Аграрна політика українських національних урядів (1917-1921 рр.): Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / Н.А. Ковальова, Дніпропетр. держ. ун-т. — Д., 1999

AeI?I?IIAO?IANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

EIAAEUeIAA IAOAE?ss AIAOIE??AIA

940(477):332.02:63

AA?A?IA IIE?OEEA OE?A?INUeEEO IAOe?IIAEUeIEO O?ssAe?A

(1917 — 1921 ??.)

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

I?E?E?A Ieaenaiae? Oaaei?iae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

IA?I*EI Aaneeue ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

IEOAEETHE Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Aea?aeaaia iaoaeo?a?eia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie

(i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee),

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi??? oa oe?a?iiciaanoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 13.00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.051.14 i?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio

aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

320625, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?.Aaaa??ia, 72, aoae.307.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:

320050, i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, aoe.Eicaeiaa, 8.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “23” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
E?eaee ?.I.

5

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?aeiii? aiioe a ?noi??? ethaenoaa
i?eoyaothoue iniaeeao oaaao aeine?aeiee?a. Aei oaeeo ia??iae?a,
aacia?a/ii, iaeaaeaoue ?aaiethoe?ei? iiae?? a Oe?a?i? ia?oi? /aa?o? XX
no. Aeoeaia ? ia??aeei noia?a/eeaa o/anoue ia?iaeieo ian o
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/i?e ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921 ??. Iaoiiaeea ??
ia?aaaaeii naeyinueeee oa?aeoa?. An? iia? o?yaee, ye? aeieeaee ia oa?ai?
oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e eieeoiuei? ?in?enueei? ?iia???, noeeaeeny c
aa?a?iei ieoaiiyi ? ciooai? aoee ooeaoe oeyo?a eiai ae??oaiiy.

O oeaio?? oaaae ia?aaeiai? noni?eueii? aeoiee aa?a?ia ieoaiiy a
?in?enuee?e ?iia??? ia?aaoaaei c na?aaeeie XIX no. Iaaieie a?oaie ia
oeyoo eiai ae??oaiiy aoee naeyinueea 1861 ?. oa noieei?inueea 1906-1911
??.?aoi?ie. Iiooee oeyo?a aa?a?iiai ?icaeoeo aeoea?coaaeeny i?ney
ethoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?. Nai? i?ia?aie oa eiioeaioe?? i?iiiioaaee
??ci? iie?oe/i? neee, aea?aeaai? oa a?iiaaenuee? ae?y/?. ?ic?iaea ?
i?iaaaeaiiy caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie noaee ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi aeey
o?yae?a Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa
Aee?aeoi??? e Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae, neeaaoe iniiaiee ci?no ?o aa?a?ii?
iie?oeee. I?aeo?ae iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a aei caiaeueii? ni?aae aecia/aa
ia eeoa aeieth naeyinoaa, a e acaaae? oeyoe oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??.

I?aee?aneeii, ui aa?a?ia iie?oeea ?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye iaa?ae’?iia
/anoeia aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee aea?aeaae. ?? iniiaieie iai?yieaie
aenooiathoue i?iaaaeaiiy caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie oa a?aaoethaaiiy iioi/ieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ni?aa: iie?ioaiiy caieaono?ith, i?aeaeuaiiy
aa?ioaoi?/iiai ??aiy ia?iaeo caie?, caaacia/aiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei ?aiaiaioii, ui a?ae?a?aaaei aecia/aeueio ?ieue
o aeeoo? naeyinoaa. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aaeoc?
aaiethoe?eieie caniaaie ca oiia ai?iiiai /ano iaoiiaeei a?aeiia?aeia
ni?yioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? ae?yeueiino?: c’ynoaaiiy i?eioeeiiaeo caaaeaiue
a aa?a?i?e aaeoc?, ?ic?iaeo oeyo?a ?o ?aae?caoe?? oa noai?aiiy
a?aeiia?aeii? aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ia?aae?. Aeeneon?? ia o?yaeiaiio ??ai?,
a?aeia?aaeath/e aa/aiiy aa?a?ii? iie?oeee c oi/ee ci?o aea?aeaae,
?ioa?an?a iaaieo eean?a oa nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ia caaaeaee ioiiethaaee
neeaaei?noue ?aaeueii? neooaoe??. Ao?eaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ia
i?noeyo iaae?aei oi?i, ye? caeaa?eueoa ia a?aeiia?aeaee ieaiai o?yae?a.

Aeoiaey/e ?c iaaaaeaieo i??eoaaiue, aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny:

ii-ia?oa, iaiao?aei?noth iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy a no/aniiio eiioaeno? ia
i?aenoaa? aeei?enoaiiy iiaiai ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai oa aeaea?aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo iaeia?aeiieo aniaeo?a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??;
ii-ae?oaa, iaoeiaith caoe?eaaeai?noth a aeeaieiio eiiieaeniiio aiae?c?
?ic?iaee oe?a?inueeeie o?yaeaie oeyo?a ?ica’ycaiiy caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy
ye ni?iae iiooeo a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao aa??aio?a caaeiaieaiiy
naeyinueeeo ?ioa?an?a; ii-o?ao?, iaoeiaith oe?ii?noth oaie noinoie?a
aea?aeaae ? naeyinoaa a ia??iae oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??; ii-/aoaa?oa,
iaiao?aei?noth ia?ainieneaiiy aeina?aeo ieioeiai a ca’yceo c no/anieie
i?iaeaiaie, aaeaea iai?ee?ioe? XX no. Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa ciiao
iiaa?oa?oueny aei i?iaeaie i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth, aenia?eiaioe
?c yeith i?iaiaeeee oe?a?inuee? o?yaee a ?iee ?aaiethoe??; ii-i’yoa,
a?aenooi?noth a no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao?? niaoe?aeueieo ?ia?o c
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a, aeey yeeo ae oey
oaia noaea ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a iaaeao aea?aeathaeaeaoieo oai eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ? 105-95 “?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iee
?icaeoie Iaaeaei?i?yiueie XVII-XX no.” oa ? 05-81-98 “Oe?a?inueea
noni?euenoai XVII-XX no. o eiioaeno? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?”.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? c o?aooaaiiyi
aeooaeueiino? ia?aii? oaie oa nooiaiy ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee. Iaoa
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o c’ynoaaii? ci?noo e iai?yie?a ?ic?iaee
oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieie o?yaeaie aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ia ??cieo
aoaiao oai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ?? aaiethoe?? a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aieeao ?ioa?an?a ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee oa nioe?aeueieo aa?noa.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ?iaioe ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy oaeeo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

— aea/eoe noai caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a oe?a?inueeiio nae? iaia?aaeiaei?
ethoiaai? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 ?., c’ynoaaoe eiai aieea ia caaino?aiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioe??/ i?ae /an oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? oa
aena?oeeoe i?aeoiaee aei niinia?a ae??oaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e;

— i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino?
o?yae?a Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa
Aee?aeoi??? ? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae;

— aecia/eoe iai?yiee oa nooi?noue caiaeueieo caoiae?a, ?o th?eaee/ia oa
aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, aeine?aeeoe i?ioean noai?aiiy ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a a ni?aa? ?ic?iaee oa ao?eaiiy aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie;

— c’ynoaaoe ?aaeoe?th aea?aeaaieo onoaiia oa noni?eueieo aa?noa,
caoe?eaaeaieo o ae??oaii? oe?a?inueeeie o?yaeaie caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, a
ia?oo /a?ao, noaaeaiiy naeyi;

— aena?oeeoe aieea aeno?aiaeueieo ianoaaei ai?iiiai /ano ia ?ic?iaeo
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee;

— ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiue, i?iaiae?coaaoe ye
iiceoeai?, oae ? iaaaoeai? eiai ?acoeueoaoe.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue aenooia? aioo??oiy iie?oeea oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a 1917-1921 ??.uiaei naeyinoaa, iie?oeea a aaeoc?
aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei, ?? ca?iaeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaai?noue oa aaiethoe?y.

I?aaeiaoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iai?yiee oa oi?ie ae?yeueiino?
o?yae?a, ea??aieo oa i?noeaaeo caiaeueieo i?aai?a, /a?ac ye? aaeiny
ao?eaiiy aa?a?ii? iie?oeee.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? ia??iaeii oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921 ??. ?ic?iaea o?yaeiaeo ieai?a a caiaeuei?e ni?aa?
?icii/aeany a 1917 ?. Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith. Aa?oiy iaaea
aeine?aeaeaiiy, yeo ca?aeii c no/aniith ?noi??ia?ao?/iith o?aaeeoe??th,
ne?ae aoei a aecia/eoe iiiaioii i?aeienaiiy 18 aa?aciy 1921 ?. ?ecueei?
oaiaee, iaie iioe?th?oueny aei e?ioey 1921 ?. Naia a ai?a?aoe?? o?yae
OI?, ioe?ieaoe iiia?aaei?e aeina?ae ?ic?iaee aa?a?ii? iie?oeee oa
ieaioth/e eiai ?aae?coaaoe (i?ae aieeaii iianoainueeiai naeyinueeiai
?ooo a Oe?a?i?), caeiyany aaeineiiaeaiiyi nai?? caiaeueii? i?ia?aie.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeai? i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei
oa?aeoa?ii ?iaioe. Noiniaii 1917-ii/.1919 ??.aiie iaa?oioiaothoueny
iaoa??aeaie Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie — 9 oiai/anieo oe?a?inueeeo
aoaa?i?e. Iiaeaeueoa ?nioaaiiy ?anioae?eainueeeo o?yae?a Aee?aeoi???
noino?oueny ia?aaoaaiiy ?o ia iaiaaeai?e oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie (/a?aaiue —
eenoiiaae 1919 ?., o?aaaiue — /a?aaiue 1920 ?.) oa a ai?a?aoe??.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiue. Ei?enooth/enue oeiieiai-aeaeiaith
eeaneo?eaoe??th, cai?iiiiiaaiith o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo ?.Ae.Eiaaeue/aiea,
I.I.Eiaaeuenueeiai, E.I.Iooea?ueiaa, N.I.Oi?aeoa oa ?i., aeaea?aea c
aeaii? oaie iiaeia ?icaeoe ca oi?iaeueieie iciaeaie ia iioae?eiaai? oa
iaiioae?eiaai?.

