiaiai aeieia?caoe??. Aeinoaoiuei
neacaoe, ui ia ??ai? onoaiiaee i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe??
acaaae? a?aenooi? aeeeaee a aoiinoa?o ? aiaeieieua. A ia ??ai? onoaiiaee
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo oi?io?oueny eeoa iaeei iio?e iaeo?ae?ciaaii? no?/ii?
aiaee, yeee ai?uo? oei?eae iao??th oa i?i?iaeueio e?euee?noue
a?iiaoe/ieo aoaeaaiaei?a ? iiaea aooe i/euaiee ia a?ieia?/i?e i/enooe?
i?aei?e?inoaa.

Aeeiiaii aiae?c aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?ic?iaeaii? OON; i?e oeueiio
aia?oa aeey oaeeo OON aeei?enoaii eiia?iiaaiee iaoiae ?icae?eueiiai
aecia/aiiy aeo?ao ie?aii ia ae?iaieoeoai aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo i?e ?o
noi?niiio ae?iaieoeoa? ia aac? iiiooieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e.

Iieacaii, ui i?e na?oia?e oe?i? aaicieo 315 aeie. NOA ca iaeio oiiio a
oiiaao eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee cai?ioiiai eieniaiai aaco a ai?ae,
aoeeaaicie ? eoiie i?eaooie ia eiaei?e oiii? aoeeaaicieo neeaaea? a?ey
156 aeie. NOA ? ia eiaei?e oiii? eoiieo — 49 aeie. NOA. Oa?i?i ieoiiino?
ii iaio i?iaeoeoao ia ia?aaa?oo? iaeiiai ?ieo. O oaeeo oiiaao
nia?aa?o?noue ai?aeo, ae?iaeaiiai ia aac? cai?ioiiai eieniaiai aaco,
iiaea aooe caaacia/aia ia ??ai? a?ey 168 aeie. NOA ca iaeio oiiio.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaeaia iaie OON aeicaiey? ae??oeoe i?iaeaio
ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ? a?aee?eaa? oe?ie? ia?niaeoeae aeey
eiiieaenii? ?ano?ni- e aia?aicaa??aath/i? ia?a?iaee iiiooieo
ieao?i-ai?uoth/eo aoaeaaiaeiaaeo aac?a. Aei oeeo aoaeaaiaeiaaeo aac?a,
ia?o ca ana, a?aeiinyoueny cai?ioiee eieniaee aac ? e?ae?iaia? aace
iaooiia?a?iaieo oa iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa.

?en.11. No?oeoo?ia noaia cai?iiiiiaaii? OON noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e. Oaoiieia?/i?
iioiee no?oeoo?ii? noaie ?ice?eo? a aeena?oaoe??.

AENIIAEE

1. ?icaeiooi e iaa?oioiaaii oai?aoe/i? iniiae iiaeo i?ioean?a oa
aia?ao?a, noai?aieo ca i?eioeeiii iicaeiaaeiueiai naeoe?iioaaiiy
iioie?a, noiniaii aei noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo
iaoiaeii noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a noi?niiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo oeacaiei iaoiaeii ?ic?iaeoe iia?
i?ioeane oa aia?aoe i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii
o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii oa iia? i?ioeane ? aia?aoe
noi?uaiiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie
o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

2. ?ic?iaeaii o?ceei-o?i?/i? iniiae i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

Oia?oa aeine?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a o?eaooeeoinoaoo
i?e aoiinoa?iiio oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?? a?ae 253 aei 303 E aeey aonoeie;
a?ae 233 aei 303 E aeey iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao; a?ae 243 aei 303 E aeey
a’yceino?.

Oia?oa aeine?aeaeaii ?ic/eii?noue o o?eaooeeoinoao? aoeeaio, i?ii?eaio,
aoeaoeeaio, aeea?i?eo oa n??eiieneaeo aoaeaoeth i?e caaeaieo cia/aiiyo
?o ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?? a?ae 223 aei 313 E.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ocaaaeueiaii a?aeiia?aeieie iaoaiaoe/ieie
caeaaeiinoyie, iaiao?aeieie aeey ?ic?aooieo e iioei?caoe??
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo
o?aeoe?e.

3. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/i? iniiae i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

C?iaeaii ioe?ieo o?eaooeeoinoaoo ye aani?aaioo aeey i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e. Iieacaii, ui o?eaooeeoinoao ia? cia/ii
aeuo aani?aoe?eio ?ii?noue ? naeaeoeai?noue o ii??aiyii? c on?ia
oe?ieiaeei?enoiaoaaieie aani?aaioaie ii a?aeiioaiith aei oe?aeeeaeo
aeii?oie aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e ? canoinoaaiiy eiai ye aani?aaioo
aeioe?eueia aei oaiia?aoo?e ia ieae/a 250 E.