Ca i?eioeeiii iioiaeaeaiiy ? oe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy iioae?eiaai?
aeaea?aea ?iciiae?eythoueny ia oae? a?oie: 1) caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe aeueo
i?aai?a aeaaee: aeieoiaioe i?ia?aiiiai oa?aeoa?o (oi?aa?naee oa
aeaeea?aoe?? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, a?aiioe aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai);
caiaeuei? caeiie oa aee?aeoeaia aeieoiaioaoe?y caiaeueieo i?i?noa?noa1;
2) oaiaoe/i? ca??ee aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a2; 3) ia?o?ei? iaoa??aee —
i?ia?aie, noaoooe, ??oaiiy c’?cae?a oa eiioa?aioe?e c aa?a?iiai
ieoaiiy3; 4) aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee4 c ?ioi?iaoe??th i?i
caaaeueiee noai

______________________

1 Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea. Aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee. A-2-o o. —
E., 1996-1997; Inoaii?e Aaoueiai. THa?eaeiee ca??iee iai’yo? Iaaea
Nei?iiaaenueeiai, 1873-1945. — 1993. — N.217-223, 233-234;
Caeiiiaeaanoai i?i caieth ? e?ne a Oe?a?inuee?e Ia?iaei?e ?anioae?oe?. —
E., 1919; I?i ?aae?caoe?th (oai?eo) o?iaeath. Ca??ea iaeac?a ?
?icii?yaeaeaiue I?i?noa?noaa Caiaeueieo Ni?aa ? iiyniaiiy. Neeaa I.Aae.
— Eai’yiaoeue-ia-Iiae?eth, 1919.

2 E?ao aa?iaineie ieeoiaoeee ia Oe?aeia (ii aeieoiaioai ieeoiaioia). —
I., 1936; Ereignisse in der Ukraine 1914-1922, deren Bedeutung und
historische Hintergrunde. — Hrg. Von Theophil Hornykiewcz. Bd.III. —
Philadelphia, 1968; A?aaeaeaineay aieia ia Oe?aeia: 1918-1920: Nai?iee
aeieoiaioia e iaoa?eaeia. O.1. Ei.1. — E., 1967.

3 Oe?a?inueea noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeoiea a 20 noie?oo?: Aeieoiaioe ?
iaoa??aee (Oii?yaeiee O.Aoi/ae ? ?.Nieue/aiee). O.1. — A.i., 1983;
Oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? e.XIX — i.XX no.: i?ia?aiia? ? aeia?aeeia?
iaoa??aee. — E., 1993.

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aoaa?i?e iaia?aaeiaei? ? /anoeiai a ia??iae
?aaiethoe?? oa a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie; 5) ia??iaee/ia i?ana ye
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, oae ? oaoiaa (caaaeii aaoi?eith
caeo/aii aeecueei 30 iaeiaioaaiue oiai/anieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue
??cieo iie?oe/ieo iai?yie?a); 6) ia?aoeai? aeaea?aea — niiieie oa
uiaeaiieee i?ia?aeieo ae?y/?a ?anioae?eainueeiai5 oa aea?aeaaieoeueeiai6
iai?yie?a ? i?noeaaeo naeyinueeeo aaoaaee?a7.

Iaiioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea ?ai?acaioiaai? eiiieaenii aeieoiaio?a
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a 1917-1921 ??., ia?aaaaeia /anoeia
yeeo caa??aa?oueny a oeaio?aeueieo a?o/eciyieo a?o?ainoiaeuao. Cie?aia,
a Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAIAO) cina?aaeaeothoueny aeieoiaioe aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee:
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa??aoo (O.1115 ? 1063), ?aaee
i?i?no??a Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae (O.1064), eaioeaey??? Aee?aeoi???
(O.1429). Oa?aeoa? oeeo aeieoiaio?a, a naia: i?ioieiee ? iaoa??aee
can?aeaiue aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee, aeieoiaioe ?icii?yae/iai oa?aeoa?o,
iioi/ia a?aeii/a eenooaaiiy, — aeicaiey? c’ynoaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee
o?yaeiai? caiaeueii? iie?oeee.

Iaoa??aee, ui noinothoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ieai?a aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i ? ?o
?aae?caoe??, caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao a?aeiia?aeieo caiaeueieo
i?i?noa?noa, cie?aia, o oiiae? i?i?noa?noaa caiaeueieo ni?aa OI? aeiae
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee (O.1060), Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae (O.1061) oa
Aee?aeoi??? OI? (O.1062). Oea — caiaeuei? caeiiii?iaeoe ? caeiie,
iaoa??aee ae?yeueiino? o?yaeiaeo caiaeueieo eii?n?e oa ia?aae,
noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee uiaei ooao?a oa i?noeaaeo caiaeueieo i?aai?a,
iia?aeiieaiiy c i?noeue. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
noia?a/iinoae oiai/anieo noni?eueieo iiaeyae?a iathoue caienee
i?ia?aeieo o?yaeiaoe?a noiniaii ??cieo aa?a?ieo i?ia?ai. C’ynoaaoe
iiceoe?th e?aea??a oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? uiaei ae??oaiiy caiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy aeathoue ciiao oaeiae iaoa??aee iniaenoeo oiiae?a —
A.Aeiie/aiea, N.Iaoeth?e, ?.Iacaie, A.Ia?oina, oa Ae.Aei?ioaiea.

__________

4 Eaeaiaea? ? caienia eieaeea ei?aniiiaeaioa Ee?anueei? aoaa?inueei?
ia?iaeii? ?aaee ia 1918 ??e. — E., 1918; Eoiae aeanyoeeaoey Niaaoneie
aeanoe a oeeo?ao, 1917-1927 aa. — I., 1927; I?aenoiee aa?a?ii?
?aaiethoe?? ia Oe?a?i?. — O., 1923.

5 Aeiie/aiei A. Uiaeaiiee //Ee?a, 1990, ?9-11; A?ooaanueeee I. Niiieie
//Ee?a. — 1989. — ?8-11; Eiaaeaanueeee I.. I?e aeaea?aeao ai?ioueae:
niiieie, a?aaeaiiy, ?aoeaen??. — ?ina?oe, 1960.

6 Nei?iiaaenueeee I. Niiaaaee. E?iaoeue 1917 — a?oaeaiue 1918. — E.,
O?eaaeaeueo?y, 1995; Aeiioeia Ae. ??e 1918. //O?ii?ea — 2000. — 1997. —
?17/18, 19/20; Aei?ioaiei Ae. Ii? niiieie i?i iaaeaai? ieioea
(1914-1920). A 4-o /. — Ithioai, 1969.

7 Iaoii I. ?onneay ?aaiethoeey ia Oe?aeia (Io ia?oa 1917 a. ii ai?aeue
1918 a.). — Ei.1. — E., 1991; Aei oa?aeoa?enoeee a?iiaaenueeiai ?ooo
e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX no. ia Iieoaauei? (aaoia?ia?ao?y
ss.E.?ioaiaoeueeiai) /A?oaieia?/iee e?oiien E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie. —
1997. — ? 1-2. — N.39-44.

?aeiino?othaaoe noaaeaiiy aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ia
i?noeyo aeicaieythoue oiiae Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai aoaa?inueeiai noa?inoe
(ca1918 ?.) (O.4541), oiiaee-eieaeoe?? OeAeAAIAO (O.3158, 4465), a yeeo
caa??aathoueny ?oeiiene iaiioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue I.Aiae?onyea
“?noi??ia?ao?y aea?aeaaieo ciaaaiue o 1917-1921 ??.” Oa I.Noe?ai?nueeiai
“Aa?a?ia iie?oeea Oe?a?ie”. Oiiaee 317 ? 419 Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao i.Ee?aa oa?aeoa?ecothoue aioo??oith neooaoe?th a
naeao Ee?aueie oa Iiae?eey ca aeiae Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae. ?aaeoe?th
naeyinoaa ia o?yaeia? i?ia?aie caiaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue i?inoaaeaii
oaeiae ia iaoa??aeao Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie (O.5, 17, 57) oa Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano? (O.540, 561, 630, 831).

Aeieoiaioe oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a a caiaeuei?e ni?aa? ?
aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii c ?noi??? aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy ia??iaeo 1917-1921 ??..
?o a??ia?aei?noue i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aca?iiith ia?aa??eith, ni?anoaaeaiiyi
c ?ioeie aeaeaie aeaea?ae. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? iaeaaeiei /eiii
?ice?eoe iinoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? caaaea-

iy ? anaa?/ii aena?oeeoe oaio aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oaie e iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaathoue o oiio,
ui aaoi?ea c no/anieo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iiceoe?e oa c
aeiiiiiaith caeo/aiiy iiaeo aeaea?ae aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e ?noi??ia?ao??
cae?enieea oe?e?nia aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a 1917-1921 ??.o ni?aa? ?ica’ycaiiy aa?a?iiai
ieoaiiy. Aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee aioo??oi?o oa
ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a, ye? aieeaaee ia o?ae ?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie aeicaieeei i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th aa?a?ii? iie?oeee
OI? aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa Aee?aeoi??? ? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae.
I?e oeueiio aecia/aii iniaeeaino? ?oi?o aa?a?ieo i?ia?ai, aeae?eaii
iniiai? aoaie ?ic?iaee o?yaeiai? iie?oeee, c’yniaaii ?ieue ? i?noea
aa?a?ieo eii?n?e Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae a ?ic?iaoe? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie
oa ooi/iaii ia??iaeecaoe?th ?o ae?yeueiino?. A noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio oa
aeiiii?/iiio eiioaeno? aaoi?eith i?iaiae?ciaaii ci?no oa iniaeeaino?
iecee caeii?a ? caeiiii?iaeo?a, ie?aneaii eiei aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?, ye?
caeiaeeny ?ic?iaeith caiaeueieo i?ia?ai, a?aeoai?aii iaoai?ci
?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo eiioeaioe?e aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i, aeie?aieaii ?ieue ?
i?noea a ?ica’ycaii? caiaeueii? ni?aae iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, anoaiiaeaii aca?iiaieeae i?ae oe?a?inueeeie
oa ?in?enueeeie aa?a?ieie i?ia?aiaie ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee, c’yniaaii
i???ioe?e naeyinoaa a caiaeuei?e ni?aa?, aecia/aii ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiue aa?a?ii? ?noi??? aeiae 1917-1921 ??.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio,
ui:

— aia?oa a?aeoai?aii oe?e?nio ea?oeio ae??oaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieie o?yaeaie 1917-1921 ??., aecia/aii eiai ci?no oa iai?yiee
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? noiniaii ?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe??
iniiaieo eiioeaioe?e aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i;

— oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy,
ocaaaeueithth/? aeniiaee e ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeai aa?a?ii? oa iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? Iaaeaei?i?yinueei?
Oe?a?ie OO no. (aioo??oiuei? oa aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueieo ? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a). ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue caeo/aoeny i?e iaienaii? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a oa
aeia?aeeiaeo aeaeaiue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a iaa/aeuei?e (?ic?iaoe? ?
/eoaii? eaeoe?e c a?o/eciyii? ?noi???) oa e?a?ciaa/?e ?iaio?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aoee ai?iaiaai? o aeiiia?aeyo oa iia?aeiieaiiyo: ia
i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia ? ?in?y:
aeina?ae ?noi?e/ieo ca’yce?a oa ia?niaeoeae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa”
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995); II iaoeiaiio neiiic?oi? c aa?a?ieo i?iaeai
(*a?eane, 1997); Anaoe?a?inueeee iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “80-??//y
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: ieioea ? no/ania”
(N?ioa?iiieue, 1997); II i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaoueiai
Iaaei Nei?iiaaenueeee oa Oe?a?inueea Aea?aeaaa 1918 ?.” (Ee?a-*a?i?a?a,
1998); III iaoeiaeo /eoaiiyo c aa?a?ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa ?in??,
i?enay/aieo iai’yo? i?ioani?a Ae.I.Iieaee (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998);
i?aenoieiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo c iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, a ioae?eaoe?yo.

?iaioa iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? ae?noaea iiceoeaio
ioe?ieo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe i?aeii?yaeeiaaia iao? ? caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy. A ??
iniiao iieeaaeaii o?iiieia?/ii-i?iaeaiiee i?eioeei. Aeena?oaoe?y
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5-oe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 160 n.
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, nienie aeaea?ae ? e?oa?aoo?e — 25 n. (ia?aoiao?
286 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ??
aeooaeuei?noue, iieaco?oueny ?? ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, aecia/athoueny iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai o?iiieia?/i? oa
oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae?, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaea?aeueia aaca,
?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie,
nooi?iue ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??, aeacothoueny aaoi?nuee?
ioae?eaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — “?noi??ia?ao?y, iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea
aeine?aeaeaiiy” — i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo a?aeiia?aeieo aniaeo?a
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ia?oo a?oio ?noi?e/ii? e?oa?aoo?e neeaaeathoue i?aoe? ae?anii?ieo
aeine?aeiee?a, ye? a caeaaeiino? a?ae iie?oe/ieo ia?aeiiaiue ?o aaoi??a
iiae?eaii ia aeaa iai?yiee: i?eoeeueiee?a ?anioae?eainueeiai
(Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee) oa aea?aeaaieoeueeiai (Oe?a?inueei?
Aea?aeaae I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai) oaai??a.

Iniiao ?noi??ia?ao?/ii? o?aaeeoe?? ?anioae?eainueeiai iai?yieo caeeaee
i?aoe? A.Aeiie/aiea, I.O?enothea oa I.Oaiiaaea8. Na?aae iaoeiaeo
?ica?aeie oeueiai iai?yieo iniaeeaa i?noea iin?aeathoue i?aoe?
?.Aeoaiiae/a oa E.Eiiiiaiea9.

A ia?o?e ?iaio? aena?oeth?oueny noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y iaaeiei
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie, a a ae?oa?e aeine?aeaeothoueny
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aeoiee oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

Aea?aeaaieoeueeee iai?yiie ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeaiee
i?yoeyie Ae.Aei?ioaiea oa I.I??/oea10. ?o iiceoeaiith ?enith ? aeineoue
a?oioiaaiee aiae?c aa?a?ieo i?ia?ai eiina?aaoeaieo iie?oe/ieo nee.

Ca?nii, a?aenooi?noue aeinooio aei a?o?aieo aeaea?ae cieaeo? iaoeiao
oe?ii?noue ae?anii?ieo ?ia?o, oae ye ?o ni?eueiith ?enith ?
eiioeaio?aoe?y oaaae ia aiae?c? iioae?eiaaieo aeo?a caiaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Iica iaaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy caeeoaany nai i?ioean eiai
?ic?iaee oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? ?aaeoe?y aa?noa.

Ae?oao a?oio e?oa?aoo?e neeaaeathoue i?aoe? ?aaeyinueeeo oa no/anieo
a?o/eciyieo ?noi?ee?a. Ca i?aeoiaeaie aei ioe?iee iiae?e oa
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaiaoeee oiiaii aeae?eeii i’youe aoai?a o aea/ai? oaie.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iinoaiiaee a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? aa?a?ieo i?iaeai
?aaiethoe?? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a Oe?a?i? iaea aiioa 1920-o ?ie?a.
Ia’?eoii aea/aiiy aeey oiai/anii? iaoee, oi/a e c oi/ee ci?o
a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?aeaieia??, noaei oe?iea eiei ieoaiue iie?oe/ii?11 oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??12. Iaea?eueoo
iaoeiao oe?ii?noue caa??aathoue i?aoe? A.Ea/einueeiai
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o oa c ?noi??? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae13, yea ioe?ithaaeany iei iaaaoeaii.

_____________________

8 Aeiie/aiei A. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe??. A 3-o /. — E., 1990; O?enothe
I. Cai?oee ? iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1920
??. A 4-o o. — Iueth-Ei?e, 1969; Oaiiaae I. ?aaiethoe?eiee nioe?ae?ci ia
Oe?a?i?. — Ei.1. — A?aeaiue, 1921.

9 Aeoaiiae/ ?. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a ?ie?a
?aaiethoe?? e aecaieueieo ciaaaiue (1917-20) // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee. —
1967. — ? 3-4. — N.5-60; Eiiiiaiei E.N. Oe?a?ia ? ?in?y:

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?aenoaae oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?
1917-1969. — Ithioai, 1965.

10 Aei?ioaiei Ae. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie 1917-1923 ??. O.1. Aeiaa
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. — Iueth-Ei?e, 1954; A?i aea O.2. — Oe?a?inueea
Aaoueiainueea Aea?aeaaa 1918 ?. — Iueth-Ei?e, 1954; I??/oe I.
Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue 1917-1920. — O?eaaeaeueo?y, 1967.

11 Cieioa?ueia A. C ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. — Aeae. 2
— A.i., a.?.; Iiiia I.I. Ia?en ?noi??? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o???
(a?eueoiaee?a) Oe?a?ie. O?ao? aei?aaeaia ? aeiiiaiaia aeae-iy. = O.,
1929; Aie?i I. ?noi??y EI(a)O a noeneiio ia?en?. — O., 1930

12 sseeiainueeee A.A. E eoiaai aa?a?iie ?aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia. — O.,
1924.