?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo iaoa??aeueieo iioie?a ia?niaeoeaieo noai
i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e.

Aecia/aii aeiiii?/iiaei?aaaeai? oaiia?aoo?o ? oene a
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?ei?e aia?aoo??, iaiao?aei? aeey ?o ?ic?aooieo e
aenieoaoaoe??. Iieacaii, ui a oiiaao ?ic?iaeaieo noai i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e i?e aaniethoiiio oeneo a aani?aa?? 4.0 IIa
aeioe?eueii i?aeo?eioaaoe oaiia?aoo?o a aani?aa?? a iaaeao a?ae 253 aei
263 E.

4. Iieacaii, ui a iniiao ?ic?iaee eiiiaeoii? eieiiii? oa??e/anoi?
aia?aoo?e i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e o ?icaeyaeoaaiiio
aeiaaeeo aeioe?eueii iieeanoe oa??eee c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac,
iaeaaeiai? ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie.

5. Aeine?aeaeaii ? oai?aoe/ii ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? a?ae?iaeeiai?/i?
caeiiii??iino? ?iaioe oa??eee c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaii?
ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie ? eii?/ieie
?iciiae?eueieeaie ??aeeie.

Oia?oa iaoaiaoe/ii ?ica(ycaii caaea/o nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue
ia?aoieo ??aeeie /a?ac ia?aeeaiee i?eno??e c n?o/anoei naia?aoi?ii.
Oi/i?noue iaea?aeaieo ??aiyiue ia?aa??aii aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iaea?aeaii iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy
iniiaieo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a oeacaieo oa??eie c o?aooaaiiyi
aieeao oa?aeoa?enoeee n?oie n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ??aeeiii? oace.

Iieacaii, ui aeniea aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe n?o/anoeo naia?aoi??a a oiiaao
canoinoaaiiy ??aeei, ui ia i?iyoueny, caaacia/o?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii?
n?oie c aea?aaeaioiei ae?aiao?ii /a?oiie o iaaeao a?ae 0.0002 aei 0.0015
i.

Iieacaii, ui cai?iiiiiaaia oa??eea ii a?aieoe? no?eei? ?iaioe oa
u?eueiino? c?ioaiiy ia? iieacieee ia 40-50% aeu? o ii??aiyii? c oaeeie
aeey oa??eie, iaeaaeiaieo ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c aeooeie ia?aeeaieie
ii??aeeaie. I?e oeueiio ia?aeeai? i?eno?i? c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie
caeiathoue 5-7% ieiu? aa?aioaaeii? ciie oa??eee.

6. Aeine?aeaeaii a noaiaea?oieo oiiaao iania?aeaea/o a aacia?e ?
??aeeii?e oacao oa??eee c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaii?
ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie.

Aeieacaii, ui oey oa??eea ia? aenieo aoaeoeai?noue o oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? ci?i iaaaioaaeaiue ii aaco ? ??aeei? ? ia iinooia?oueny
aiaeia?/iei oa??eeai c aeooeie ia?aeeaieie ii??aeeaie ? oa??eeai c
cae?eoeie ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie. Iaea?aeaii ?ic?aooieia? iaoaiaoe/i?
caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a iania?aeaea/? c o?aooaaiiyi
aieeao ia ieo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oaeoi??a oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae
??aeeiii? oace.

7. Aeine?aeaeaii iae?ie?iaoeeo o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? aoeaoeeaio
o?eaooeeoinoaoii ia neo/ano?e oa??eoe? i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Iieacaii, ui iaea?aeai? a noaiaea?oieo oiiaao iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino?
aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a iania?aeaea/? ia oa??eeao c aeaiia ciiaie
eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaieo ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie
naia?aoi?aie iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? aeey ?ic?aooieo i?ioeano i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii.

?ic?iaeaii i?ea?iaeueio eiino?oeoe?th i?ici?i? iiaeaeueii?
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eii? eieiiii? aia?aoo?e c aaeooiiith e?eueoeaaith
oaiei?cieyoe?eiith ii?iaeieiith oa aenia?eiaioaeueio onoaiiaeo ia iniia?
oe??? aia?aoo?e.

8. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo eieiiiiai aani?aa?a c oa??eeaie c
aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaieo ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c
n?o/anoeie naia?aoi?aie, aeey i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e
iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii. Oi/i?noue ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiyie ia
aeine?aeii-i?iieneia?e onoaiiaoe?.