13 Ea/eineee A. I/a?ee aa?a?iie ?aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia. — Aui.1. —
O., 1922; A?i aea. Aa?a?iee ?oo ca /an?a aaoueiaiueie // E?oiien
?aaiethoe??. — 1928. — ? 1,2.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (na?aaeeia 30-o — na?aaeeia 50-o ??.) aeine?aeaeaiiy
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ia?aaeyinueeeo ?aaeei?a ia??iaeo ?aaiethoe?? a Oe?a?i?
i?aeoe/ii i?eieieeeny. Ia?aaaaeath/eie iai?yieaie a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?
noaee ?aaiethoe?eiee ?oo oe?a?inueeiai naeyinoaa oa ai?ioueaa
a?eueoiaee?a ca naeyinuee? iane14.

Iniiai? ia?iaee ?noi?e/ii? iaoee na?aaeeie 50-o — na?aaeeie 80-o
??.noinothoueny a iniiaiiio ?noi??? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueei?
aeaaee a Oe?a?i?15. A oeae /an aoei caeeaaeaii oai?aoe/io ?
iaoiaeieia?/io aace aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a
oe?a?inueeiio nae?16.

Ii/aoie ia?aaoaeiae a N?N? caeeaa ia?aaeoiiae ia?aoiaeo aei /aoaa?oiai
?noi??ia?ao?/iiai ia??iaeo (na?aaeeia 80-o — 1991 ?.). Ia?oith ni?iaith
a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae noa?eo ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiai i?e aea/ai? aa?a?ieo
i?iaeai oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie noaea
iiiia?ao?y ?.A.Oi?ey17.

Cia/i? c?ooaiiy o i?aeoiaeao aei aena?oeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
1917-1921 ??.? ?? aa?a?ii? ?noi??? a?aeaoeeny i?ney i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie a 1991 ?. I’yoee aoai ?icaeoeo aaea aeania
oe?a?inueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiyaith caaaeueieo i?aoeue
c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie18, a yeeo c?iaeaii ni?iao aea/aiiy aeayeeo aniaeo?a
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a. Aaciina?aaeiuei oaie oe???
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noinothoueny inoaii? ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo
?noi?ee?a. C iiaeo iiceoe?e aena?oeth? noaiiaeua o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie ia ?oaaae? XIX oa XX no. N.A.Noni?ia19. O
eiioaeno? ?noi??? naeyinueei? eiiia?aoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny aa?a?ia
iie?oeea oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a o iiiia?ao?? A.?.Ia?i/ea20. Iniiai? a?oe
caiaeueii? iie?oeee Aee?aeoi??? a 1919 ?. ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
noaoo? A.N.Eiciaiai21 — aaoi? a?oioiaii oa?aeoa?eco? nooue eiioeaioe??
nioe?ae?caoe?? caie?. Aeiiiaith? caeiaooee iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??ia?ao??
iecea i?aoeue ?in?enueeeo oa cao?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a22, ye? noinothoueny
aiae?co eiioeaioe?e aa?a?iiai ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ia?oi? /aa?o?
OO no.

____________________

14 *aaioa?ueia TH. Naeyinueeee ?oo ia Oe?a?i? a 1917 ?. — E., 1940.

15 I/a?ee ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa Oe?aeineie NN?. — I.,1954;
?noi??y naeyinoaa Oe?a?inueei? ?N?. O.2. — E., 1967; ?eaaeea ?.E.
Aa?a?i? ia?aoai?aiiy ia Oe?a?i? a ia??iae a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie (1919
?.) — Oa?e?a, 1967; Eyo ?.Ae ?ica’ycaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy ia Oe?a?i?
(1917-1923??.) — E.-Aeiiaoeuee, 1975.

16 ?oaa/ I.A. Nioeeaeueiay no?oeoo?a aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee e eeanniaia
?anneiaiea e?anoueyinoaa a oe?aeineie aea?aaia e 1917 a. // Iniaaiiinoe
aa?a?iiai no?iy a ?innee a ia?eiae eiia?eaeecia. — I., 1962. — N.45-63.;
Oaee/oe I.I. Aeiiii?/i? iniiae aa?a?ii? ?aaiethoe?? ia Oe?a?i?. — E.,
1973.

17 Oiaeue E.A. Aa?a?iua i?aia?aciaaiey ia Oe?aeia. 1917-1920 aa. — E.,
1990.

18 A?eoeae ss.E. Ia?en ?noi??? Oe?a?ie: oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii?
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? O?O-OO no. — E., 1996. — N. 102-165; ?noi??y Oe?a?ie
/ I?ae ?aae. A.A. Niie?y. — E., 1997. — N. 184-261;

19 Noni?ia N.A. Aa?a?ia ieoaiiy a Oe?a?i?: i?e/eie, i?iyae, oeyoe
?ica’ycaiiy (e?iaoeue O?O — ii/aoie OO no.). — Oa?nii, 1997.

20 Ia?i/ei A.?. Oe?a?inueea naeyinueea eiiia?aoe?y.
?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee aniaeo (1861-1929). — E., 1995.

O inoaii? ?iee c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaiaoeee aoee i?aeaioiaeai?
aeena?oaoe?ei? i?aoe? A.?.Ai?eniaa, I.A.Ai?iiyinueeiai, N.A.Iyeioe,
O.I.I?iaeaithea oa ?.A.Oiaeoi?aiea23, a yeeo a?aeia?aaeai? iaai? aniaeoe
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee.

Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c noaio iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie aeicaiey?
cacia/eoe, ui o no/ani?e ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iia?/ia aena?oeaiiy
io?eiaea caeiiiaeaa/a ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a o aaeoc?
aa?a?ieo a?aeiinei. Oe?ea iecea nthaeao?a noiniaii iiaoaiii? ?ic?iaee oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ??cieo eiioeaioe?e caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie, c’ynoaaiiy
noaaeaiiy aei ieo oe?ieeo aa?noa naeyinoaa iio?aaothoue iiaeeaeaiiai
aea/aiiy. Oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy ocaaaeueithth/iai
aeine?aeaeaiiy c aa?a?ii? iie?oeee iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a, iiaiiai ?
ia’?eoeaiiai aena?oeaiiy an?o aniaeo?a ae??oaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy a
ia??iae ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921 ??.

C iaoith ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo o aeine?aeaeaii? caaaeaiue iaie aoei
aeei?enoaii oae? caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee i?ciaiiy, ye: aiae?c,
ocaaaeueiaiiy, ui ciaeoei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?ae /an c’ynoaaiiy
nooiino? aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy oa aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a aa?a?ii?
iie?oeee, ?? oa?aeoa?ieo ?en. Na?aae aeania ?noi?e/ieo iaoiae?a /?eueia
i?noea iin?aea? ?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee iaoiae, canoiniaaiee i?e aea/ai?
ia?aaeoiia, noaiiaeaiiy oa iiaeaeueoi? aaiethoe?? aa?a?ii? iie?oeee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae oa Aee?aeoi???. Naia oeae
iaoiae aea? iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean ?ic?iaee ye ia?o?eieo, oae
? o?yaeiaeo i?ia?ai, c’ynoaaoe ?o iniaeeaino? oa anoaiiaeoe
aca?iica’ycee i?ae ieie. Aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?eei-o?iiieia?/iiai iaoiaeo
(eiai i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iiai ??ciiaeaeo) aeicaiey? aeie?aieoe a oai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaai? i?iaeaie, aecia/eoe aioo??oith ia??iaeecaoe?th
ie?aieo aoai?a. Aea/aiiy ??cieo eiioeaioe?e aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i coiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiiai iaoiaeo, ui
a?aeoai?th? neio?iii?noue ? aneio?iii?noue aeeiai?/ieo oac ?aoi?i.
?noi?eei-oeiieia?/iee iaoiae, yeee aeei?enoaii a i?ioean? aeaoaeueiiai
?icaeyaeo iniiaieo

____________________

21 Eiciaee A.N. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI? // Oe?a?inueeee
?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1997. — ? 2. — N. 68-76.

22 Eaaaiia A.A. Iooe e aacaei?iaeuea aa?a?iiai ?acaeoey ?innee a OO
aaea // Aii?inu enoi?ee. — 1993. — ? 2. — N. 34-46; Aae?ao Ae. ssion a
eaioyo: e?anoueyia a ?onneie ?aaiethoeee, 1905-1917 aa. // Aii?inu
enoi?ee. — 1992. — ? 1. — N. 19-31; Iyene Ae. Caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia e
iieeoe/aneea ia?aiaiu: oaiiiai Noieuieia // Aii?inu enoi?ee. — 1993. — ?
4. — N. 3-18.

23 Ai?enia A.?. C aeina?aeo ??oaiiy i?iaeiaieue/i? i?iaeaie a Oe?a?i? a
1917-1920 ??.. (C??aiyeueiee aiae?c ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e). —
Aaoi?ao. aeen … aeieo. ?no.iaoe. — E., 1993; Ai?iiyinueeee I.A.
Aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. — Aaoi?ao. aeen … eaiae. ?no.
iaoe. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: 1995, Iyeioa N.A. Aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea o?yaeo
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae (ea?oaiue — a?oaeaiue 1918 ?.). — Aaoi?ao. aeen
… eaiae. ?no. iaoe. — E., 1997; I?iaeaithe O.I. Aioo??oiy iie?oeea
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae (29 ea?oiy — 14 a?oaeiy 1918 ?ieo),
Aaoi?ao.aeen… eaiae. ?no.iaoe . — E., 1997; Oiaeoi?aiei ?.A.
Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea o aaeoc? oe?aicaaioiaaeue a Oe?a?i? o ?iee ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie 1914-1918 ??. (Ia iaoa??aeao Eaoa?eiineaanueei?
aoaa?i??). — Aaoi?ao. aeen…eaiae. ?no.iaoe. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998.

eiioeaioe?e aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i aea? iiaeeea?noue aia?oa a ?noi??ia?ao??
?ic?iaeoe oeiieia?th aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiue o ia??iae
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aaiethoe?e, c’ynoaaoe nooi?noue oa
iniaeeaino? ie?aieo oei?a ?aoi?i.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aaco?oueny ia eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??, aeeeaaeaii? a i?aoeyo A.O.Aa?nothea, N.A.Eoeue/eoeueeiai oa
A.O.Nieaeaoaiea24, ca?aeii c yeith ?ice?eaa?oueny aa?a?ia iie?oeea
o?yae?a Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa
Aee?aeoi??? ? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae. Aeania i?ia?aia aa?a?ieo
ia?aoai?aiue aoea ?ic?iaeaia ? oe?a?inueeeie ?aaeyinueeeie o?yaeaie,
i?ioa ?? ci?no a nai?e iniia? aecia/aany i?ia?aiieie iieiaeaiiyie
caaaeueii?in?enueei? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? ? /a?ac oea o ?iaio? ia
?icaeyaea?oueny.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Nioe?aeueii aeiiii?/i? aeoiee aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy ?
iinoaiiaea eiai a i?ia?aiao oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e aeiae
?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921 ??.” — aiae?co?oueny noai caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a
oe?a?inueeiio nae? iaia?aaeiaei? 1917 ??.oa iiooee iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie
oeyo?a ?ica’ycaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy.

Iaea?eueo aino?a i?iaeaia caiaeueieo a?aeiinei ii?aoi?iaiii? aeiae
iieyaaea o iaeicaiaee? ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa.
O?yae ?in?enueei? ?iia??? naeyinueeith 1861 ?. oa noieei?inueeith
1906-1911 ??. ?aoi?iaie iaaeaaaa iiaeeea?noue oe?a?inueeei naeyiai
iii’yeoeoe iaaiith i??ith caiaeuei? i?ioe??//y (cie?aia, i?eaeaaoe
caieth oa cae??ieoe ?? a iniaenoo i?eaaoio aeani?noue), ia onoaath/e ?o
cian?i. E?ecia? yaeua a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e aaeoc? neiioeaio?oaaee
oaaao naeyinueeeo ian oa iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ye? oaeei /eiii ai?ieeny ca
na?e aeaeoi?ao, ia aa?a?iiio ieoaii?.

Ia caaaeueiiio oe? iaeicaiaeey oa iacaaeia?eueiiai caieaono?ith
i?eaaaeeaei ia’?eoii ?iciiae?eo aeyaeeiny iii?ueoeueea caieaaieiae?iiy.
Ca e?eoa???i noaaeaiiy aei i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ?, cie?aia, aaeeeiai
caieaaieiae?iiy iiceoe?? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e aeioe?eueii
?iciiae?eeoe ia aeaa iai?yiee: i?eoeeueiee?a i?eioniaiai a?ae/oaeaiiy
(iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/i? oa a?eueoiaeoeueea ia?o??), i?ea?/iee?a
eiina?aaoeaieo ?aoi?i.

Iaea?eueo ?aaeeeaeueiith aoea aenoiooa Oe?a?inueeith ia?o??th
nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a (OIN?) eiioeaioe?y nioe?ae?caoe??
(c??aiyeueiiai ? aaceiooiaiiai iaae?eaiiy caieath aaccaiaeueiiai oa
iaeicaiaeueiiai naeyinoaa). I?ioa iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? ?o aa?a?ii?
i?ia?aie caeeoeany iaaecia/aiei, ia?aeiath/e iniiai? ?ene i?iiaaiaaii?
Oe?a?inueeith nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iith ?ia?oie/ith ia?o??th
_____________________

24 Aa?nothe A.O. Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea a iiaea?i?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie (aei
80-??//y i?iaieioaiiy IV Oi?aa?naeo OOe?) // No/ani?noue. — 1998. — ? 1.
— N.91-98; Eoeue/eoeueeee N.A. Oe?a?inueea Aea?aeaaa /an?a aaoueiaiueie
// Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1992. — ? 7-8. — N.60-79;

A?i aea. Aaeeea ?in?enueea ?aaiethoe?y //No/ani?noue. — 1998. — ? 1. —
N.84-90; Nieaeaoaiei A.O. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y: eiioeaioe?y oa
?noi??ia?ao?y. — E., 1997; A?i aea. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y: eiioeaioe?y
oa ?noi??ia?ao?y (1918-1920 ??.). — E., 1999.

(ONAe?I) iaoe?iiae?caoe?? caie?. Iaea?eueo eiina?aaoeaieo iiceoe?e
aeio?eioaaea-

ny Oe?a?inueea ia?o?y nioe?ae?no?a-oaaea?ae?no?a (OINO), aa?a?ia
i?ia?aia yei? /?oei aecia/eeany o o?aai? 1918 ?. i?ney anoaiiaeaiiy
aaoueiainueei? aeaaee (i?eioniaa a?ae/oaeaiiy ca iaaiee aeeoi
iaaeeeoeiaeo caiaeue c iaoith ia?aaea/? ?o iaeicaiaeueiei aa?noaai
naeyinoaa, neanoaaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? a?aeeeaaeaeiny ia iaeaooi?).
Aeueoa?iaoeaiee oeyo ?ica’ycaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy, caiice/eaoe iniiai?
i?ia?aii? iieiaeaiiy (c??aiyeueii-ia?aae?eueiee i?eioeei) o
nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a, cai?iiiioaaee oe?a?inuee? a?eueoiaeee.
I?ioa c /anii EI(a)O a?aenooieea a?ae aeciaii? ?ai?oa eiioeaioe??
nioe?ae?caoe?? caie?, aaiethoe?iioaaaoe aei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i??i?eoaoiino? a?iiaaenueeiai ia?ia?oeo caie?.

Iiceoe?y oe?a?inueeeo eiina?aaoeaieo iie?oe/ieo nee ao?eeeany a
i?ia?aiao Oe?a?inueei? aeaiie?aoe/ii-oe?ai?ianueei? ia?o?? oa
oe?a?inueeiai ina?aaeeo eiinoeoooe?eieo aeaiie?ao?a. I?aeaioiaeaia ieie
eiioeaioe?y iineea aeineoue a?oioiaiee (a aeiiii?/iiio ieai?) oa
eiii?ii?niee (a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio) oa?aeoa?: caoeno ae??aii?
i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, iaiaaeaiiy caieaei?enooaaiiy ? aeeoi aea?aeaaith
i?ioyaii iaaiiai /ano iiiaaeeeoeiaeo i?eaaoiiaeanieoeueeeo aieiae?iue.

Oaeei /eiii, iinoaiiaea aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy a i?ia?aiao oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo oa a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?e coiiaethaaeany
a?eueoa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie /eiieeaie, iii??eiaai?noue a aaeoc?
nioe?aeueieo noinoie?a oa aeiiii?/i? i??eoaaiiy aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey
ia?o?e eiina?aaoeaiiai oaai?o. Iani?aiaaeaiiy oeeo aniaeo?a coiiaeei
?ic?iaeo a?aeiia?aeii aeaio eiioeaioe?e aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i.

O?ao?e ?icae?e — “?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiioeaioe?? caiaeueii?
?aoi?ie oe?a?inueeeie o?yaeaie aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee” — i?enay/aiee
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? oai?aoe/ii? /anoeie aa?a?ii? iie?oeee o?yae?a
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Aiae?c
aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy o ?icae?e? aaaeaoueny o aeaio aniaeoao:
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio oa aeiiii?/iiio.

Iniiai? i?eioeeie caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i? noi?ioaaeeny ia
naeyinueeeo c’?caeao iaaani? 1917 ?. ? inoaoi/ii aecia/eeeny ?
Anaoe?a?inueeei naeyinueeei c’?caeii. A o?yaeia?e iie?oeoe? aiie ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a “Aeaeea?aoe?? Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa??aoo” a?ae 27
/a?aiy 1917 ?., ca?aeii c yeith aeey i?aeaioiaee oe?a?inueeei o?yaeii
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie noai?thaaeiny Aaia?aeueia nae?aoa?noai caiaeueieo
ni?aa. I?ioa aeineoue o?eaaeee /an iniiai? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i?
caoiaee a aa?a?i?e aaeoc? i?iaiaeeeeny eeoa Oei/aniaei o?yaeii. Iie?oeea
ni?yioaaiiy caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie a aaiethoe?eia ?onei (caai?iia
naiia?eueieo caoiieaiue caie?, ia?aaea/a ?? a i?aiaeo) aeinyaea
i?ioeeaaeiiai — c?inoaiiy ainaie 1917 ?. naeyinueeeo caai?ooaiue. Oea
cioneei oe?a?inueeee o?yae ocyoe ea??aieoeoai caiaeueiith ?aoi?iith a
nai? ?oee.