9. ?ic?iaeaii e oi?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai eiino?oeoe?? i?iieneiaeo
aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eieo eieiiieo aia?ao?a c oa??eeaie c aeaiia
ciiaie eiioaeoo oac, iaeaaeiaieo ia?aeeaieie i?eno?iyie c n?o/anoeie
naia?aoi?aie, ? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiao onoaiiaeo i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaooeeoinoaoii i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Iieacaii aei?iaoaaiiyie a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao, ui oi?iaaaeaeaia
oaoiieia?y ? iaeaaeiaiiy i/enoee aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e
aieiae?thoue aenieith aoaeoeai?noth. Ca?eueoeany aeione i?iaeoeoe?? ia
6%, cieceeanue ?? nia?aa?o?noue iaeaea ia 20%.I?e aacia?e iiooaeiino?
oeaoo ii aoeeaaicieo 15 000 o/? ??/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo neeaa
260 oen.?oa ca oe?iaie 1982 ?ieo.

10. Aeeiiaii aiae?c ?aaeoe?eii-ianiiai?iiiai i?ioeano a oiiaao
o?eoaciiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?oaaiiy aaicieo ieao?iaie a i?enooiino?
oei?eaeo aethi?i?th.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, ui i?ii?eai oa ?cii?ii?eaaiciee aeoeaothoue
i?ioean aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeaiii oa i?ioean ia?aaee?eoaaiiy
aoeeaaicie?a ia aaicie ? ia i?ecaiaeyoue aei a?ae/ooiiai i?aeaeuaiiy
aeoiaeo eoaiaeo caeeoe?a. Oea noai?th? iaa?oioiaai? oiiae aeey
cae?eniaiiy noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie
o?aeoe?yie a iaeiiio ?aaeoi??.

Iaa?oioiaaii aea?aii eiino?oeoe?th i?yiioi/iiai naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii
aenio? eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a aeey cae?eniaiiy
noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th ? a
iniiao ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oeacaiiai ?aaeoi?a iieeaaeaii /an
ia?aaoaaiiy ??aeeiii? oace a cii? ?aaeoe??, iaiao?aeiee aeey cae?eniaiiy
i?ioeano ia?aaee?eoaaiiy iie?aee?eaaicie?a ia aaicie.

11. Aeine?aeaeaii ia noaiaea?oieo na?aaeiaeuao a?ae?iaeeiai?eo
i?yiioi/iiai aaci??aeeiiiai eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a, naeoe?iiiaaiiiai ii
aenio? eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie.

Iaea?aeaii iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy /ano ia?aaoaaiiy
??aeeiii? oace a naeoe?yo ?aaeoi?a oa aecia/aiiy a?ae?aae?/iiai iii?o
naeoe?e.

12. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo i?yiioi/iiai eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a,
naeoe?iiiaaiiai eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie, aeey o?eoaciiai aaci??aeeiiiai
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th a i?enooiino?
oei?eaeo aethi?i?th. Aeeiiaii ia?aa??eo oi/iino? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee
?ic?aooieo ?aaeoi?a ia iiaeaeuei?e onoaiiaoe? c aeei?enoaiiyi ?aaeueieo
na?aaeiaeu ? iaea?aeaii iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe.

13. Iieacaii aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ia iiaeaeuei?e
onoaiiaoe?, ui i?ioean noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th a i?yiioi/iiio eieiiiiio ?aaeoi??,
naeoe?iiiaaiiio eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie, iiaea aooe cae?eniaiee i?e
aeo?aoieo eiao?oe??ioao ii ne?iaei?, aeinyaiooeo o ae?iaieoeoa?
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? eiioeaio?iaaieo aoeeaio ? i?ii?eaio.

14. ?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoe?th i?iieneiaiai eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a o?eoaciiai
aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie,
naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii aenio? eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie, oa i?iieneiao onoaiiaeo
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo ia aac? oeueiai ?aaeoi?a.

15. Noai?aii iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? iniiae oaoiieia?? e aia?aoo?iiai
ioi?ieaiiy iiai? ?ano?ni- e aia?aicaa??aath/i? OON noi?niiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? iiiooieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo
o?aeoe?e c caaacia/aiiyi nenoai? iaiao?aeii? aio/eino? e aeieia?/iino?.

Iieacaii, ui ca an?ia iieacieeaie ?ic?iaeaia OON a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei
aeiiaai. Iniiai? iiceoe?? OON caoeuai? aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie ?
iaoaioaie.

Iieacaii, ui a oiiaao eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee cai?ioiiai eieniaiai aaco a
ai?ae, aoeeaaicie ? eoiie i?eaooie ia aoeeaaicie? neeaaea? a?ey 156
aeie. NOA/o, ia eoiie? — 49 aeie. NOA/ o. Oa?i?i ieoiiino? ii
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo neeaaea? aaee/eio iaioa iaeiiai ?ieo. sse
?acoeueoao, nia?aa?o?noue ai?aeo, ae?iaeaiiai ia aac? cai?ioiiai
eieniaiai aaco, iiaea aooe caaacia/aia ia ??ai? aeecueei 168 aeie.
NOA/o.