I?e aena?oeaii? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo caiaeueieo i?aai?a (i?noeaaeo —
c eeiiy, a ea??aieo — c aeiaoiy — eenoiiaaea 1917 ?.) i?ia?aeia i?noea
a?aeaiaeeoueny i?ioeano ?ic?iaee caiaeueiiai caeiio, yeee i?ieoia
aeae?eueea aoai?a. Ooaaeaiee ?O nan??th ?aaee 18 n?/iy 1918 ?. caeii
aeaeea?oaaa neanoaaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia an? caie?, ia?aaeath/e ?o
o c??aiyeueiee ? aaceiooiaiee ?iciiae?e caiaeueieie eii?oaoaie na?aae
o?oaeiaiai ianaeaiiy. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caiaeueiiai caeiio Oeaio?aeueia
?aaea ii/aea cae?enithaaoe i?ney a?eueoiaeoeueeiai a?aenooio o aa?aci?
1918 ?. Aeyaeai? iaie aeieoiaioe na?ae/aoue, ui inoaoi/ii eiioeaioe?th
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie o?yae A. Aieoaiae/a, a?eueo?noue a yeiio noaiiaeee
oe?a?inuee? nioe?ae?noe-?aaiethoe?iia?e, oae ? ia ?ic?iaea: caiaeueiee
caeii iinea eeoa oei/aniaee oa?aeoa?, aei oiai ae a?i ia ?aaeaiaiooaaa
aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? ?aoi?ie.

Naei iaaani? 1918 ?. aeeei nai?i aeeooyi, caeiath/enue noeo?eieie
c??aiyeueieie ia?aae?eaie ? iinooiiai caieeath/enue a ?aieao
iaoo?aeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa. I?ioe oaei? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee aenooieee
caiiaei? ?, /anoeiai, na?aaei? aa?noae naeyinoaa, i/iethaai?
eiina?aaoeaieie ia?o?yie. Ia a?oio? iai?eeiyooy iie?oeee nioe?ae?caoe??
?iceieiany ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee oaa??. Oaeei /eiii, ye a
iie?oe/iiio, oae ? a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio aniaeoao aaaeaieo
iane?aee?a aa?a?ia iie?oeea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ia aeinyaea.

O ?icae?e? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui ?ic?iaeaia Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith
aa?a?ia i?ia?aia aeyaeeany iaaeineiiaeith ia?o ca ana a oai?aoe/iiio
ieai?, a i?i ?? ?aae?caoe?th aeiaiaeeoueny aiai?eoe eeoa oiiaii, aaeaea
i?e aacae?yeueiino? o?yaeo naeyie i?iaiaeeee naith caiaeueio ?aoi?io.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e — “Ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae o noa??
aa?a?ieo ia?aoai?aiue” — i?enay/aii aiae?co ?ic?iaee iniiaieo caoiae?a
aa?a?ii? iie?oeee aaoueiainueeiai ?aaeeio, a oaeiae c’ynoaaiith
noaaeaiiy aei ia? naeyinoaa.

Ni?yiiaai?noue caiaeueii? iie?oeee o?yaeo I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai
aecia/aeany ia?o ca ana i?i?aooieaie aa?a?ii? i?ia?aie Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee. Iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie aaoueiainueei? ?aoi?ie o?yae i?iaieinea
i?eioniaa aea?aeaaia ao?o/aiiy a o?ae ?aoi?ie oa caaacia/aiiy
aeinooiieie caniaaie caiaeueieo iio?aa aaccaiaeueiiai ? iaeicaiaeueiiai
naeyinoaa. Aei ?ic?iaee caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie a ?ioa?anao naeyinoaa, oi/a e
iii??eiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o, oe?a?inueeee o?yae iaiaeii?aciai niiioeaee
i?aaenoaaieee i?iaoeueei-aano??enueeiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy.

?ic?iaea iniiaieo caoiae?a aa?a?ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae
i?ieoea aeaa aoaie. Iniiaiei ci?noii ia?oiai (o?aaaiue — eeiaiue 1918
?.) noaei ae??oaiiy iaea?eueo aino?eo i?iaeai caiaeueieo a?aeiinei. Oae,
ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi ?aaee i?i?no??a aoee ia?aaeyae iaeaco
oaeueaeia?oaea oii Aeoai?ia i?i i?eionia? iin?ae oa i?aeaioiaea
caiaeueiiai caeiio, ui ?aaeaiaiooaaa ii?yaeie iaaoaaiiy caie?. Inoaii?e
caiaeueiee aeo, caoaa?aeaeaiee aaoueiaiii 14 /a?aiy 1918 ?., iaaeaa
naeyiai iiaeeea?noue eoioaaoe caiaeuei? ae?eyiee ia aeua 25-oe
aeanyoeiii? ii?ie. C iaoith ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai caeiio o?yae
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae ?ic?iaea nenoaio caoiae?a: aeicaieea
caoaa?aeaeaiiy caiaeueieo oaiae, ?ai?aai?coaaa i?noeaao caiaeueio
aaei?i?no?aoe?th, caeiyany ieoaiiyi aeiaaino?ieiai? i?aiaee.
Caaacia/aiiy caieath iieeaaeaeiny ia Aea?aeaaiee caiaeueiee aaie c eiai
niaoe?aeueiith nenoaiith e?aaeeooaaiiy. I?ioa, caieaaeanieee ia
i?aeo?eiaee o?yaeia? caoiaee, a iani?eeiyooy iniiaieie ianaie caiaeueii?
iie?oeee iaoiiaeei ?icai?oaiiy naeyinueeiai iianoainueeiai ?ooo ae?oeo
1918 ?.

Ci?no ianooiiiai aoaio (na?iaiue — a?oaeaiue 1918 ?.) aa?a?ii? iie?oeee
Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae neeaea ?ic?iaea iniiaiiai caiaeueiiai caeiio. Oea
caaaeaiiy aaoueiai ia?aeeaa ia noai?thaai? iaeia ca iaeiith o?e aa?a?i?
eii?n?? i?i?noa?noaa caiaeueieo ni?aa (ICN), ooi/iaiiy ia??iaeecaoe?? oa
ae?yeuei?noue yeeo aeaoaeueii aeeeaaea?oueny a iaoa??aeao ?icae?eo.
Oe?iea eiei o?yaeiaoe?a, iaoeiaoe?a oa i?aaenoaaiee?a iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e
caeiyeiny aea/aiiyi caiaeueieo i?iaeai. Iane?aeee ?o ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
ao?eeeeny o aeaio caiaeueieo caeiiii?iaeoao. Iiey?i? iiaeyaee o/aniee?a
aa?a?ieo eii?n?e ia iiaeeea? oeyoe caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie iaoiiaeee
a?aeoeeaiiy aaea aeineoue a?oioiaiiai i?iaeoo eii?n?? A.I. Eaiioiae/a.

O oe?eiio, o?yae Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae a?oioiaii i?ae?eoia aei ?ic?iaee
i?iaeai caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie, ia?aiiny/e iniiaiee aeoeaio ia ??
aeiiii?/iee aniaeo: caaaeyee caa?iaiith aei iaaeaaiue aei?aaiethoe?eiiai
aa?a?iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oey ni?iaa aea?aeii a?ae??ciyeany a?ae iie?oeee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. I?ioa ?aii?oaaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? neooaoe??
iaoiiaeei iaaaea/o ?ic?iaeaieo ea??aieoeoaii Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae
ieai?a ?aoi?ie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aaeoc?.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? — “Aa?a?ia iie?oeea OI? ia??iaeo Aee?aeoi??? e?ioey
1918-1921 ??.: iiooee aa??aio?a ?ica’ycaiiy caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy” —
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny caaa?oaeueiee ia??iae aa?a?ieo aenia?eiaio?a
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a.

?ic?iaea i?ia?aie ae?yeueiino? Aee?aeoi??? a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e
aaeoc? ioiieth? aeaa aoaie: ia?oee — e?iaoeue 1918-1919 ??. —
?ai?acaioiaaiee ao?eaiiyi o?aaeeoe?e caiaeueii? iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee, a naia — aaeineiiaeaiiyi i?ia?aie nioe?ae?caoe??, ae?oaee —
1920-1921 ??. — oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaiethoe??th iiaeyae?a iniiaieo
ae?y/?a o?yaeo a iai?yieo anoaiiaeaiiy ae??aii? naeyinueei? aeaniino? ia
caieth.

Iniiae aa?a?ii? iie?oeee Aee?aeoi??? OI? caeeaee caiaeueiee caeii a?ae 8
n?/iy 1919 ?. oa caeii “I?i aeiaeaoeiaa iaae?eaiiy caieath eicae?a
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee” a?ae 18 n?/iy 1919 ?. Ca?aeii c ieie
caiey aaceiooiaii ia?aoiaeeea a ?icii?yaeaeaiiy aea?aeaae, ia?aaaaeia
oaaaa i?eae?eyeany noai?aiith ae??aieo naeyinueeeo ainiiaea?noa (a
iaaeao a?ae 5-6 aei 15 aeanyoei), i?aoaiaeoaaee ia caiaeueiee oiiae OI?
ca ?aooiie aeiaeaoeiaiai iaae?eaiiy 1-2 aeanyoeiiith ae?eyieith ?
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?. Oa?i?ie oa aeaoaeueiee iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe??
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie ?aaeaiaiooaaeenue ieceith aeiiii?aeieo aeo?a
caeiiiaeaa/iai oa?aeoa?o, i?aeaioiaeaieo o n?/i? — aa?aci? 1919 ?.