16. Noai?aii oe?ie? ia?niaeoeae aeey eiiieaenii? ?ano?ni- e
aia?aicaa??aath/i? ia?a?iaee iiiooieo ieao?i-ai?uoth/eo aoaeaaiaeiaaeo
aac?a a oiaa?i? i?iaeoeoe. Aei oeeo aac?a a?aeiinyoueny, ia?o ca ana,
cai?ioiee eieniaee aac ? e?ae?iaia? aace iaooiia?a?iaieo oa
iaooio?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

I?aoe?, iioae?eiaai? aaoi?ii iaeiiin?aii

1. THoei A.E. O?e-i-aooeeiaue yoe? i?oioinoi?iie eeneiou — aani?aaio
aeey i/enoee yoeeaiiaie o?aeoeee// Yeioaoiieiaee e
?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.-1996.-?1.-n. 49-51.

2. THoei A.E. I eaoaeeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe o?ieiuo eiiieaenia oei?enoiai
aethieiey, i?iiioe?iaaiiuo na?iaiaei?iaeii// Yeioaoiieiaee e
?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.-1996.-?3.-n. 44-48.

3. THoei A.E. Ae?iaieoeoai aoeeaaicieo oa ?cii?ii?eaaicieo iaoiaeii
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaith o?aeoe??th a iaeiiio ?aaeoi??//
Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.-1996.-?4.-n. 16-21.

4. THoei A.E. Oaoiieia?/iee ?ic?aooiie aani?aa?a aeey i/enoee iiiooii?
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiai? o?aeoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii// Yeioaoiieiaee e
?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.-1997.-?4.-n. 38-42.

5. THoei A.E. Onoaiiaea i/enoee aoeeaiiai? o?aeoe?? eieniaiai aaco
iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? o?eaooeeoinoaoii// Yeioaoiieiaee e
?ano?ni-naa?aaeaiea.-1997.-?2.-n. 33-35.

I?aoe?, iioae?eiaai? aaoi?ii o ni?aaaoi?noa?

6. Aiaoe O.A., Ieinea? A.A., THoei A.E., Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Eaaiiaa A.N.
Eco/aiea aani?aoeeiiiie niiniaiinoe o?eaooeeoinoaoa// Oeiey e oaoiieiaey
i?iaeoeoia i?aaie/aneiai neioaca: I?iecaiaenoai yoeeaaiciea. O?oaeu
AEAI.-I.: IIOE AEAI, 1972.- Aui. OO.-n. 46-53.

7. Einyeia I.A., THoei A.E., Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Oioeia N.O., Oa?aaa ?.O.
?anoai?eiinoue aeaoieene oaea?iaea, yoeeaia e aoeaoeeaia a
o?eaooeeoinoaoa// Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.-1972.-?6.-n 432-433.

8. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Einyeia I.A., THoei A.E., Oioeia N.O., Iooeei A.A.
?anoai?eiinoue na?iaiaei?iaea e na?iieene oaea?iaea a o?eaooeeoinoaoa//
Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee.-1973.-Aui. 29.-n. 57-60.

9. THoei A.E., Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Einyeia I.A., Oioeia N.O., Iooeei A.A.
I aeeyiee aiaeu ia ?anoai?eiinoue aeaoieene oaea?iaea a ?anoai?ao
iiiiyoaiieaieia a noeueoieaia// Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie
oaoiieiaee.-1973.-Aui. 30.-n. 3-5.

10. THoei A.E., Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Oioeia N.O., Iooeei A.A., Aoiai/oe A.E.
?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea i?ioeanna i/enoee yoeeaiiaie o?aeoeee eieniaiai
aaca: ?aoa?aoeaiay eioi?iaoeey i caeii/aiiuo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
?aaioao a aocao ONN?// Oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.- Eeaa: Aeua
oeiea.-1974.-Aui. 15.-n. 96-97.

11. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Oioeia N.O., THoei A.E., Iooeei A.A., Ioeee A.I.
Caaeneiinoue ieioiinoe, iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey e ayceinoe
o?e-i-aooeeiaiai yoe?a i?oioinoi?iie eeneiou io oaiia?aoo?u// Aii?inu
oeiee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee.-1975.-Aui. 37.-n. 128-129.

12. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., THoei A.E., Ieinea? A.A., Iooeei A.A., Ioeee A.I.
Ioeaiea o?eaooeeoinoaoa eae aani?aaioa aeey i/enoee yoeeaiiaie o?aeoeee
eieniaiai aaca// Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee.-1977.-Aui.
48.-n. 109-114.

13. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., THoei A.E., Ieinea? A.A., Iooeei A.A., Ioeee A.I.
?an/ao iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia noai i/enoee yoeeaiiaie o?aeoeee eieniaiai
aaca iaoiaeii aani?aoeee o?eaooeeoinoaoii// Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie
oaoiieiaee.-1977.-Aui. 49.-n. 121-127.

14. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., THoei A.E., Ieinea? A.A., Iooeei A.A., Ioeee A.I.
Auai? e ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneie noaiu i/enoee yoeeaiiaie o?aeoeee
eieniaiai aaca iaoiaeii aani?aoeee o?eaooeeoinoaoii// Aii?inu oeiee e
oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee.-1977.-Aui. 49.-n. 117-120.

15. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., THoei A.E., Ieinea? A.A., Iooeei A.A., Ioeee A.I.
Ii?aaeaeaiea auniou aaci-aeeaeeinoiiai neiy ia aa?aioaaeiuo oa?aeeao//
Oeie/aneia e iaooyiia iaoeiino?iaiea.-1980.-?3.-n. 30-31.

16. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., THoei A.E., Iooeei A.A., Ioeee A.I. Aeeyiea
oa?aeoa?enoeee naoee nao/aoiai aeaaacaoi?a ia aa?oiee i?aaeae onoie/eaie
?aaiou e aaee/eio caiana aeeaeeinoe aa?aioaaeiie oa?aeee// Oeie/aneia e
iaooyiia iaoeiino?iaiea.-1981.-?6.-n. 15-16.

17. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., THoei A.E., Iooeei A.A. E aii?ino ia ii?aaeaeaiee
i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe ii aeeaeeinoe nao/anouo ia?aeeaia a oneiaeyo
?aaiou aa?aioaaeiie oa?aeee// Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie
oaoiieiaee.-1982.-Aui. 68.-n. 94-98.

18. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., THoei A.E., *a?ie/aiei A.A., ?iaiciue A.A., Iooeei
A.A. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea ?aaiou eieueoeaaie oa?aeee n
i?ina/iuie ieanoei/aouie yeaiaioaie. Niiauaiea 1: Enneaaeiaaiea
aeae?iaeeiaieee// Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee.-1983.-Aui. 71.-
n. 66-68.

19. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Einyeia I.A., THoei A.E. Ii?aaeaeaiea aeeaa?aii
ninoiyiey aeaieiuo nenoai o?aiia-13 n yoeeaiii, i?iieeaiii e
o?aiiii-22// Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee.-1983.-Aui. 70.-n.
51-54.

20. Na?aeaiei E.Ae., THoei A.E., *a?ie/aiei A.A., ?iaiciue A.A., Iooeei
A.A. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea ?aaiou eieueoeaaie oa?aeee n
i?ina/iuie ieanoei/aouie yeaiaioaie. Niiauaiea 2: Enneaaeiaaiea
ianniia?aaea/e// Aii?inu oeiee e oeie/aneie oaoiieiaee. — Oa?ueeia: Aeua
oeiea. 1984.-Aui. 76.-n. 101-103.

21. THoei A.E., Na?a??iei ?.Ae., Iooe?i I.A., Ioeee A.I., ??iaeia I.I.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iania?aeaea/? ia oa??eoe? c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac.
Iia?aeiieaiiy ?// O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.-1996.-?3.-n. 25-30.

22. THoei A.E., Na?a??iei ?.Ae., Iooe?i I.A., Ioeee A.I., ??iaeia I.I.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iania?aeaea/? ia oa??eoe? c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo oac.
Iia?aeiieaiiy ??// O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.-1996.-?3.-n. 30-33.

23. THoei A.E., Na?a??iei ?.Ae., Iooe?i I.A., Ioeee A.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?iaoeee o?ce/ii? aani?aoe?? aoeaoeeaio o?eaooeoinoaoii ia neo/ano?e
oa??eoe? i?e i?ioniaeo oaiia?aoo?ao//O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue
Oe?a?ie.-1996.-?5.-n.10-12.

24. THoei A.E., Na?a??iei ?.Ae., Iooe?i I.A., Ioeee A.I. Aecia/aiiy
a?ae?aae?/iiai iii?o ie?aeiai? ciie oa??eee c aeaiia ciiaie eiioaeoo
oac// O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.-1996.-?5.-n. 20-22.

25. THoei A.E., ?aaoeue I.I., *a?i?/aiei A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i eieaeueiee
ianiiai?i a oiiaao o?eoaciiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo
ieao?iaie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th// O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue
Oe?a?ie.-1997.-?6.-n. 26-30.

26. THoei A.E., ?aaoeue I.I., *a?i?/aiei A.A. Iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o
eiino?oeoe?? ?aaeoi??a aeey o?eoaciiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy
aaicieo iiiooieie aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a i?enooiino? oei?eaeo
aethi?i?th// O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.-1997.-?6.-n. 33-37.

27. THoei A.E., ?aaoeue I.I., *a?i?/aiei A.A. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?ae?iaeeiai?ee eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a c aeno?aeiith i?yiioa/??th
aaci??aeeiiiai iioieo, naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii aenio? eeaiaiieie oa??eeaie//
O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.-1998.-?1.-n. 61-64.

28. THoei A.E., ?aaoeue I.I., *a?i?/aiei A.A. ?ic?aooiie ? ioe?iea
i?yiioa/?eiiai naeoe?iiiaaiiai ii aenio? eieiiiiai ?aaeoi?a aeey
o?eoaciiai aaci??aeeiiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeaiii aai aoeeaiiaith
o?aeoe??th// Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.-1998.-?5.-n.44-47.

29. Aa?aaao ?.?., THoei A.E., Ino?iaa?o N.E., Eieani?eia A.I.
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy aiaeiaai? ? aoaeaaiaeiaai? ne?iaeie a oiiaao
eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee iiiooieo aac?a a ai?ae, aoeeaaicie oa eoiie//
O?i?/ia i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie.-1999.-?2.

Aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa oa iaoaioe

30. A.n. 321041 NNN? IIE A 01d 53/14. Niinia i/enoee oaeaaiaei?iaeiuo
aacia/ THoei A.E., Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Ieinea? A.A., Iaai?iue A.A., Aiaoe
O.A. (NNN?).-1401084/23-4; Cayae. 05.02.1970, Iioae. 1972. Athe. ?27.

31. A.n. 502646 NNN? I.Ee.2 A OID 53/14. Niinia i/enoee yoeeaiiaie
o?aeoeee/ THoei A.E., Iooeei A.A., Oioeia N.O., Na?aeaiei E.Ae.
(NNN?).-?1923222/23-4; Cayae. 16.05.1973, Iioae. 15.02.1976. Athe. ?6.

32. A.n. 734175 NNN? I.Ee2 N 07N 7/00 B 01 D 53/13. Niinia i/enoee
eieniaiai aaca/ THoei A.E., Na?aeaiei E.Ae., Iooeei A.A., Ioeee A.I.
(NNN?).-?2434636/23-4; Cayae. 27.12.1976, Iioae. 15.05.1980. Athe. ?18.

33. A.n. 1535621 NNN?, A 01 J 19/18 ?aaeoi?/ Eaaoe A.I., THoei A.E.,
Oeo?oiee A.E., *a?iuo A.I., Aeaenaaa A.A., Einyeia I.A., Na?aeaiei E.Ae.
(NNN?).-4416054/31-26; Cayae. 25.04.88; Iioae. 15.01.90. Athe. ?2.

34. A.n. 1834063 NNN?, A 01 J 19/18 ?aaeoi?/ THoei A.E., Caaei?neee
A.I., Eaaoe A.I., Eeeiaiei TH.A. (NNN?).-4788012/26; Cayae. 28.11.89.

35. A.n. 1612397 NNN?, A 01 J 19/00 ?aaeoi?/ THoei A.E., Eaaoe A.I.,
Eaaiia A.A., Neaei?iaa A.I. (NNN?).-4680128/31-26; Cayae. 18.04.89.

36. A.n. 1623751 NNN?, A 01 J 19/00 ?aaeoi?/ Eaaoe A.I., THoei A.E.,
Na?aaaa N.A., *a?iuo A.I., Naeeaa?noia E.A., Eacae A.A., Eaaiia A.A.
(NNN?).-4647453/26; Cayae. 07.02.89; Iioae. 30.01.91. Athe. ?4.

37. A.n. 1813559 NNN?, A 01 J 10/00 ?aaeoi?/ Eaaoe A.I., THoei A.E.,
?onaeei N.I., Oaaooiae/ I.E., A?euaiei A.N. (NNN?).-4912136/26; Cayae.
18.02.91; Iioae. 07.05.93. Athe. ?17.

38. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae 12595A Oe?a?ie, IIE5 A 01D 53/14 Aani?aa?/ THoei
A.E., Na?a??iei ?.Ae., ?aaoeue I.I. (Oe?a?ia).-94076305; Cayae.
19.07.1994; Iioae. 28.02.1997. Athe. ?1.

39. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae 22810A Oe?a?ie, IIE5 A01D 53/18 Eieiia/ THoei
A.E., Na?a??iei ?.Ae., Iooe?i I.A. (Oe?a?ia).-95031205; Cayae. 17.03.95;
Iioae. 21.04.98.

40 ? 41. Iaoaio ia aeiao?ae 10707 A Oe?a?ie, IIE5 N 07N 15/73. Niin?a
iaea?aeaiiy aoeeaaicieo oa onoaiiaea aeey eiai cae?eniaiiy/ THoei A.E.,
Na?a??iei ?.Ae., ?aaoeue I.I. (Oe?a?ia).-94076306; Cayae. 19.07.1994,
Iioae. 25.12.1996. Athe. ?4.

AIIOAOe?ss

THoei A.E. Aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ia ?ic?iaea noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac? aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth: 05.05.13 — Iaoeie oa aia?aoe o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa;
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999 ?.