Iaaeinoaoi? o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy iio?aa ?aoi?ie, iia?e?caoe?y aei
ae?th/i? a?i?? neoaeaiaoe?a caiaeueieo oi?aa iaiaaeoaaee i?aeoe/i?
caoiaee ia ca?eueiaieo a?ae a?eueoiaeoeueeeo a?enuee oa?eoi??yo ae?oeo
1919 ?. aei c’ynoaaiiy caiaeueiiai oiiaeo oa eiioeiaaioo ianaeaiiy, yea
i?aoaiaeoaaei ia io?eiaiiy caiaeueiiai iaae?eo. Caaaeii aea eiiiaoaioe?y
caiaeueiiai i?i?noa?noaa, yea ia?aaoaaei a Eai’yioe?,
?iciianthaeaeoaaeany ia iacia/io oa?eoi??th. Naeyinoai ooeeyeiny a?ae
i?aeo?eiee aeaaee, yea aeyaeeany iani?iiiaeiith i?iaanoe ia?oeyio
?aoi?io, ui yne?aai i?iyaeeiny i?e cai?? a?iaeath ae?oeo 1919 ?. Ia
noaeiny ?noioieo c?ooaiue o ae??oaii? i?eioeeiiaeo ieoaiue caiaeueii?
?aoi?ie e ainaie 1919 ?.

Iaaani? 1920 ?. o?yae OI? io?eiaa iiaeeea?noue (o ca’yceo c
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeei ianooiii) ii-iiaiio a?aaoethaaoe i?iaeaie
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie. I?iiaaoaaeeny oae? oi?ie, ye i?iaeaae aea?aeaaieo
caiaeue i?eaaoiei iniaai. I?ioean ?ic?iaee iiaiai caiaeueiiai caeiio
o?eaaa aaea a ai?a?aoe??, i?ioa a 1920 ?. oae ? ia aoa caaa?oaiee.

I?aeaioiaea aa?a?ii? ?aoi?ie, ni?iiiaeii? eiieo?oaaoe c
a?eueoiaeoeueeith, cia/ii aeoea?coaaeany i?ney i?aeienaiiy ?ecueei?
oaiaee 1921 ?. Iane?aeeii oai?aoe/ieo iiooe?a i?ia?aeieo ae?y/?a o?yaeo
OI? noaa aeniiaie i?i nii??aeiai?noue iniiaieo iieiaeaiue
a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ? ?anioae?eainueeiai caiaeueieo caeiiiaeaanoa.
Cana?ae/eaoe iaiao?aei?noue caaaeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei i?eaaoii? aeaniino?
ia caieth, a oaeiae aeeth/eaoe aei nai?? i?ia?aie caoeno ?ioa?an?a ia
eeoa iacaiiaeiiai, a e na?aaeiueiai naeyinoaa, oae caaiiai
oe?ai?ianueeiai ianaeaiiy, ea??aieee ?anioae?eainueeeo nee oaeei /eiii
aeciaee iai?eaeaoi?noue eiioeaioe?? nioe?ae?caoe?? caie? aeey
i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy.

Ioaea, i?ioyaii 1919-1921 ??. aa?a?ia iie?oeea o?yae?a Aee?aeoi??? OI?
caciaea neeaaeii? ?aeaeii? aaiethoe??. Iaaooee aeina?ae ao?eeany o
iecoe? ?ic?iaeaieo i?i?noa?noaii caiaeueieo ni?aa caeiiii?iaeo?a,
i?e/iio iniiai? iiooee noinoaaeeny i?iaeaie ?nioaaiiy i?eaaoii?
aeaniino? ia caieth oa aaaaeaiiy ieaoe ca caieaei?enooaaiiy.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iinoaiiaea aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy a ?iee ?aaiethoe?? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie
1917-1921 ??. aoea iaoiiaeaia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie /eiieeaie,
aecia/aeueia i?noea na?aae yeeo iaeaaeaei iaeicaiaeeth. Iiooee
iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie oeyo?a ae??oaiiy caiaeueii? ni?aae ni?yiiaoaaeiny a
iniiaiiio ia ?ic?iaeo ieai?a iaae?eaiiy naeyinoaa caieath.

Ci?no i?aeaioiaeaieo oe?a?inueeeie iaoe?iiaeueieie o?yaeaie aa?a?ieo
i?ia?ai ao?eeany o aeaio eiioeaioe?yo. ?anioae?eainuee? neee, cie?aia,
o?yae OI? ia /ie? c A.Aieoaiae/ai, cai?iiiioaaee i?ia?aio nioe?ae?caoe??
caie? — c??aiyeueiiai oa aaceiooiaiiai ?? ?iciiae?eo a ei?enooaaiiy
iacaiiaeieo naeyinueeeo aa?noa, aaeineiiaeaio a iiaeaeueoiio
Aee?aeoi???th OI?. Eiina?aaoeai? iaoe?iiaeuei? neee Oe?a?inueei?
Aea?aeaae I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai ae?iaeee iii??eiaaio aa?a?io ?aoi?io,
ni?yiiaaio ia noai?aiiy ca ?aooiie aeeoieaieo o aaeeeeo caieaaeaniee?a
caiaeue o?oaeiaiai na?aaeiueiai caieaaieiae?iiy. Ieoaiiy aeaniino? ia
caieth, yea eaaeaei a iniia? an?o aeeneon?e, i?ieoei oeyo a?ae iiaiiai
neanoaaiiy o 1917-1918 ??. Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith aei aeciaiiy
Aee?aeoi???th OI? o 1920-1921 ??.

I?ioean ?ic?iaee aa?a?ieo ?aoi?i ??cieie o?yaeaie ?icii/eiaany ?c
canioaaiiy caiaeueiiai i?i?noa?noaa oa i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo eiio o?yaeiaeo
no?oeoo?, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei caeiaeeny a?aeiia?aeiith i?aeaioiaeith
th?eaee/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo aniaeo?a ?aoi?ie oa noai?aiiyi ia?aae?
i?noeaai? caiaeueii? aaei?i?no?aoe??. Ie?aiei ?inoeoooii aa?a?ii?
iie?oeee noaee o?yaeia? eii?n??, i?aeoeea neeeeaiiy yeeo iaaoea
iniaeeaiai ?icaeoeo ca /an?a Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae. Iiceoeaiith ?enith
?o ae?yeueiino? aoei ii?aeiaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie (c’ynoaaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee) c aeiiii?/ieie
?ic?aooieaie i?ia?aeieo oao?aoe?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aaeoc?.

Ia a?oio? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie ia?aoioeeny ?ioa?ane ??cieo aa?noa
noni?euenoaa, aaeaea a ?acoeueoao? ?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ca/?iaeeny
aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane cia/ii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy. Iaa?aooaaiiy ?o iaoiiaeei
ia?inoaiiy iiiceoe?eieo iano?i?a a na?aaeiaeu? o?iainiaeo e?e, aaeeeeo
caieaaeaniee?a, aeeeeeaei iaii?icoi?iiy ?ioae?aaioe?? c naeyiaie oa
iiaeeaeei ?iceie i?ae ??cieie eiai i?ioa?eaie.

Aa?a?ia iie?oeea oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a oi?ioaaeany i?ae aieeaii
aeno?aiaeueieo /eiiee?a ai?iiiai /ano. Cie?aia, i?enooi?noue
i?iaoeueei-aano??enueeeo a?enuee ca aeiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee
a?ae?a?aaaea iaaaoeaio ?ieue, a ca /an?a Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae —
iiceoeaii-niiioeath/o. I?ioa aieea ciai?oi?o nee aoa iaiine?aeiaiei ?
ni?yiiaaiei ia caaeiaieaiiy i?aaiaoe/ieo ?ioa?an?a nai?o aea?aeaa.

Iaaooee oe?a?inueeeie o?yaeaie 1917-1921 ??. oai?aoe/iee oa i?aeoe/iee
aeina?ae i?aeaioiaee caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie cana?ae/ea iaiiaeeea?noue ??
cae?eniaiiy aaiethoe?eieie caniaaie i?ae /an ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e.
Ia??aeei iaiaaaiiy naeyi i?eoaeaeoeoe caeiiia io?eiaiiy caie?
caaa?ooaaeiny ?? naii/eiiei caoiieaiiyi. Ii?yae c ieaiaie iaae?eaiiy
oe?ieeo aa?noa naeyinoaa caieath aaaaoia?aii?noue aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy
aeiaaaea ?ic?iaee iecee ?ioeo aaaeeeaeo aeey ?icaeoeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aaeoc? caoiae?a oa iaaiiai /ano aeey ?o
ai?iaaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Eiaaeueiaa I.A. Iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa iaaeiei aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy ia
Eaoa?eiineaauei? a 1917 ?. // ?noi??y oa eoeueoo?a Iiaei?i?ia’y: Ca??.
iaoe. i?aoeue. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: AeAeO, 1998. — N. 161-167. — 0,4
ae?. a?e.

2. Eiaaeueiaa I.A. ?ic?iaea Aee?aeoi???th OI? ieai?a caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie
(n?/aiue-aa?acaiue 1919 ?.) // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo.
— ?noi??y. — Aei. 1. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: A?o-I?ann, 1999. — N. 57-65. —
0,5 ae?. a?e.

3. Eiaaeueiaa I.A. Oe?a?inueea Aea?aeaaa I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa
naeyinoai: i?ioenoiyiiy ia a?oio? aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy // Ai?enoai. — 1999.
— ? 5. — N. 19-20. — 0,4 ae?. a?e.