Caoeua?oueny 48 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, o o?i /ene? 29 noaooae, 7 oac
aeiiia?aeae, 8 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa ? 4 iaoaioe, ye? ai?uothoue
oai?aoe/i? e aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oa aia?ao?a a
iaeano? noi?niiai ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo ia aac?
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy aoaeoeaii? ?ano?ni- e aia?aicaa??aath/i?
oaoiieia?? oa aia?aoo?e o ae?iaieoeoa? aoeeaaicieo ? eoiieo iaoiaeii
noi?uaiiai aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a
i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th aeicaiey? i?aeiyoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?
iieacieee oeueiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia ??aaiue no/anieo aeinyaiaiue.

?ic?iaeaii iiao aani?aoe?eii-aeani?aoe?eio aia?aoo?o i/enoee
aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeo o?aeoe?e iaoiaeii o?ce/ii? aani?aoe??
o?eaooeeoinoaoii. ?ic?iaeaii iiao ?aaeoe?eio aia?aoo?o noi?uaiiai
aee?eoaaiiy aaicieo i/euaieie aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaeie o?aeoe?yie a
i?enooiino? oei?eaeo aethi?i?th. Noai?aii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee
?o ?ic?aooieo, eiino?othaaiiy ? i?iaeooaaiiy.

Cae?eniaii ?ic?iaeo, aei?iaoaaiiy oa i?iieneiaa oi?iaaaeaeaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaieo aia?ao?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo onoaiiaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aani?aa?, ?aaeoi?, oa??eea, n?o/anoee naia?aoi?,
a?ae?iaeeiai?ea, ianiiai?i, aoeeai-i?ii?eaiiaa o?aeoe?y, i/enoea,
o?eaooeeoinoao,noi?uaia aee?eoaaiiy, aoeeaaicie, eoiie, oei?eae
aethi?i?th.

AIIIOAOeEss

THoei A.E. Aiia?aoo?ii-oaoiieiae/aneay ?ac?aaioea niaianoiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa yoeeaaiciea e eoiiea ia aaca yoeeai-i?iieeaiiauo o?aeoeee.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe: 05.05.13 — Iaoeiu e aiia?aou oeie/aneeo i?iecaiaenoa;
Oe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oeieei-oaoiieiae/aneee oieaa?neoao,
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999 a.

Caueuaaony 48 iao/iuo ?aaio, a oii /enea 29 noaoae, 7 oacenia
aeieeaaeia, 8 aaoi?neeo naeaeaoaeuenoa e 4 iaoaioa, eioi?ua niaea?aeao
oai?aoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia e aiia?aoia
a iaeanoe niaianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa yoeeaaiciea e eoiiea ia aaca
yoeeai-i?iieeaiiauo o?aeoeee.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?eiaiaiea yooaeoeaiie ?ano?ni- e yia?ainaa?aaathuae
oaoiieiaee e aiia?aoo?u a i?iecaiaenoaa yoeeaaiciea e eoiiea iaoiaeii
niaiauaiiiai aaciaeeaeeinoiiai aeeeee?iaaiey aaiciea
yoeeai-i?iieeaiiauie o?aeoeeyie a i?enoonoaee oei?eaea aethieiey
iicaieyao iiaeiyoue oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee yoiai i?iecaiaenoaa
n iaania/aieai eiieo?aioiie niiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoia ia aiaoiai ?uiea.

?ac?aaioaiu oeceei-oeie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau i/enoee
yoeeai-i?iieeaiiauo o?aeoeee iaoiaeii oece/aneie aani?aoeee
o?eaooeeoinoaoii i?e ieioniauo oaiia?aoo?ao.

Enneaaeiaaia e ?ac?aaioaia aunieiyooaeoeaiay i?ioeaioi/iay eieiiiay
aiia?aoo?a n oa?aeeaie n aeaoiy ciiaie eiioaeoa oac, iai?oaeiaaiiuie
ia?aeeaiuie ono?ienoaaie n nao/aouie naia?aoi?aie. ?ane?uo iaoaieci
aeeyiey nao/aouo naia?aoi?ia ia aeae?iaeeiaieeo e ianniia?aaea/o
oa?aeie. Iieacaii, /oi eniieueciaaiea nao/aouo naia?aoi?ia iaoneiaeeaaao
oe?ieee aeeaiacii onoie/eaie ?aaiou oa?aeie, nicaeaao oneiaey
naii?aaoee?iaaiey aeae?iaeeiaie/aneiai ?aaeeia ia oa?aeeao e
iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyao ia yooaeoeaiinoue ianniiaiaia. Oaeay ianniiaiaiiay
aiia?aoo?a iaania/eaaao iaiaoiaeeioth aeaeinoue oaoiieiae/aneei
onoaiiaeai i/enoee iiiooiuo aoeeai-i?iieeaiiauo o?aeoeee, ioee/aaony
i?inoioie eiino?oeoeee e aunieie eiiiaeoiinoueth. Ana yoi nicaeaao
i?aaeiinueee aeey oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey ?ac?aaioaiiie ianniaiaiiie
aiia?aoo?u n oeaeueth ioi?ieaiey i?ioeannia aani?aoeee e ?aeoeoeeaoeee,
iniaaiii i?ioeannia, i?ioaeathueo i?e ieioniauo oaiia?aoo?ao.