4. Eiaaeueiaa I.A. Aa?a?i? eii?n?? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae: o/anoue o
?ic?iaoe? caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy (na?iaiue-a?oaeaiue 1918 ?.) //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. — 1998. — ? 106 (173). — 0,63 ae?
a?e.

5. Eiaaeueiaa I.A. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea Aee?aeoi??? OI? 1920-21 ??.: iiooee
aa??aio?a ?ica’ycaiiy caiaeueiiai ieoaiiy // Ieoaiiy aa?a?ii? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie oa ?in?? (OV???-OO no.): Iaoa??aee o?ao?o iaoeiaeo /eoaiue,
i?enay/aieo iai’yo? Ae.I. Iieaee. — Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: AeAeO, 1999.
— N. 155-159. — 0,3 ae?. a?e.

6. Eiaaeueiaa I.A. I?iaeaia caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie a oe?a?inuee?e i?an?
(1917 — i. 1918 ??.) // 80-??//y a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?: ieioea ? no/ania. — Aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy ia
anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? 14-16 eenoiiaaea 1997 ?. —
N?ioa?iiieue, 1997. — N. 62-63. — 0,2 ae?. a?e.

7. Eiaaeueiaa I.A. Oe?a?ia a i?ia?aiao ? ieaiao caaaeueii?in?enueeeo
iie?oe/ieo nee ? ia?o?e a 1918-1920 ??. // Ieaa ciaiue:
?ioi?iaoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/iee aeueiaiao ? 4. Oe?a?ia ? ?in?y: aeina?ae
?noi?e/ieo ca’yce?a oa ia?niaeoeae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. —
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997. — N. 98-100. — 0,1 ae?. a?e.

A I I O A Oe ? ss

Eiaaeueiaa I.A. Aa?a?ia iie?oeea oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo o?yae?a
(1917-1921 ??.). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. — Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc? aa?a?ieo
a?aeiinei o?yae?a Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee aeiae Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee oa Aee?aeoi??? ? Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae. Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e
?noi??ia?ao?? i?iiiio?oueny oe?e?nia ea?oeia ae??oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieie
o?yaeaie aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy. Canoiniaaiee o ?iaio? eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae
aei ioe?iee aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a, ye? aieeaaee ia noai
caiaeueii? ni?aae, aeicaieea aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yiee oa oa?aeoa?i?
?ene aa?a?ii? iie?oeee, i?inoaaeeoe ?? aaiethoe?th.

C’yniaaii noni?euei? i???ioe?e a caiaeuei?e ni?aa?, ?ieue ? i?noea
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, i?iaiae?ciaaii noaaeaiiy naeyinoaa aei o?yaeiai?
iie?oeee. O ?iaio? ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?aeiino?oeoe?y nenoaie
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, ye? caeiaeeny ?ic?iaeith oa ?aae?caoe??th
caiaeueieo ?aoi?i. Iieacaii ?ieue aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy i?e aecia/aii?
oeyo?a iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, Oe?a?inueea Aea?aeaaa, Aee?aeoi??y,
aa?a?ia iie?oeea, caiaeueia ?aoi?ia, naeyinoai, iie?oe/i? ia?o??.

S U M M A R Y

Kovalyova N.A. Agriculture Policy of Ukrainian National Governments
(1917-1921). — Manuscript.

The dissertation on the competition of the candidate of Historical
sciences on specialty 07.00.01. — History of Ukraine. — Dniepropetrovsk
State University, Dniepropetrovsk, 1999.

The Thesis is devoted to the analysis of activities in the sphere of
agriculture policy by national governments in the Ukrainian People’s
Republic state formation under Tsentralna Rada and Directoria and
Ukrainian Derzhava.

For the first time in home historiography the integral picture of
solving agrarian matter by national governments proposed. Used in the
work complex approach to the appraisal of internal and external reasons
that have had influence on the state of agrarian matter gave an
opportunity to determine the main directions and peculiarities of
agriculture policy, to retrace its evaluations. Main agriculture reform
concepts are determined, role and place of political parties is
described, peasant’s attitude towards them is analyzed.

The Thesis is devoted to reconstruction of the national governments
system, the analysis of working out of agriculture policy as well as
reformation of realization mechanism.

Key words: Tsentralna Rada, Ukrainian Derzhava, Directoriya, agriculture
policy, agrarian reform, political parties, peasantry.

A I I I O A Oe E ss

Eiaaeaaa I.A. Aa?a?iay iieeoeea oe?aeineeo iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa
(1917-1921 aa.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Aeiai?iiao?ianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoa
Oe?aeineie Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee ia?eiaea Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaee e
Aee?aeoi?ee, a oaeaea Oe?aeineie Aea?aeaau a noa?a aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee.
Aia?aua a ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?eia?aoee i?aaeeiaeaia oeaeinoiay ea?oeia
?aoaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaaie aa?a?iiai aii?ina.

Auianaiiay ia ?anniio?aiea aeaoeieoeey aa?a?iie iieeoeee i?aaeiieaaaao
enneaaeiaaiea aioo?aiiae iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa ii ioiioaieth e
e?anoueyinoao, yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a noa?a aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee.
Iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeee aeeth/aao ianeieueei
o?iaiae: ii?aaeaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueiuo caaea/ e ia?niaeoeaiuo
iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa a naeueneioicyenoaaiiie io?anee,
?ac?aaioeo iooae eo aeinoeaeaiey e nicaeaiea niioaaonoaothuae
aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu. Eniieuecoaiue a ?aaioa eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e
ioeaiea aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua aeeyee ia ninoiyiea
caiaeueiiai aii?ina, i?aaeinoaaee aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey e oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou aa?a?iie iieeoeee iaoeeiiaeueiuo
i?aaeoaeuenoa, i?ineaaeeoue aa yaiethoeeth.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaii niaea?aeaiea ?yaea caeiiia,
caeiiii?iaeoia e ae?oaie aee?aeoeaiie aeieoiaioaoeee a caiaeueiii
aii?ina, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua eiioeaioeee aa?a?iuo
?aoi?i (?ac?aaioaiiay ?anioaeeeaineei oa/aieai i?ia?aiia nioeeaeecaoeee
e oia?aiiay ?aoi?ia eiina?aaoeaiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo nee), ainnicaeaii
iaoaieci eo ?aaeecaoeee.

A ?aaioa iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ?aeiino?oeoeey nenoaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, eioi?ua caieiaeenue ?ac?aaioeie e ?aaeecaoeeae
caiaeueiuo i?ia?aii. Enneaaeoaony o?ainoi?iaoeey aunoeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? e ianoiie naoe caiaeueiuo i?aaiia n 1917 ii
eaoi 1921 aa. A /anoiinoe, ii?aaeaeaiu ?ieue e ianoi ?aaiou aa?a?iuo
eiiennee Oe?aeineie Aea?aeaau ii ?ac?aaioea caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu, ooi/iaia
ia?eiaeecaoeey eo aeayoaeueiinoe. A aeenna?oaoeee iieacaia ?ieue
aaaeoueo aeayoaeae oe?aeineie ?aaiethoeee e ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aunoeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia a ?aoaiee aa?a?iiai aii?ina, eae-oi A. Ia?oina,
E. Iaoeeaae/a, I. Eiaaeaaneiai, A. Eieieieueoeaaa, A. Eaiioiae/a, N.
Iaoeth?u, I. Oaiiaaea, A. Eiaaeaaneiai.

Ae?oaie aaaeiie ninoaaiie /anoueth aa?a?iie iieeoeee yaeyaony aini?eyoea
aa ianaeaieai, aeinoeaeaiea iauanoaaiiiai eiii?iienna. A nayce n yoei a
aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony ?ieue e ianoi a ?aoaiee caiaeueiiai aii?ina
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, niiinoaaeaiu
iniaaiiinoe oe?aeineeo e ?inneeneeo aa?a?iuo i?ia?aii. Ii?aaeaeaiu
iauanoaaiiua i?eaioe?u a aa?a?iii aii?ina e, a /anoiinoe,
i?iaiaeece?iaaii ioiioaiea e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeea e?anoueyinoaa.

A aeenna?oaoeee eco/ai iieiaeeoaeueiue e io?eoeaoaeueiue iiuo
aeayoaeueiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa a noa?a aa?a?iuo ioiioaiee.
Iieacaii cia/eiinoue aa?a?iiai aii?ina i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iai?aaeaiee
iaoeeiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aa?a?iay
iieeoeea oi?ie?iaaeanue iiae aeeyieai yeno?aiaeueiuo oaeoi?ia aiaiiiai
a?aiaie e auea ?acoeueoaoii neiaeiie ?aaeueiie neooaoeee a Oe?aeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Oeaio?aeueiay ?aaea, Oe?aeineay Aea?aeaaa, Aee?aeoi?ey,
aa?a?iay iieeoeea, caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia, e?anoueyinoai, iieeoe/aneea
ia?oee.

_________________________________________________________________

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 19.10.99. Oi?iao 60o90/16. Iai?? ae?oea?nueeee.
Ae?oe ieineee.

Aa?i?oo?a Times New Roman Cyr. Oiia. ae?oe. a?e. 1.Oe?aae 100 i?ei.
Caiiaeaiiy ? 1929.

?ioai?eio AeAeO, 320050, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-50, aoe. Eicaeiaa, 46.

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