?ac?aaioaiu e enneaaeiaaiu eieiiiua ?aaeoi?u n ainoiaeyuei i?yiioieii,
naeoeeiie?iaaiiua eeaiaiiuie oa?aeeaie. Iieacaii, /oi oaeea ?aaeoi?u a
oneiaeyo ?aaeecaoeee i?ioeanna niaiauaiiiai aaciaeeaeeinoiiai
aeeeee?iaaiey aaiciea yoeeai-i?iieeaiiauie o?aeoeeyie iaania/eaatho
aunieoth eioaineaiinoue i?ioeanna i?e oe?ieii aeeaiaciia onoie/eaie
?aaiou e nicaeatho oneiaey iai?aaeaiiiai i?ioaeaiey i?ioeanna
aeeeee?iaaiey i?aeiouanoaaiii a ieaeiae ciia ?aaeoi?a e ?aaeoeee
ia?aaeeeee?iaaiey — a n?aaeiae e aa?oiae ciiao ?aaeoi?a. Ioia/aiiua
oneiaey i?ioaeaiey i?ioeanna a aeaiiuo ?aaeoi?ao iaania/eaatho ?aceia
nieaeaiea ?anoiaeiuo eiyooeoeeaioia ii nu?ueth ca n/ao nieaeaiey auoiaea
«eoaiauo» inoaoeia e nieaeaiey ?anoiaea oei?eaea aethieiey.

Nicaeaiu iao/ii iainiiaaiiua iaoiaeu ?an/aoa, eiino?oe?iaaiey e
i?iaeoe?iaaiey ?ac?aaioaiiie aiia?aoo?u.

Inouanoaeaia ?ac?aaioea, eniuoaiea e i?iiuoeaiiia aiaae?aiea
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aiia?aoia e oaoiieiae/aneeo onoaiiaie.

Nicaeaiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneea iniiau oaoiieiaee e aiia?aoo?iiai
ioi?ieaiey iiaie ?ano?ni- e yia?ainaa?aaathuae oeieei-oaoiieiae/aneie
nenoaiu niaianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa yoeeaaiciea e eoiiea ia aaca iiiooiuo
yoeeai-i?iieeaiiauo o?aeoeee n iaania/aieai nenoaia iaiaoiaeeiie
aeaeinoe e yeieiae/iinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aani?aa?, ?aaeoi?, oa?aeea, nao/aoue naia?aoi?,
aeae?iaeeiaieea, ianniiaiai, yoeeai-i?iieeaiiaay o?aeoeey, i/enoea,
o?eaooeeoinoao, aeeeee?iaaiea, yoeeaaicie, eoiie, oei?eae aethieiey.

ABSTRACT

Yushko V.L. Apparatus-technology Elaboration of the Joint Manufacture
Techique of Ethil Benzene and Cumene on the Base of Ethylene-Propylene
Fractions.

Thesis for a doctor,s degree of technical sciences on specialities:
05.05.13 — Machines and Apparatus of Chemical Productions. The Ukranian
State University of Chemistry and Technology, Dniepropetrovsk, 1999.

48 scientific works are being defended including 29 articles, 7 theses,
8 author,s certificates and 4 patents containing theoretical and
experimental investigations on process and apparatus in the field of the
joint production of ethylbenzene and cumene on the base of
ethylene-propylene fractions.

It had been ascertained that the application of the effective resources
and energy saving technology and apparatus in the production of the
ethylbenzene and cumene by the joint benzol alkylation method with
ethylene-propylene fractions in the presence of aluminium chloride
allows to increase technical and economical indices of this manufacture
on the level of contemporary achievements in this sphere.

It had been worked out absorption-desorption apparatus of the
ethylene-propylene fractions purification by physical absorption method
of thributylphosphate. It had been developed reactive apparatus of the
joint benzene alkylation purificated ethylene-propylene fractions in the
presence of aluminium chloride. It had been found methods of their
scientifically based calculation, designing and progecting.

It had been realized test and industrial introduction of suggested
apparatus and technological installations. It has been adduced data
about their effectiveness in the process of exploitation.

Key words: joint alkylization, purification, absorption, absorber,
reactor, dish, meashy separator, hydrodynamics, mass transfer,
ethylene-propylene fraction, ethylbenzol, cumene, aluminium chloride,
thributylphosphate.

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